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  1. Tim van Gelder, A Reason!Able Approach to Critical Thinking.
    A couple of years ago I set a mundane homework assignment for my class of about 50 mid-level Arts students. They were to take one of the course readings - a chapter from How the Mind Works by Steven Pinker - and return in a week with a one page essay, in which they had identified and evaluated the author's main argument.
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  2. Tim van Gelder, Bait and Switch? Real Time, Ersatz Time, and Dynamical Models.
    A defense of the Dynamical Hypothesis against the charge that one of its major supports, the argument from time, is rotten.
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  3. Tim van Gelder, Brave Neurocomputational World.
    A Neurocomputational Perspective , it comes of age as philosophy of mind as well. This book demands to be read by connectionists who wish to understand the philosophical context and ramifications of their work, and by philosophers who wish to understand connectionism and the nature of mind more generally.
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  4. Tim van Gelder, Critical Thinking: Some Lessons Learned.
    Critical thinking (CT) is one of education's most valued graduated, guided, scaffolded, and there should be lots of outcomes, but it is also very difficult to achieve. A recent..
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  5. Tim van Gelder, "Heads I Win, Tails You Lose": A Foray Into the Psychology of Philosophy.
    One of the classic papers of Australian feminist philosophy is G. Lloyd's "The Man of Reason" (Lloyd, 1979). The main concern of this paper is the alleged maleness of the Man of Reason, i.e., the thesis that our philosophical tradition in some deep way associates the concepts rational and male. Lloyd claims that her main goal is to bring this "undoubted" thesis "into clearer focus" (p.18), and indeed she makes no strenuous effort to demonstrate that the to-be-clarified thesis is actually (...)
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  6. Tim van Gelder, How to Improve Critical Thinking Using Educational Technology.
    b> Critical thinking is highly valued but difficult to teach effectively. The Reason! project at the University of Melbourne has developed the Reason!Able software as part of a general method aimed at enhancing critical thinking skills. Students using Reason!Able appear to make dramatic gains. This paper describes the challenge involved, the theoretical basis of the Reason! project, the Reason!Able software, and results of intensive evaluation of the Reason! approach.
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  7. Tim van Gelder, Reason!: Improving Informal Reasoning Skills.
    The goal of the Reason! project is to develop an effective and affordable method for improving informal reasoning. In this paper we sketch the background to the project, briefly describe the Reason! software, and report positive results from a detailed study of the first full-scale trial.
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  8. Tim van Gelder (2005). Enhancing and Augmenting Human Reasoning. In António Zilhão (ed.), Evolution, Rationality, and Cognition: A Cognitive Science for the Twenty-First Century. Routledge.
    Paper presented at Cognition, Evolution and Rationality: Cognitive Science for the 21st Century. Oporto, September 2002. To appear in a volume based on that conference edited by Antonio Jose Teiga Zilhao.
     
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  9. Tim van Gelder (2004). Enhancing Expertise in Informal Reasoning. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology 58:142--152.
    People generally develop some degree of competence in general informal reasoning and argument skills, but how do they go beyond this to attain higher expertise? Ericsson has proposed that high-level expertise in a variety of domains is cultivated through a specific type of practice, referred to as ‘deliberate practice’. Applying this framework yields the empirical hypothesis that high-level expertise in informal reasoning is the outcome of extensive deliberate practice. This paper reports results from two studies evaluating the hypothesis. University student (...)
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  10. Tim van Gelder (2004). Response to Lachman. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (2):295-295.
    Lachman claims that the Dynamical Hypothesis (DH) is “untenable.” His own position is a version of the “The DH is epistemological, not ontological,” objection to the target article, which is dealt with in section R2.3 of my original response (van Gelder 1998r). Additional objections are that the coverage of the hypothesis is “vast” and that the DH presupposes we have reached the end point of scientific theorizing. Indeed, the DH is very broad, but it does not presuppose that science has (...)
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  11. Timothy van Gelder (2004). Beyond the Mind-Body Problem. In Christina E. Erneling (ed.), The Mind as a Scientific Object: Between Brain and Culture. Oxford University Press.
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  12. Tim van Gelder (2000). Critical Thinking On the Web. Informal Logic 20 (3).
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  13. Tim van Gelder (1999). Defending the Dynamic Hypothesis. In Wolfgang Tschacher & J-P Dauwalder (eds.), Dynamics, Synergetics, Autonomous Agents: Nonlinear Systems Approaches to Cognitive Psychology and Cognitive Science. Singapore: World Scientific.
    Cognitive science has always been dominated by the idea that cognition is _computational _in a rather strong and clear sense. Within the mainstream approach, cognitive agents are taken to be what are variously known as _physical symbol_ _systems, digital computers_, _syntactic engines_, or_ symbol manipulators_. Cognitive operations are taken to consist in the shuffling of symbol tokens according to strict rules (programs). Models of cognition are themselves digital computers, implemented on general purpose electronic machines. The basic mathematical framework for understanding (...)
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  14. Tim van Gelder (1999). Distributed Vs. Local Representation. In R. A. Wilson & F. C. Keil (eds.), The Mit Encyclopedia of the Cognitive Sciences. Mit Press.
    been to define various notions of distribution in terms of represented by one and the same distributed pattern (Mur- structures of correspondence between the represented items dock 1979). For example, it is standard in feedforward and the representational resources (e.g., van Gelder 1992). connectionist networks for one and the same set of synap- This approach may be misguided; the essence of this alter- tic weights to represent many associations between input native category of representation might be some other prop- and (...)
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  15. Tim van Gelder (1999). Revisiting the Dynamic Hypothesis. Preprint 2.
    “There is a familiar trio of reactions by scientists to a purportedly radical hypothesis: (a) “You must be our of your mind!”, (b) “What else is new? Everybody knows _that_!”, and, later—if the hypothesis is still standing—(c) “Hmm. You _might _be on to something!” ((Dennett, 1995) p. 283).
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  16. Tim van Gelder (1999). Wooden Iron? Husserlian Phenomenology Meets Cognitive Science. In Jean Petitot, Franscisco J. Varela, Barnard Pacoud & Jean-Michel Roy (eds.), Naturalizing Phenomenology. Stanford University Press.
  17. Tim van Gelder (1998). Being There. Philosophical Review 107 (4):647-650.
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  18. Tim van Gelder (1998). Computers and Computation in Cognitive Science. In T.M. Michalewicz (ed.), Advances in Computational Life Sciences Vol.2: Humans to Proteins. Melbourne: CSIRO Publishing.
    Digital computers play a special role in cognitive science—they may actually be instances of the phenomenon they are being used to model. This paper surveys some of the main issues involved in understanding the relationship between digital computers and cognition. It sketches the role of digital computers within orthodox computational cognitive science, in the light of a recently emerging alternative approach based around dynamical systems.
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  19. Tim van Gelder (1998). Disentangling Dynamics, Computation, and Cognition. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (5):654-661.
    The nature of the dynamical hypothesis in cognitive science (the DH) is further clarified in responding to various criticisms and objections raised in commentaries. Major topics addressed include the definitions of “dynamical system” and “digital computer;” the DH as Law of Qualitative Structure; the DH as an ontological claim; the multiple-realizability of dynamical models; the level at which the DH is pitched; the nature of dynamics; the role of representations in dynamical cognitive science; the falsifiability of the DH; the extent (...)
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  20. Tim van Gelder (1998). Into the Deep Blue Yonder. Quadrant 42:33-39.
  21. Tim van Gelder (1998). Monism, Dualism, Pluralism. Mind and Language 13 (1):76-97.
    1. Consider the basic outlines of the mind-body debate as it is found in contemporary Anglo-American analytic philosophy. The central question is “whether mental phenomena are physical phenomena, and if not, how they relate to physical phenomena.”1 Over the centuries, a wide range of possible solutions to this problem have emerged. These are the various “isms” familiar to any student of the debate: Cartesian dualism, idealism, epiphenomenalism, central state materialism, non- reductive physicalism, anomalous monism, and so forth. Each purports (...)
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  22. Tim van Gelder (1998). Review: Being There: Body and World Together Again, by Andy Clark. [REVIEW] Philosophical Review 107 (4):647-650.
    Are any nonhuman animals rational? What issues are we raising when we ask this question? Are there different kinds or levels of rationality, some of which fall short of full human rationality? Should any behaviour by nonhuman animals be regarded as rational? What kinds of tasks can animals successfully perform? What kinds of processes control their performance at these tasks, and do they count as rational processes? Is it useful or theoretically justified to raise questions about the rationality of animals (...)
     
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  23. Tim van Gelder (1998). The Dynamical Hypothesis in Cognitive Science. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (5):615-28.
    The dynamical hypothesis is the claim that cognitive agents are dynamical systems. It stands opposed to the dominant computational hypothesis, the claim that cognitive agents are digital computers. This target article articulates the dynamical hypothesis and defends it as an open empirical alternative to the computational hypothesis. Carrying out these objectives requires extensive clarification of the conceptual terrain, with particular focus on the relation of dynamical systems to computers.
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  24. Tim van Gelder (1998). The Roles of Philosophy in Cognitive Science. Philosophical Psychology 11 (2):117-36.
    When the various disciplines participating in cognitive science are listed, philosophy almost always gets a guernsey. Yet, a couple of years ago at the conference of the Cognitive Science Society in Boulder (USA), there was no philosophy or philosopher with any prominence on the program. When queried on this point, the organizer (one of the "superstars" of the field) claimed it was partly an accident, but partly also due to an impression among members of the committee that philosophy is basically (...)
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  25. Tim van Gelder (1997). Connectionism, Dynamics, and the Philosophy of Mind. In Martin Carrier & Peter K. Machamer (eds.), Mindscapes: Philosophy, Science, and the Mind. Pittsburgh University Press. 17-41.
     
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  26. Timothy van Gelder (1997). The Dynamical Alternative. In David Martel Johnson & Christina E. Erneling (eds.), The Future of the Cognitive Revolution. Oxford University Press.
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  27. Tim van Gelder (1995). What Might Cognition Be If Not Computation? Journal of Philosophy 92 (7):345-81.
  28. Tim van Gelder & Robert Port (eds.) (1995). Mind As Motion: Explorations in the Dynamics of Cognition. MIT Press.
     
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  29. Timothy Van Gelder & Robert F. Port (1995). It's About Time: An Overview of the Dynamical Approach to Cognition. In Tim van Gelder & Robert Port (eds.), Mind as Motion: Explorations in the Dynamics of Cognition. Mit Press. 43.
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  30. L. F. Niklasson & Tim van Gelder, Can Connectionist Models Exhibit Non-Classical Structure Sensitivity?
    Department of Computer Science Philosophy Program, Research School of Social Sciences University of Skövde, S-54128, SWEDEN Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200.
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  31. L. F. Niklasson & Tim van Gelder (1994). On Being Systematically Connectionist. Mind and Language 9 (3):288-302.
    In 1988 Fodor and Pylyshyn issued a challenge to the newly-popular connectionism: explain the systematicity of cognition without merely implementing a so-called classical architecture. Since that time quite a number of connectionist models have been put forward, either by their designers or by others, as in some measure demonstrating that the challenge can be met (e.g., Pollack, 1988, 1990; Smolensky, 1990; Chalmers, 1990; Niklasson and Sharkey, 1992; Brousse, 1993). Unfortu- nately, it has generally been unclear whether these models actually do (...)
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  32. L. Niklasson & Tim van Gelder (1994). Systematicity and Connectionist Language Learning. Mind and Language 9 (3):28-302.
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  33. Tim van Gelder, Can Connectionist Models Exhibit Non-Classical Structure Sensitivity?
    Department of Computer Science Philosophy Program, Research School of Social Sciences University of Skövde, S-54128, SWEDEN Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200.
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  34. Tim van Gelder (1994). On Being Systematically Connectionist. Mind and Language 9:288-30.
    In 1988 Fodor and Pylyshyn issued a challenge to the newly-popular connectionism: explain the systematicity of cognition without merely implementing a so-called classical architecture. Since that time quite a number of connectionist models have been put forward, either by their designers or by others, as in some measure demonstrating that the challenge can be met (e.g., Pollack, 1988, 1990; Smolensky, 1990; Chalmers, 1990; Niklasson and Sharkey, 1992; Brousse, 1993). Unfortu- nately, it has generally been unclear whether these models actually do (...)
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  35. Tim van Gelder (1994). Playing Flourens to Fodor's Gall. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (1):84.
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  36. Tim van Gelder & Lars Niclasson (1994). Classicalism and Cognitive Architecture. In Ashwin Ram & Kurt Eiselt (eds.), Proceedings of the Sixteenth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Erlbaum.
    systematicity is. Until systematicity is adequately systematicity. Most contributors to these debates have clarified, we cannot know whether classical paid little or no attention to the alleged empirical.
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  37. Tim van Gelder (1993). Connectionism and the Mind-Body Problem: Exposing the Distinction Between Mind and Cognition. Artificial Intelligence Review 7:355-369.
  38. Tim van Gelder (1993). The Distinction Between Mind and Cognition. In Yu-Houng H. Houng, J. Ho & Y.H. Houng (eds.), Mind and Cognition: 1993 International Symposium. Academia Sinica.
     
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  39. Tim van Gelder (1991). Classical Questions, Radical Answers. In Terence E. Horgan & John L. Tienson (eds.), Connectionism and the Philosophy of Mind. Kluwer.
  40. Tim Van Gelder (1991). What is the'D'in'PDP': A Survey of the Concept of Distribution. In William Ramsey, Stephen P. Stich & D. M. Rumelhart (eds.), Philosophy and Connectionist Theory. Lawrence Erlbaum.
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  41. Tim van Gelder (1991). What is the D in PDP? In William Ramsey, Stephen P. Stich & D. Rumelhart (eds.), Philosophy and Connectionist Theory. Lawrence Erlbaum.
     
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  42. Tim van Gelder (1990). Compositionality: A Connectionist Variation on a Classical Theme. Cognitive Science 14 (3):355-84.
  43. Tim van Gelder (1990). Why Distributed Representation is Inherently Non-Symbolic. In G. Dorffner (ed.), Konnektionismus in Artificial Intelligence Und Kognitionsforschung. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.
    There are many conflicting views concerning the nature of distributed representation, its compatibility or otherwise with symbolic representation, and its importance in characterizing the nature of connectionist models and their relationship to more traditional symbolic approaches to understanding cognition. Many have simply assumed that distribution is merely an implementation issue, and that symbolic mechanisms can be designed to take advantage of the virtues of distribution if so desired. Others, meanwhile, see the use of distributed representation as marking a fundamental difference (...)
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  44. Timothy van Gelder (1990). Connectionist Models Learn What? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 13 (3):509-510.
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  45. Timothy J. Van Gelder (1989). Credible Threats and Usable Weapons: Some Dilemmas of Deterrence. Philosophy and Public Affairs 18 (2):158-183.
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