Search results for 'Time measurements' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Edward A. Desloge (1989). A Theoretical Device for Space and Time Measurements. Foundations of Physics 19 (10):1191-1213.score: 45.0
    A theoretical device, which incorporates the functions of clock, rod, nonrotating platform, and accelerometer, and whose operation depends on the properties of light rays and free particles, is defined. The device, which we call a metrosphere, is simple enough that it can be introduced at the starting point of relativity theory and versatile enough that it can serve as an aid in the development and conceptualization of the theory. Relative to an inertial frame, a moving metrosphere undergoes a Lorentz-Fitzgerald contraction (...)
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  2. J. Kiukas, A. Ruschhaupt & R. F. Werner (2009). Tunneling Times with Covariant Measurements. Foundations of Physics 39 (7):829-846.score: 39.0
    We consider the time delay of massive, non-relativistic, one-dimensional particles due to a tunneling potential. In this setting the well-known Hartman effect asserts that often the sub-ensemble of particles going through the tunnel seems to cross the tunnel region instantaneously. An obstacle to the utilization of this effect for getting faster signals is the exponential damping by the tunnel, so there seems to be a trade-off between speedup and intensity. In this paper we prove that this trade-off is never (...)
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  3. Alexander Waugh (1999). Time: From Micro-Seconds to Millennia, a Search for the Right Time. Headline Book Pub..score: 39.0
     
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  4. Carlos Alexandre Brasil, L. A. De Castro & R. D. J. Napolitano (2013). How Much Time Does a Measurement Take? Foundations of Physics 43 (5):642-655.score: 38.0
    We consider the problem of measurement using the Lindblad equation, which allows the introduction of time in the interaction between the measured system and the measurement apparatus. We use analytic results, valid for weak system-environment coupling, obtained for a two-level system in contact with a measurer (Markovian interaction) and a thermal bath (non-Markovian interaction), where the measured observable may or may not commute with the system-environment interaction. Analysing the behavior of the coherence, which tends to a value asymptotically close (...)
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  5. Eran Tal (forthcoming). Making Time: A Study in the Epistemology of Measurement. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science.score: 36.0
    This article develops a model-based account of the standardization of physical measurement, taking the contemporary standardization of time as its central case-study. To standardize the measurement of a quantity, I argue, is to legislate the mode of application of a quantity-concept to a collection of exemplary artefacts. Legislation involves an iterative exchange between top-down adjustments to theoretical and statistical models regulating the application of a concept, and bottom-up adjustments to material artefacts in light of remaining gaps. The model-based account (...)
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  6. Avshalom C. Elitzur & Shahar Dolev (2008). Undoing Quantum Measurements: Novel Twists to the Physical Account of Time. In World Scientific (ed.), Physics of Emergence and Organization. 61--75.score: 36.0
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  7. Peter W. Travis (1997). Chaucer's Chronographiae, the Confounded Reader, and Fourteenth-Century Measurements of Time. Disputatio 2:1-34.score: 36.0
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  8. Martha Blassnigg (2010). Revisiting Marey's Applications of Scientific Moving Image Technologies in the Context of Bergson's Philosophy: Audio-Visual Mediation and the Experience of Time. [REVIEW] Medicine Studies 2 (3):175-184.score: 35.0
    This paper revisits some early applications of audio-visual imaging technologies used in physiology in a dialogue with reflections on Henri Bergson’s philosophy. It focuses on the aspects of time and memory in relation to spatial representations of movement measurements and critically discusses them from the perspective of the observing participant and the public exhibitions of scientific films. Departing from an audio-visual example, this paper is informed by a thick description of the philosophical implications and contemporary discourses surrounding the (...)
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  9. T. H. Howells (1932). The Regulated Alternating Current as a Time Measure. Journal of Experimental Psychology 15 (6):773.score: 35.0
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  10. Y. Jack Ng & H. Van Dam (2000). Measuring the Foaminess of Space-Time with Gravity-Wave Interferometers. Foundations of Physics 30 (5):795-805.score: 33.0
    By analyzing a gedanken experiment designed to measure the distance l between two spatially separated points, we find that this distance cannot be measured with uncertainty less than (ll 2 P) 1/3 , considerably larger than the Planck scale lP (or the string scale in string theories), the conventional-wisdom uncertainty in distance measurements. This limitation to space-time measurements is interpreted as resulting from quantum fluctuations of space-time itself. Thus, at very short distance scales, space-time is (...)
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  11. Abner Shimony (1996). A Bayesian Examination of Time-Symmetry in the Process of Measurement. Erkenntnis 45 (2-3):337 - 348.score: 30.0
    We investigate the thesis of Aharonov, Bergmann, and Lebowitz that time-symmetry holds in ensembles defined by both an initial and a final condition, called preand postselected ensembles. We distinguish two senses of time symmetry and show that the first one, concerning forward directed and time reversed measurements, holds if the measurement process is ideal, but fails if the measurement process is non-ideal, i.e., violates Lüders's rule. The second kind of time symmetry, concerning the interchange of (...)
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  12. Charis Anastopoulos (2006). Classical Versus Quantum Probability in Sequential Measurements. Foundations of Physics 36 (11):1601-1661.score: 30.0
    We demonstrate in this paper that the probabilities for sequential measurements have features very different from those of single-time measurements. First, they cannot be modelled by a classical stochastic process. Second, they are contextual, namely they depend strongly on the specific measurement scheme through which they are determined. We construct Positive-Operator-Valued measures (POVM) that provide such probabilities. For observables with continuous spectrum, the constructed POVMs depend strongly on the resolution of the measurement device, a conclusion that persists (...)
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  13. M. Bitbol (1988). The Concept of Measurement and Time Symmetry in Quantum Mechanics. Philosophy of Science 55 (3):349-375.score: 30.0
    The formal time symmetry of the quantum measurement process is extensively discussed. Then, the origin of the alleged association between a fixed temporal direction and quantum measurements is investigated. It is shown that some features of such an association might arise from epistemological rather than purely physical assumptions. In particular, it is brought out that a sequence of statements bearing on quantum measurements may display intrinsic asymmetric properties, irrespective of the location of corresponding measurements in (...) t of the Schrodinger equation. The situation of an observer performing two measurements in two opposite directions of t is eventually investigated. Essential differences are found between two descriptions of this situation: the internal one (taking only into account what is recorded in the observer's memory) and the external one (whereby the observer is considered as a quantum system ruled by the Schrodinger equation). Finally, a method allowing several observers to establish a correspondence between their memory sizes is analyzed. The most important facts that usually lead to the associating of a preferential temporal direction with quantum measurements may be inferred from this correspondence. (shrink)
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  14. F. M. Denton (1932). A New Device for the Measurement of Time Intervals. Journal of Experimental Psychology 15 (5):598.score: 30.0
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  15. Martina Kanning (2012). Using Objective, Real-Time Measures to Investigate the Effect of Actual Physical Activity on Affective States in Everyday Life Differentiating the Contexts of Working and Leisure Time in a Sample with Students. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 30.0
    Multiple studies suggest that physical activity causes positive affective reactions and reduces depressive mood. However, studies and interventions focused mostly on structured activity programs, but rarely on actual physical activity (aPA) in daily life. Furthermore, they seldom account for the context in which the aPA occur (e.g. work, leisure). Using a prospective, real time assessment design (ambulatory assessment), we investigated the effects of aPA on affective states (valence, energetic arousal, calmness) in real time during everyday life while controlling (...)
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  16. Stefan Zeisberger, Dennis Vrecko & Thomas Langer (2012). Measuring the Time Stability of Prospect Theory Preferences. Theory and Decision 72 (3):359-386.score: 30.0
    Prospect Theory (PT) is widely regarded as the most promising descriptive model for decision making under uncertainty. Various tests have corroborated the validity of the characteristic fourfold pattern of risk attitudes implied by the combination of probability weighting and value transformation. But is it also safe to assume stable PT preferences at the individual level? This is not only an empirical but also a conceptual question. Measuring the stability of preferences in a multi-parameter decision model such as PT is far (...)
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  17. Robert DiSalle (2006). Understanding Space-Time: The Philosophical Development of Physics From Newton to Einstein. Cambridge University Press.score: 27.0
    Presenting the history of space-time physics, from Newton to Einstein, as a philosophical development DiSalle reflects our increasing understanding of the connections between ideas of space and time and our physical knowledge. He suggests that philosophy's greatest impact on physics has come about, less by the influence of philosophical hypotheses, than by the philosophical analysis of concepts of space, time, and motion and the roles they play in our assumptions about physical objects and physical measurements. This (...)
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  18. Thomas Filk (2013). Temporal Non-Locality. Foundations of Physics 43 (4):533-547.score: 27.0
    In this article I investigate several possibilities to define the concept of “temporal non-locality” within the standard framework of quantum theory. In particular, I analyze the notions of “temporally non-local states”, “temporally non-local events” and “temporally non-local observables”. The idea of temporally non-local events is already inherent in the standard formalism of quantum mechanics, and Basil Hiley recently defined an operator in order to measure the degree of such a temporal non-locality. The concept of temporally non-local states enters as soon (...)
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  19. Lynn Hunt (2008). Measuring Time, Making History. Central European University Press.score: 27.0
    Hunt asks a series of related questions about time in history. Why is time now again on the agenda, for historians and more generally in Western culture?
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  20. Hermann Ackermann Ingo Hertrich, Susanne Dietrich (2013). How Can Audiovisual Pathways Enhance the Temporal Resolution of Time-Compressed Speech in Blind Subjects? Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 27.0
    In blind people, the visual channel cannot assist face-to-face communication via lipreading or visual prosody. Nevertheless, the visual system may enhance the evaluation of auditory information due to its cross-links to (1) the auditory system, (2) supramodal representations, and (3) frontal action-related areas. Apart from feedback or top-down support of, for example, the processing of spatial or phonological representations, experimental data have shown that the visual system can impact auditory perception at more basic computational stages such as temporal resolution. For (...)
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  21. Séverine Fay, Michel Isingrini & Viviane Pouthas (2005). Does Priming with Awareness Reflect Explicit Contamination? An Approach with a Response-Time Measure in Word-Stem Completion. Consciousness and Cognition 14 (3):459-473.score: 27.0
  22. Sergei Gepshtein Gijs Plomp, Cees van Leeuwen (2012). Perception of Time in Articulated Visual Events. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 27.0
    Perceived duration of a sensory event often exceeds its actual duration. This phenomenon is called time dilation. The distortion may occur because sensory systems are optimized for perception within their respective modalities and not for perception of time. We investigated how the dilation of visual events depends on the duration and content of events. Observers compared the durations of two successive visual stimuli while the luminance of one of the stimuli was modulated at different temporal frequencies. Time (...)
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  23. E. Papp (1983). Light-Cone Approach to the Quantum Space-Time Description. Foundations of Physics 13 (11):1155-1165.score: 24.0
    Proofs have been given that the light-cone approximation can be analyzed in terms of the extended quantum-mechanical description of the space-time measurements by the complex numbers. It is then proved that the so established description is able to support both the asymptotical scale-invariant cross sections and the threshold behavior of the high-energy production processes.
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  24. A. Meessen (2005). Space-Time Quantization. Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 61 (1):39 - 59.score: 24.0
    The article shows that the postulate of a space-time continuum is not a logical necessity, since it is possible to construct a theory, where the ultimate limit for the smallest measurable distance a is finite. This quantum of length is a universal constant, like the light velocity c and Planck's constant h. The generalized theory implies that the total energy content of our Universe Eu = hc/2a and that velocities v > c are possible for material bodies, when their (...)
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  25. Maurice Hershenson (1962). Reaction Time as a Measure of Intersensory Facilitation. Journal of Experimental Psychology 63 (3):289.score: 24.0
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  26. Leo Postman & Harold L. Kaplan (1947). Reaction Time as a Measure of Retroactive Inhibition. Journal of Experimental Psychology 37 (2):136.score: 24.0
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  27. Ola Svenson (1970). A Functional Measurement Approach to Intuitive Estimation as Exemplified by Estimated Time Savings. Journal of Experimental Psychology 86 (2):204.score: 24.0
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  28. Andries F. Sanders, Leslie Whitaker & Charles N. Cofer (1974). Evidence for Retroactive Interference in Recognition From Reaction Time. Journal of Experimental Psychology 102 (6):1126.score: 23.0
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  29. Rufin VanRullen (2011). Four Common Conceptual Fallacies in Mapping the Time Course of Recognition. Frontiers in Psychology 2:365.score: 23.0
    Determining the moment at which a visual recognition process is completed, or the order in which various processes come into play, are fundamental steps in any attempt to understand human recognition abilities, or to replicate the corresponding hierarchy of neuronal mechanisms within artificial systems. Common experimental paradigms for addressing these questions involve the measurement and/or comparison of backward-masking (or RSVP: Rapid Serial Visual Presentation) psychometric functions and of physiological EEG/MEG/LFP signals (peak latencies, differential activities, single-trial decoding techniques). I review and (...)
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  30. H. Schmidgen (2003). Time and Noise: The Stable Surroundings of Reaction Experiments, 1860-1890. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 34 (2):237-275.score: 22.0
    The 'Reaction experiment with Hipp chronoscope' is one of the classical experiments of modern psychology. This paper investigates the technological contexts of this experiment. It argues that the development of time measurement and communication in other areas of science and technology (astronomy, the clock industry) were decisive for shaping the material culture of experimental in psychology. The chronoscope was constructed by Matthaus Hipp (1813-1893) in the late 1840s. In 1861, Adolphe Hirsch (1830-1901) introduced the chronoscope for measuring the 'physiological (...)
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  31. Peter Eldridge-Smith (2007). Paradoxes and Hypodoxes of Time Travel. In Jan Lloyd Jones, Paul Campbell & Peter Wylie (eds.), Art and Time. Australian Scholarly Publishing. 172--189.score: 21.0
    I distinguish paradoxes and hypodoxes among the conundrums of time travel. I introduce ‘hypodoxes’ as a term for seemingly consistent conundrums that seem to be related to various paradoxes, as the Truth-teller is related to the Liar. In this article, I briefly compare paradoxes and hypodoxes of time travel with Liar paradoxes and Truth-teller hypodoxes. I also discuss Lewis’ treatment of time travel paradoxes, which I characterise as a Laissez Faire theory of time travel. Time (...)
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  32. Holly Andersen (2013). The Representation of Time in Agency. In Adrian Bardon & Heather Dyke (eds.), Blackwell Companion to Philosophy of Time. Wiley-Blackwell.score: 21.0
    This paper outlines some key issues that arise when agency and temporality are considered jointly, from the perspective of psychology, cognitive neuroscience, phenomenology, and action theory. I address the difference between time simpliciter and time as represented as it figures in phenomena like intentional binding, goal-oriented action plans, emulation systems, and ‘temporal agency’. An examination of Husserl’s account of time consciousness highlights difficulties in generalizing his account to include a substantive notion of agency, a weakness inherited by (...)
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  33. Douglas Kutach (2013). Time Travel and Time Machines. In Adrian Bardon & Heather Dyke (eds.), A Companion to the Philosophy of Time. Blackwell.score: 21.0
    Thinking about time travel is an entertaining way to explore how to understand time and its location in the broad conceptual landscape that includes causation, fate, action, possibility, experience, and reality. It is uncontroversial that time travel towards the future exists, and time travel to the past is generally recognized as permitted by Einstein’s general theory of relativity, though no one knows yet whether nature truly allows it. Coherent time travel stories have added flair to (...)
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  34. Heather Dyke (2002). Mc Taggart and the Truth About Time. In Craig Callender (ed.), Time, Reality and Experience. Cambridge University Press. 137-.score: 21.0
    McTaggart famously argued that time is unreal. Today, almost no one agrees with his conclusion. But his argument remains the locus classicus for both the A-theory and the B-theory of time. I show how McTaggart’s argument provided the impetus for both of these opposing views of the nature of time. I also present and defend what I take to be the correct view of the nature of time.
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  35. Heath Massey (2010). On the Verge of Being and Time: Before Heidegger's Dismissal of Bergson. Philosophy Today 54 (2):138-52.score: 21.0
    Heidegger claims in Being and Time that Bergson fails to overcome traditional ontology because his concept of time is fundamentally Aristotelian. On the basis of this hasty dismissal, it is tempting to conclude that Heidegger was not terribly interested in Bergson or that he only wanted to prevent readers from confusing his view of time with Bergson’s. To the contrary, a survey of Heidegger’s early lectures and writings on the issue of time reveals a strong interest (...)
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  36. Michael F. Wagner (2008). The Enigmatic Reality of Time: Aristotle, Plotinus, and Today. Brill.score: 21.0
    Part I: Dimensions of time's enigma -- Is time real? -- Eleaticism, temporality, and time -- The makings of a temporal universe -- Pastness and futurity -- Synchronicity and synchronicity -- Temporal pace and measurement -- Presentness or the present -- Aristotle's real account of time -- Parmenidean time and the impossible now -- Cosmic motion and the speed of time -- Time as the motion of the cosmos -- Time as the (...)
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  37. Ronald G. Newburgh (1975). Pulse Widths and Time Dilatation. Foundations of Physics 5 (3):399-405.score: 21.0
    The temporal widths of a light pulse as measured in different inertial frames are shown to have a relation more complicated than that of a simple time dilatation. The result is compared with the dilatation in the twin paradoxGedanken experiment. The light pulse measurement requires two observers in two different frames. The measurements of the observers are compared. For the twin experiment a comparison is made between two clocks which have undergone different histories between the two points at (...)
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  38. Milan Cirkovic (2003). The Thermodynamical Arrow of Time: Reinterpreting the Boltzmann–Schuetz Argument. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 33 (3):467-490.score: 21.0
    The recent surge of interest in the origin of the temporal asymmetry of thermodynamical systems (including the accessible part of the universe itself) has put forward two possible explanatory approaches to this age-old problem. Hereby we show that there is a third possible alternative, based on the generalization of the classical (“Boltzmann–Schuetz”) anthropic fluctuation picture of the origin of the perceived entropy gradient. This alternative (which we dub the Acausal-Anthropic approach) is based on accepting Boltzmann's statistical measure at its face (...)
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  39. Michael B. Mensky (1997). Decoherence in Continuous Measurements: From Models to Phenomenology. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 27 (12):1637-1654.score: 21.0
    Decoherence is the name for the complex of phenomena leading to appearance of classical features of quantum systems. In the present paper decoherence in continuous measurements is analyzed with the help of restricted path integrals (RPI) and (equivalently in simple cases) complex Hamiltonians. A continuous measurement results in a readout giving information in the classical form on the evolution of the measured quantum system. The quantum features of the system reveal themselves in the variation of possible measurement readouts. For (...)
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  40. Paul Busch (1990). On the Energy-Time Uncertainty Relation. Part II: Pragmatic Time Versus Energy Indeterminacy. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 20 (1):33-43.score: 21.0
    The discussion of a particular kind of interpretation of the energy-time uncertainty relation, the “pragmatic time” version of the ETUR outlined in Part I of this work [measurement duration (pragmatic time) versus uncertainty of energy disturbance or measurement inaccuracy] is reviewed. Then the Aharonov-Bohm counter-example is reformulated within the modern quantum theory of unsharp measurements and thereby confirmed in a rigorous way.
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  41. Bradley Dowden, Time. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.score: 21.0
    Time Time is what clocks measure. The three key features of time are that it orders events in sequence one after the other; it specifies how long any event lasts; and it specifies when events occur. Yet despite 2,500 years of investigating time, many issues about it are unresolved. Here is a list of the […].
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  42. Joseph Levy (2004). Experimental and Real Coordinates in Space-Time Transformations. Foundations of Physics 34 (12):1905-1922.score: 21.0
    The experimental (apparent) space-time transformations connect coordinates altered by length contraction and clock retardation. When clocks are synchronized by means of light signals (Einstein–Poincaré procedure) or by slow clock transport, the experimental space-time. transformations assume the mathematical form of the “Extended space-time transformations”.(4) These reduce to the Lorentz–Poincaré transformations when one of the frames they connect is the fundamental inertial frame. If the synchronization procedure were perfect, the experimental space-time transformations would assume the form of Selleri’s (...)
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  43. Eduard Prugovečki (1982). Time-Energy Uncertainty and Relativistic Canonical Commutation Relations in Quantum Spacetime. Foundations of Physics 12 (6):555-564.score: 21.0
    It is shown that the time operatorQ 0 appearing in the realization of the RCCR's [Qμ,Pv]=−jhgμv, on Minkowski quantum spacetime is a self adjoint operator on Hilbert space of square integrable functions over Σ m =σ×v m , where σ is a timelike hyperplane. This result leads to time-energy uncertainty relations that match their space-momentum counterparts. The operators Qμ appearing in Born's metric operator in quantum spacetime emerge as internal spacetime operators for exciton states, and the condition that (...)
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  44. A. K. A. Maciel & J. Tiomno (1989). Analysis of Absolute Space-Time Lorentz Theories. Foundations of Physics 19 (5):505-519.score: 21.0
    Two particular forms of absolute space-time theories are examined. There follows a derivation of their predictions for measurements that are within present-day detection limits.
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  45. Paul Kienle (2010). Orbital Electron Capture Rate and Time Modulation of H- and He-Like Ions in a Storage-Ring. Foundations of Physics 40 (7):733-745.score: 21.0
    We have studied in a heavy ion storage ring the orbital electron capture decays of H- and He-like 140Pr and 142Pm ions and found that the H-like ions with one electron in the K-shell decay 1.49(8) and 1.44(6) times faster, than the corresponding He-like ions with two electrons in the K-shell. This result is explained by spin statistics due to the hyperfine structure of the H-like ions.The measured time dependence of the electron capture rate of H-like 140Pr58+, 142Pm60+, and (...)
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  46. Tomasz Placek (2000). Stochastic Outcomes in Branching Space-Time: Analysis of Bell's Theorem. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 51 (3):445-475.score: 21.0
    The paper extends the framework of outcomes in branching space-time (Kowalski and Placek [1999]) by assigning probabilities to outcomes of events, where these probabilities are interpreted either epistemically or as weighted possibilities. In resulting models I define the notion of common cause of correlated outcomes of a single event, and investigate which setups allow for the introduction of common causes. It turns out that a deterministic common cause can always be introduced, but (surprisingly) only special setups permit the introduction (...)
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  47. Ruth E. Kastner (2003). The Nature of the Controversy Over Time‐Symmetric Quantum Counterfactuals. Philosophy of Science 70 (1):145-163.score: 21.0
    It is proposed that the recent controversy over "time-symmetric quantum counterfactuals" (TSQCs), based on the Aharonov-Bergmann-Lebowitz Rule for measurements of pre- and post-selected systems, can be clarified by taking TSQCs to be counterfactuals with a specific type of compound antecedent. In that case, inconsistency proofs such as that of Sharp and Shanks (1993) are not applicable, and the main issue becomes not whether such statements are true, but whether they are nontrivial. The latter question is addressed and answered (...)
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  48. Alisa Bokulich (2003). Quantum Measurements and Supertasks. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 17 (2):127 – 136.score: 21.0
    This article addresses the question whether supertasks are possible within the context of non-relativistic quantum mechanics. The supertask under consideration consists of performing an infinite number of quantum mechanical measurements in a finite amount of time. Recent arguments in the physics literature claim to show that continuous measurements, understood as N discrete measurements in the limit where N goes to infinity, are impossible. I show that there are certain kinds of measurements in quantum mechanics for (...)
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  49. Heather Dyke (2003). What Moral Realism Can Learn From the Philosophy of Time. In , Time and Ethics: Essays at the Intersection. Kluwer Academic Publishers. 11--25.score: 21.0
    It sometimes happens that advances in one area of philosophy can be applied to a quite different area of philosophy, and that the result is an unexpected significant advance. I think that this is true of the philosophy of time and meta-ethics. Developments in the philosophy of time have led to a new understanding of the relation between semantics and metaphysics. Applying these insights to the field of meta-ethics, I will argue, can suggest a new position with respect (...)
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  50. Orly Fuhrman, Kelly McCormick, Eva Chen, Heidi Jiang, Dingfang Shu, Shuaimei Mao & Lera Boroditsky (2011). How Linguistic and Cultural Forces Shape Conceptions of Time: English and Mandarin Time in 3D. Cognitive Science 35 (7):1305-1328.score: 21.0
    In this paper we examine how English and Mandarin speakers think about time, and we test how the patterns of thinking in the two groups relate to patterns in linguistic and cultural experience. In Mandarin, vertical spatial metaphors are used more frequently to talk about time than they are in English; English relies primarily on horizontal terms. We present results from two tasks comparing English and Mandarin speakers’ temporal reasoning. The tasks measure how people spatialize time in (...)
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