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  1. Timothy F. Murphy (forthcoming). A Thought Experiment in Life Prolongation: The Tortoise Transformation. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry.
    The value of extending the human lifespan remains a key philosophical debate in bioethics. In building a case against the extension of the species-typical human life, Nicolas Agar considers the prospect of transforming human beings near the end of their lives into Galapagos tortoises, which would then live on decades longer. A central question at stake in this transformation is the persistence of human consciousness as a condition of the value of the transformation. Agar entertains the idea that consciousness could (...)
     
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  2. Timothy F. Murphy (2015). Assisted Gestation and Transgender Women. Bioethics 29 (6):389-397.
    Developments in uterus transplant put assisted gestation within meaningful range of clinical success for women with uterine infertility who want to gestate children. Should this kind of transplantation prove routine and effective for those women, would there be any morally significant reason why men or transgender women should not be eligible for the same opportunity for gestation? Getting to the point of safe and effective uterus transplantation for those parties would require a focused line of research, over and above the (...)
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  3. Timothy F. Murphy (2015). Against Withdrawing Government and Insurance Subsidies for ARTs From Fertile People, with Special Reference to Lesbian and Gay Individuals. Journal of Medical Ethics 41 (5):388-390.
    One way to help ensure the future of human life on the planet is to reduce the total number of people alive, as a hedge against dangers to the environment. One commentator has proposed withdrawing government and insurance subsidies from all fertile people, to help reduce the number of births. Any proposal of this kind does not, however, offer a solution commensurate with current problems of resource use and carbon emissions. Closing off fertility medicine to some people – or even (...)
     
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  4. Timothy F. Murphy (2015). LGBT People and the Work Ahead in Bioethics. Bioethics 29 (6).
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  5. Timothy F. Murphy (2015). Preventing Ultimate Harm as the Justification for Biomoral Modification. Bioethics 29 (5):369-377.
    Most advocates of biogenetic modification hope to amplify existing human traits in humans in order to increase the value of such traits as intelligence and resistance to disease. These advocates defend such enhancements as beneficial for the affected parties. By contrast, some commentators recommend certain biogenetic modifications to serve social goals. As Ingmar Persson and Julian Savulescu see things, human moral psychology is deficient relative to the most important risks facing humanity as a whole, including the prospect of Ultimate Harm, (...)
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  6. Timothy F. Murphy (2014). Are Gay and Lesbian People Fading Into the History of Bioethics? Hastings Center Report 44 (5):s6-s11.
  7. Timothy F. Murphy (2014). Genetic Generations: Artificial Gametes and the Embryos Produced with Them. Journal of Medical Ethics 40:739-740.
    Certain interventions now permit the derivation of mammalian gametes from stem cells cultivated from either somatic cells or embryos. These gametes can be used in an indefinite cycle of conception in vitro, gamete derivation, conception in vitro, and so on, producing genetic generations that live only in vitro. One commentator has described this prospect for human beings as eugenics, insofar as it would allow for the selection and development of certain traits in human beings. This commentary not only offers this (...)
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  8. Timothy F. Murphy (2014). In Defense of Prenatal Genetic Interventions. Bioethics 28 (7):335-342.
    Jürgen Habermas has argued against prenatal genetic interventions used to influence traits on the grounds that only biogenetic contingency in the conception of children preserves the conditions that make the presumption of moral equality possible. This argument fails for a number of reasons. The contingency that Habermas points to as the condition of moral equality is an artifact of evolutionary contingency and not inviolable in itself. Moreover, as a precedent for genetic interventions, parents and society already affect children's traits, which (...)
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  9. Timothy F. Murphy (2014). Assisted Gestation and Transgender Women. Bioethics (4):DOI: 10.1111.bioe.12132.
    Developments in uterus transplant put assisted gestation within meaningful range of clinical success for women with uterine infertility who want to gestate children. Should this kind of transplantation prove routine and effective for those women, would there be any morally significant reason why men or transgender women should not be eligible for the same opportunity for gestation? Getting to the point of safe and effective uterus transplantation for those parties would require a focused line of research, over and above the (...)
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  10. Timothy F. Murphy (2013). Adoption First? The Disposition of Human Embryos. Journal of Medical Ethics (6):2013-101525.
    Anja Karnein has suggested that because of the importance of respect for persons, law and policy should require some human embryos created in vitro to be available for adoption for a period of time. If no one comes forward to adopt the embryos during that time, they may be destroyed (in the case of embryos left over from fertility medicine) or used in research (in the case of embryos created for that purpose or left over from fertility medicine). This adoption (...)
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  11. Timothy F. Murphy (2013). Double-Effect Reasoning and the Conception of Human Embryos. Journal of Medical Ethics 39 (8):529-532.
    Some commentators argue that conception signals the onset of human personhood and that moral responsibilities toward zygotic or embryonic persons begin at this point, not the least of which is to protect them from exposure to death. Critics of the conception threshold of personhood ask how it can be morally consistent to object to the embryo loss that occurs in fertility medicine and research but not object to the significant embryo loss that occurs through conception in vivo. Using that apparent (...)
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  12. Timothy F. Murphy (2013). Genetic Modifications for Personal Enhancement: A Defense. Journal of Medical Ethics (4):2012-101026.
    Bioconservative commentators argue that parents should not take steps to modify the genetics of their children even in the name of enhancement because of the damage they predict for values, identities and relationships. Some commentators have even said that adults should not modify themselves through genetic interventions. One commentator worries that genetic modifications chosen by adults for themselves will undermine moral agency, lead to less valuable experiences and fracture people's sense of self. These worries are not justified, however, since the (...)
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  13. Timothy F. Murphy (2013). Getting Past Nature as a Guide to the Human Sex Ratio. Bioethics 27 (4):224-232.
    Sex selection of children by pre-conception and post-conception techniques remains morally controversial and even illegal in some jurisdictions. Among other things, some critics fear that sex selection will distort the sex ratio, making opposite-sex relationships more difficult to secure, while other critics worry that sex selection will tilt some nations toward military aggression. The human sex ratio varies depending on how one estimates it; there is certainly no one-to-one correspondence between males and females either at birth or across the human (...)
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  14. Timothy F. Murphy (2013). The Meaning of Synthetic Gametes for Gay and Lesbian People and Bioethics Too. Journal of Medical Ethics:doi:10.1136/medethics-2013-10169.
    Some commentators indirectly challenge the ethics of using synthetic gametes as a way for same-sex couples to have children with shared genetics. These commentators typically impose a moral burden of proof on same-sex couples they do not impose on opposite-sex couples in terms of their eligibility to have children. Other commentators directly raise objections to parenthood by same-sex couples on the grounds that it compromises the rights and/or welfare of children. Ironically, the prospect of synthetic gametes neutralises certain of these (...)
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  15. Timothy F. Murphy (2012). Commentary: Crossing Cultural Divides: Transgender People Who Want to Have Children. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 21 (02):284-286.
  16. Timothy F. Murphy (2012). Ethics, Sexual Orientation, and Choices About Children. The MIT Press.
    Should parents be able to select the sexual orientation of their children, if that were possible through prenatal interventions? _Ethics, Sexual Orientation, and Choices about Children_ reviews the history of this debate which started in the 1970s and has been invigorated by scientific reports about the origins of sexual orientation. This book describes the debate and offers an evaluation of key issues in parental rights, children's rights, and family welfare.
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  17. Timothy F. Murphy (2012). In Defense of Irreligious Bioethics. American Journal of Bioethics 12 (12):3-10.
    Some commentators have criticized bioethics as failing to engage religion both as a matter of theory and practice. Bioethics should work toward understanding the influence of religion as it represents people's beliefs and practices, but bioethics should nevertheless observe limits in regard to religion as it does its normative work. Irreligious skepticism toward religious views about health, healthcare practices and institutions, and responses to biomedical innovations can yield important benefits to the field. Irreligious skepticism makes it possible to raise questions (...)
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  18. Timothy F. Murphy (2012). Research Priorities and the Future of Pregnancy. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 21 (01):78-89.
    The term “ectogenesis” has been around for about a century now, and it is generally understood as the development of embryos and fetuses outside a uterus. In this sense, all in vitro fertilization is ectogenesis, but in vitro development can only proceed to a certain point, at which time human embryos are then either implanted in the attempt to achieve a pregnancy, frozen for that use in the future, used in research, or discarded.
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  19. Timothy F. Murphy (2012). The Afterlife of Embryonic Persons: What a Strange Place Heaven Must Be. Reproductive Biomedicine Online 25:684-688.
    Some commentators argue that conception constitutes the onset of human personhood in a metaphysical sense. This threshold is usually invoked as the basis both for protecting zygotes and embryos from exposure to risks of death in clinical research and fertility medicine and for objecting to abortion, but it also has consequences for certain religious perspectives, including Catholicism whose doctrines directly engage questions of personhood and its meanings. Since more human zygotes and embryos are lost than survive to birth, conferral of (...)
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  20. Timothy F. Murphy (2012). The Ethics of Fertility Preservation in Transgender Body Modifications. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 9 (3):311-316.
    In some areas of clinical medicine, discussions about fertility preservation are routine, such as in the treatment of children and adolescents facing cancer treatments that will destroy their ability to produce gametes of their own. Certain professional organizations now offer guidelines for people who wish to modify their bodies and appearance in regard to sex traits, and these guidelines extend to recommendations about fertility preservation. Since the removal of testicles or ovaries will destroy the ability to have genetically related children (...)
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  21. Timothy F. Murphy (2012). The More Irreligion in Bioethics the Better: Reply to Open Peer Commentaries on “In Defense of Irreligious Bioethics”. American Journal of Bioethics 12 (12):W1-W5.
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  22. Timothy F. Murphy (2011). A Philosophical Obituary: Dr. Jack Kevorkian Dead at 83 Leaving End of Life Debate in the US Forever Changed. American Journal of Bioethics 11 (7):3 - 6.
    The nationally-famous advocate of physician-assisted suicide did not die by his own hand. Dr. Jack Kevorkian died the old-fashioned way in America: in a hospital, with multiple disorders undercutting his life. Kevorkian took up interest in assisted suicide early in his medical career, and he wanted prisoners on death row to volunteer for experiments just before their execution. Kevorkian saw individual consent as the wheel, axle, and grease for all decisions in these matters. He helped many people die, but it (...)
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  23. Timothy F. Murphy (2011). Surrogate Health Care Decisions and Same‐Sex Relationships. Hastings Center Report 41 (3):24-27.
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  24. Timothy F. Murphy (2011). Same-Sex Marriage: Not a Threat to Marriage or Children. Journal of Social Philosophy 42 (3):288-304.
    Some critics of same-sex marriage allege that this kind of union not only betrays the nature of marriage but that it also opens children to various kinds of harm. Same-sex marriage is objectionable, on this view, in its nature and in its effects. A view of marriage as requiring an unassisted capacity to conceive children may be respect as one idea of marriage, but this view need not be understood as marriage itself. It is not clear, in any case, why (...)
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  25. Timothy F. Murphy (2010). CQ Reviews. [REVIEW] Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 19 (2):261.
    Review of: War Surgery in Afghanistan and Iraq: A Series of Cases, 2003–2007. Falls Church, VA: Office of the Surgeon General, United States Army; Washington, DC: Borden Institute: Walter Reed Army Medical Center; 2008.
     
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  26. Timothy F. Murphy (2010). Sex Redux. American Journal of Bioethics 10 (7):W4-W5.
    What sex is permissible, if any, in non-clinical research relationships? In reply to my call for a code of conduct for non-clinical research, some commentators have called for more training in such matters, but this kind of training will not go very far without some kind of governing standards yet to be determined. It is not enough to assume that unarticulated opinions will suffice. Neither will approaches that involve even greater scrutiny over research, as if to divide research into two (...)
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  27. Timothy F. Murphy (2010). Sex, Romance, and Research Subjects: An Ethical Exploration. American Journal of Bioethics 10 (7):30-38.
    Professional standards in medicine and psychology treat concurrent sexual relationships with patients as violations of fiduciary trust, and they sometimes rule out sexual relationships even after a clinical relationship is over. These standards also rule out sex with research subjects who are also patients, but what about nonclinical relationships where there are not always parallels to the standards of clinical medicine? One way to treat sex in nonclinical research relationships is to treat it as sex is treated elsewhere among adults, (...)
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  28. Timothy F. Murphy (2010). The Ethics of Impossible and Possible Changes to Human Nature. Bioethics 26 (4):191-197.
    Some commentators speak freely about genetics being poised to change human nature. Contrary to such rhetoric, Norman Daniels believes no such thing is plausible since ‘nature’ describes characteristic traits of human beings as a whole. Genetic interventions that do their work one individual at a time are unlikely to change the traits of human beings as a class. Even so, one can speculate about ways in which human beings as a whole could be genetically altered, and there is nothing about (...)
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  29. Timothy F. Murphy (2010). What Human Life Amendments Mean and Don't Mean. American Journal of Bioethics 10 (12):47-48.
    A commentary that points out the way in which proposed Human Life Amendments might not prove a bulwark against all abortion. Any such Constitutional amendment would, however, have unintended effects, such as opening the way for embryos to be counted in the federal census, among other things.
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  30. Timothy F. Murphy (2010). War Surgery in Afghanistan and Iraq: A Series of Cases, 2003–2007, Edited by Shawn C. Nessen, Dave E. Lounsbury, and Stephen P. Hertz. Falls Church, VA: Office of the Surgeon General, United States Army; Washington, DC: Borden Institute: Walter Reed Army Medical Center; 2008. [REVIEW] Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 19 (02):261-.
    Readers are invited to contact Greg S. Loeben in writing at Midwestern University, Glendale Campus, Bioethics Program, 19555 N. 59th Ave., Glendale, AZ 85308 (gloebe@midwestern.edu) regarding books they would like to see reviewed or books they are interested in reviewing.
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  31. Timothy F. Murphy (2010). The Ethics of Helping Transgender Men and Women Have Children. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 53 (1):46-60.
    A transgender man legally married to a woman has given birth to two children, raising questions about the ethics of assisted reproductive treatments (ARTs) for people with cross-sex identities. Psychiatry treats cross-sex identities as a disorder, but key medical organizations and the law in some jurisdictions have taken steps to protect people with these identities from discrimination in health care, housing, and employment. In fact, many people with cross-sex identities bypass psychiatric treatment altogether in order to pursue lives that are (...)
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  32. Timothy F. Murphy (2009). Choosing Disabilities and Enhancements in Children: A Choice Too Far? Reproductie Biomedicine Online 2009 (18 sup. 1):43-49.
    Some parents have taken steps to ensure that they have deaf children, a choice that contrasts with the interest that other parents have in enhancing the traits of their children. Julian Savulescu has argued that, morally speaking, parents have a duty to use assisted reproductive technologies to give their children the best opportunity of the best life. This view extends beyond that which is actually required of parents, which is only that they give children reasonable opportunities to form and act (...)
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  33. Timothy F. Murphy (2009). When It Comes to HIV Infection, Some Are More Equal Than Others: HIV-Positive Persons -- Legal Status, Laws, Etc. -- Illinois. Hastings Center Report 39 (5):c3-c3.
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  34. Raja Halwani, Gary Jaeger, James S. Stramel, Richard Nunan, William S. Wilkerson & Timothy F. Murphy (2008). What is Gay and Lesbian Philosophy? Metaphilosophy 39 (4-5):433-471.
    Abstract: This essay explores recent trends and major issues related to gay and lesbian philosophy in ethics (including issues concerning the morality of homosexuality, the natural function of sex, and outing and coming out); religion (covering past and present debates about the status of homosexuality and how biblical and qur'anic passages have been interpreted by both sides of the debate); the law (especially a discussion of the debates surrounding sodomy laws, same-sex marriage and its impact on transsexuals, and whether the (...)
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  35. Timothy F. Murphy (2008). Hospital Ethics Committees and Research with Human Beings. In D. Micah Hester (ed.), Ethics by Committee: A Textbook on Consultation, Organization, and Education for Hospital Ethics Committees. Rowman & Littlefield Pub.. 215.
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  36. Timothy F. Murphy (2008). When is an Objection to Hybrid Stem Cell Research a Moral Objection? American Journal of Bioethics 8 (12):47 – 49.
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  37. Timothy F. Murphy (2007). When 'Emergency Contraception' is Neither. American Journal of Bioethics 7 (8):7-7.
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  38. Timothy F. Murphy (2006). Letters to the Editor. Proceedings and Addresses of the American Philosophical Association 80 (2):5 - 9.
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  39. Timothy F. Murphy (2006). Would My Story Get Me a Kidney? Hastings Center Report 36 (2):c3-c3.
  40. Timothy F. Murphy (2005). Bioethics: Past, Present, and Future. Hastings Center Report 35 (6):7.
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  41. Timothy F. Murphy (2005). Ethical Justifications for Moratoriums on Vanguard Scientific Research. American Journal of Bioethics 5 (6):51 – 52.
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  42. Timothy F. Murphy (2005). Gay and Lesbian Exceptions to the Heterosexual Rule. American Journal of Bioethics 5 (4):18.
  43. Timothy F. Murphy (2005). Gay Science: Assisted Reproductive Technologies and the Sexual Orientation of Children. Reproductive Biomedicine Online 10 (Sup. 1):102-106.
    There are no technologies at the present time that would allow parents to select the sexual orientation of their children. But what if there were? Some commentators believe that parents should be able to use those techniques so long as they are effective and safe. Others believe that these techniques are unethical because of the dangers they pose to homosexual men and women in general. Both sides point to motives and consequences when trying to analyse the ethics of this question. (...)
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  44. Timothy F. Tf Murphy (2005). Physicians, Medical Ethics, and Capital Punishment. Journal of Clinical Ethics 16 (2):160.
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  45. Timothy F. Murphy & Robert M. Veatch (2005). Members First: The Ethics of Donating Organs and Tissues to Groups. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 15 (01):50-59.
    In the United States, people may donate organs and tissues to a family member, friend, or anyone whose specific need becomes known to them. For example, in late 2003 dozens of people came forward to donate a kidney to a professional basketball player known to them only through his sports performances. People may also donate a kidney to no one in particular through a process known as nondirected donation. In nondirected donation, people donate a kidney to the organ allocation system (...)
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  46. Timothy F. Murphy & Gladys B. White (2005). Dead Sperm Donors or World Hunger: Are Bioethicists Studying the Right Stuff? Hastings Center Report 35 (2):c3-c3.
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  47. Timothy F. Murphy (2004). Better Bioethics Through Literature? American Journal of Bioethics 4 (3):125-127.
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  48. Timothy F. Murphy (2004). Case Studies in Biomedical Research Ethics. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
     
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  49. Timothy F. Murphy (2004). Gaming the Transplant System. American Journal of Bioethics 4 (1):28.
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  50. Timothy F. Murphy (2004). Response to “What Constitutes a Just Match?: A Reply to Murphy” by D. Micah Hester (CQ Vol 12, No 1): Of Need, Justice, and Random Acts of Education. [REVIEW] Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 13 (03):289-291.
    D. Micah Hester thinks the residency match system helps sustain the divide between the haves and the have-nots in healthcare. He believes that the match system channels talent away from the have-nots in a more or less systematic way, damaging moral values in physicians as it goes. As a way of making inroads against these effects, he has asked whether assigning medical school graduates to residencies at random would distribute talent and educational opportunity more broadly and promote desirable moral values. (...)
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