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  1. Todd A. Grantham (2004). Constraints and Spandrels in Gould's Structure of Evolutionary Theory. Biology and Philosophy 19 (1):29-43.
    Gould's Structure ofEvolutionary Theory argues that Darwinism hasundergone significant revision. Although Gouldsucceeds in showing that hierarchicalapproaches have expanded Darwinism, hiscritique of adaptationism is less successful. Gould claims that the ubiquity of developmentalconstraints and spandrels has forced biologiststo soften their commitment to adaptationism. Iargue that Gould overstates his conclusion; hisprincipal claims are compatible with at leastsome versions of adaptationism. Despite thisweakness, Gould's discussion of adaptationism –particularly his discussions of the exaptivepool and cross-level spandrels – shouldprovoke new work in evolutionary theory and (...)
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  2. Todd A. Grantham (2004). Conceptualizing the (Dis)Unity of Science. Philosophy of Science 71 (2):133-155.
    This paper argues that conceptualizing unity as "interconnection" (rather than reduction) provides a more fruitful and versatile framework for the philosophical study of scientific unification. Building on the work of Darden and Maull, Kitcher, and Kincaid, I treat unity as a relationship between fields: two fields become more integrated as the number and/or significance of interfield connections grow. Even when reduction fails, two theories or fields can be unified (integrated) in significant ways. I highlight two largely independent dimensions of unification. (...)
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  3. Todd A. Grantham (2001). K. Sterelny and P. E. Griffiths Sex and Death: An Introduction to Philosophy of Biology. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 52 (1):175-179.
  4. Todd A. Grantham (2000). Evolutionary Epistemology, Social Epistemology, and the Demic Structure of Science. Biology and Philosophy 15 (3):443-463.
    One of the principal difficulties in assessing Science as aProcess (Hull 1988) is determining the relationship between the various elements of Hull's theory. In particular, it is hard to understand precisely how conceptual selection is related to Hull's account of the social dynamics of science. This essay aims to clarify the relation between these aspects of his theory by examining his discussion of the``demic structure'' of science. I conclude that the social account cando significant explanatory work independently of the selectionistaccount. (...)
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  5. Shaun Nichols & Todd A. Grantham (2000). Adaptive Complexity and Phenomenal Consciousness. Philosophy of Science 67 (4):648-670.
    Arguments about the evolutionary function of phenomenal consciousness are beset by the problem of epiphenomenalism. For if it is not clear whether phenomenal consciousness has a causal role, then it is difficult to begin an argument for the evolutionary role of phenomenal consciousness. We argue that complexity arguments offer a way around this problem. According to evolutionary biology, the structural complexity of a given organ can provide evidence that the organ is an adaptation, even if nothing is known about the (...)
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  6. Todd A. Grantham (1999). Explanatory Pluralism in Paleobiology. Philosophy of Science 66 (3):236.
    This paper is a defense of "explanatory pluralism" (i.e., the view that some events can be correctly explained in two distinct ways). To defend pluralism, I identify two distinct (but compatible) styles of explanation in paleobiology. The first approach ("actual sequence explanation") traces out the particular forces that affect each species. The second approach treats the trend as "passive" or "random" diffusion away from a boundary in morphological space. I argue that while these strategies are distinct, some trends are correctly (...)
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  7. Todd A. Grantham (1999). Philosophical Perspectives on the Mass Extinction Debates? Biology and Philosophy 14 (1):143-150.
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  8. Todd A. Grantham & Shaun Nichols (1999). Evolutionary Psychology: Ultimate Explanations and Panglossian Predictions. In Valerie Gray Hardcastle (ed.), Where Biology Meets Psychology. MIT Press. 47--66.
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  9. Todd A. Grantham (1994). Putting the Cart Back Behind the Horse: Group Selection Does Not Require That Groups Be “Organisms”. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (4):622.
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  10. Todd A. Grantham (1993). Beyond “Individuality” and “Pluralism”: A Review of Ereshefsky'sunits of Evolution: Essays on the Nature of Species. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 8 (4):457-468.
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