33 found
Sort by:
  1. Yael Sela & Todd K. Shackelford (2014). The Myth of the Myth of Martyrdom. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 37 (4):376-377.
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  2. Mark G. McCoy & Todd K. Shackelford (2013). No Such Thing as Genuine Forgiveness? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 36 (1):28-29.
    McCullough et al. propose adaptations that motivate forgiveness when the potential benefits of continuing the relationship outweigh the costs incurred by the transgression. The costs incurred are definite, whereas future benefits of forgiveness are only probabilistic. This situation exposes the forgiver to cheating in the form of repeat transgression. Adaptations motivating genuine forgiveness are therefore unlikely to evolve.
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  3. Michael N. Pham & Todd K. Shackelford (2013). The Relationship Between Objective Sperm Competition Risk and Men's Copulatory Interest Is Moderated by Partner's Time Spent with Other Men. Human Nature 24 (4):476-485.
    Men who spend a greater proportion of time apart from their female partner since the couple’s last copulation are at greater “objective” sperm competition risk. We propose a novel cue to sperm competition risk: the time she spends with her male friends. Four hundred and twenty men in a committed, heterosexual, sexual relationship completed a questionnaire. The results indicate that men at greater objective sperm competition risk report less time desired until the couple’s next copulation, greater interest in copulating with (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  4. Emily J. Miner, Todd K. Shackelford, Carolyn Rebecca Block, Valerie G. Starratt & Viviana A. Weekes-Shackelford (2012). Risk of Death or Life-Threatening Injury for Women with Children Not Sired by the Abuser. Human Nature 23 (1):89-97.
    Women who are abused by their male intimate partners incur many costs, ranging in severity from fleeting physical pain to death. Previous research has linked the presence of children sired by a woman’s previous partner to increased risk of woman abuse and to increased risk of femicide. The current research extends this work by securing data from samples of 111 unabused women, 111 less severely abused women, 128 more severely abused women, and 26 victims of intimate partner femicide from the (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  5. Jaimie N. Wall, Todd K. Shackelford, Corey L. Fincher & Randy Thornhill (2012). Immigration, Parasitic Infection, and United States Religiosity. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 35 (2):97.
    Fincher & Thornhill (F&T) present a powerful case for the relationship between parasite-stress and religiosity. We argue, however, that the United States may be more religious than can be accounted for by parasite-stress. This greater religiosity might be attributable to greater sensitivity to immigration, which may hyperactivate evolved mechanisms that motivate avoidance of potential carriers of novel parasites.
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  6. Gregory Gorelik & Todd K. Shackelford (2011). Culture of Deception. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 34 (1):24-25.
    We examine the self-deceptive aspects of religion and nationalism. By embracing various religious or political ideals, regardless of their truth, our ancestors could have enhanced their confidence, solidified their social ties, and manipulated their reproductive rivals. This use of culture as one's extended phenotype may increase the spread of misinformation and create global webs of deception and self-deception.
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  7. Valerie G. Starratt & Todd K. Shackelford (2010). The Basic Components of the Human Mind Were Solidified During the Pleistocene Epoch. In Francisco José Ayala & Robert Arp (eds.), Contemporary Debates in Philosophy of Biology. Wiley-Blackwell Pub..
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  8. Judith A. Easton & Todd K. Shackelford (2009). Morbid Jealousy and Sex Differences in Partner-Directed Violence. Human Nature 20 (3):342-350.
    Previous research suggests that individuals diagnosed with morbid jealousy have jealousy mechanisms that are activated at lower thresholds than individuals with normal jealousy, but that these mechanisms produce behavior that is similar to individuals with normal jealousy. We extended previous research documenting these similarities by investigating sex differences in partner-directed violence committed by individuals diagnosed with morbid jealousy. The results support some of our predictions. For example, a greater percentage of men than women diagnosed with morbid jealousy used physical violence, (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  9. Farnaz Kaighobadi, Todd K. Shackelford & John Archer (2009). Suspicions of Female Infidelity Predict Men's Partner-Directed Violence. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 32 (3):281.
    Archer's argument regarding sex differences in partner violence rests on a general account of between-sex differences in reproductive strategies and in social roles. However, men's partner-directed violence often is predicted by perceived risk of female infidelity. We hypothesize that men's partner-directed violence is produced by psychological mechanisms evolved to solve the adaptive problem of paternity uncertainty.
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  10. James R. Liddle, Todd K. Shackelford, Ryan T. McKay & Daniel C. Dennett (2009). Are Beliefs the Proper Targets of Adaptationist Analyses? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 32 (6):528.
    McKay & Dennett's (M&D's) description of beliefs, and misbeliefs in particular, is a commendable contribution to the literature; but we argue that referring to beliefs as adaptive or maladaptive can cause conceptual confusion. is inconsistently defined in the article, which adds to confusion and renders it difficult to evaluate the claims, particularly the possibility of.
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  11. Achim Schützwohl, Amrei Fuchs, William F. McKibbin & Todd K. Shackelford (2009). How Willing Are You to Accept Sexual Requests From Slightly Unattractive to Exceptionally Attractive Imagined Requestors? Human Nature 20 (3):282-293.
    In their classic study of differences in mating strategies, Clark and Hatfield (1989, Journal of Psychology and Human Sexuality, 2, 39–54) found that men and women demonstrated a striking difference in interest in casual sex. The current study examined the role of an imagined requestor’s physical attractiveness (slightly unattractive, moderately attractive, and exceptionally attractive) on men’s and women’s willingness to accept three different requests (go out, come to apartment, go to bed) as reflected in answers to a questionnaire. We tested (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  12. Richard L. Michalski, Todd K. Shackelford & Catherine A. Salmon (2007). Upset in Response to a Sibling's Partner's Infidelities. Human Nature 18 (1):74-84.
    Using data collected from people with at least one brother and one sister, and consistent with an evolutionary perspective, we find that older men and women (a) are more upset by a brother’s partner’s sexual infidelity than by her emotional infidelity and (b) are more upset by a sister’s partner’s emotional infidelity than by his sexual infidelity. There were no effects of participant sex or sex of in-law on upset over a sibling’s partner’s infidelities, but there was an effect of (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  13. Judith A. Easton, Lucas D. Schipper & Todd K. Shackelford (2006). Why the Adaptationist Perspective Must Be Considered: The Example of Morbid Jealousy. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (4):411-412.
    We describe delusional disorder–jealous type (“morbid jealousy”) with the adaptationist perspective used by Darwinian psychiatrists and evolutionary psychologists to explain the relatively common existence and continued prevalence of mental disorders. We then apply the “harmful dysfunction” analysis to morbid jealousy, including a discussion of this disorder as (1) an end on a continuum of normal jealousy or (2) a discrete entity. (Published Online November 9 2006).
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  14. Aaron T. Goetz & Todd K. Shackelford (2006). Sexual Coercion and Forced in-Pair Copulation as Sperm Competition Tactics in Humans. Human Nature 17 (3):265-282.
    Rape of women by men might be generated either by a specialized rape adaptation or as a by-product of other psychological adaptations. Although increasing number of sexual partners is a proposed benefit of rape according to the “rape as an adaptation” and the “rape as a by-product” hypotheses, neither hypothesis addresses directly why some men rape their long-term partners, to whom they already have sexual access. In two studies we tested specific hypotheses derived from the general hypothesis that sexual coercion (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  15. Steven M. Platek, Todd K. Shackelford & Francis T. McAndrew (2006). Book Reviews-Female Infidelity and Paternal Uncertainty: Evolutionary Perspectives in Mel Anti-Cuckoldry Tactics. Journal of Mind and Behavior 27 (3):367.
    No categories
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  16. Lucas D. Schipper, Judith A. Easton & Todd K. Shackelford (2006). Morbid Jealousy as a Function of Fitness-Related Life-Cycle Dimensions. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (6):630-630.
    We suggest that morbid jealousy falls on the extreme end of a jealousy continuum. Thus, many features associated with normal jealousy will be present in individuals diagnosed with morbid jealousy. We apply Boyer & Lienard's (B&L's) prediction one (P1; target article, sect. 7.1) to morbid jealousy, suggesting that fitness-related life-cycle dimensions predict sensitivity to cues, and frequency, intensity, and content of intrusive thoughts of partner infidelity. (Published Online February 8 2007).
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  17. Todd K. Shackelford, Aaron T. Goetz, Faith E. Guta & David P. Schmitt (2006). Mate Guarding and Frequent in-Pair Copulation in Humans. Human Nature 17 (3):239-252.
    Cuckoldry is an adaptive problem faced by parentally investing males of socially monogamous species (e.g., humans and many avian species). Mate guarding and frequent in-pair copulation (IPC) may have evolved as anti-cuckoldry tactics in avian species and in humans. In some avian species, the tactics are used concurrently, with the result that mate guarding behaviors and IPC frequency are correlated positively. In other avian species, the tactics are compensatory, with the result that mate guarding behaviors and IPC frequency are correlated (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  18. Jesse M. Bering, Katrina McLeod & Todd K. Shackelford (2005). Reasoning About Dead Agents Reveals Possible Adaptive Trends. Human Nature 16 (4):360-381.
    No categories
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  19. Aaron T. Goetz & Todd K. Shackelford (2005). Sperm Competition Theory Offers Additional Insight Into Cultural Variation in Sexual Behavior. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (2):285-286.
    Schmitt recognized that research is needed to identify other factors associated with sex ratio and with sociosexuality that may explain cross-cultural variation in sexual behavior. One such factor may be the risk of sperm competition. Sperm competition theory may lead us to a more complete explanation of cultural variation in sexual behavior.
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  20. Richard L. Michalski & Todd K. Shackelford (2005). Grandparental Investment as a Function of Relational Uncertainty and Emotional Closeness with Parents. Human Nature 16 (3):293-305.
    No categories
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  21. Todd K. Shackelford (2005). Richard L. Michalski. Human Nature 16 (3):292-304.
    No categories
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  22. Jesse M. Bering & Todd K. Shackelford (2004). Supernatural Agents May Have Provided Adaptive Social Information. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (6):732-733.
    Atran & Norenzayan's (A&N's) target article effectively combines the insights of evolutionary biology and interdisciplinary cognitive science, neither of which alone yields sufficient explanatory power to help us fully understand the complexities of supernatural belief. Although the authors' ideas echo those of other researchers, they are perhaps the most squarely grounded in neo-Darwinian terms to date. Nevertheless, A&N overlook the possibility that the tendency to infer supernatural agents' communicative intent behind natural events served an ancestrally adaptive function.
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  23. Jesse M. Bering & Todd K. Shackelford (2004). The Causal Role of Consciousness: A Conceptual Addendum to Human Evolutionary Psychology. Review of General Psychology 8 (4):227-248.
  24. Todd K. Shackelford & Robin R. Vallacher (2004). From Disorder to Coherence in Social Psychology. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (3):356-356.
    Krueger & Funder (K&F) presuppose that the base rate for social cognition is more rational than is indicated by research, and that a focus on cognitive errors and behavioral shortcomings is responsible for the fragmented nature of social psychology. Insight concerning both issues is forthcoming from advances in evolutionary psychology and the adaptation of dynamical systems theory to social psychology.
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  25. Todd K. Shackelford, Martin Voracek, David P. Schmitt, David M. Buss, Viviana A. Weekes-Shackelford & Richard L. Michalski (2004). Romantic Jealousy in Early Adulthood and in Later Life. Human Nature 15 (3):283-300.
    Young men are more distressed by a partner’s sexual infidelity, whereas young women are more distressed by a partner’s emotional infidelity. The present research investigated (a) whether the sex difference in jealousy replicates in an older sample, and (b) whether younger people differ from older people in their selection of the more distressing infidelity scenario. We presented forced-choice dilemmas to 202 older people (mean age = 67 years) and to 234 younger people (mean age = 20 years). The sex difference (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  26. Craig W. LaMunyon & Todd K. Shackelford (2002). Evolutionary Analyses Should Include Pluralistic and Falsifiable Hypotheses. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (4):522-523.
    Andrews et al. attempt to clarify the standards for determining whether traits are adaptations. The authors argue that tests of adaptationist hypotheses best proceed by assessing the consistency of the traits with the proposed standards. Critical tests of such standards must assess inconsistency – hypotheses must be falsifiable. To fully understand trait evolution, we must consider both adaptive and nonadaptive hypotheses.
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  27. Todd K. Shackelford, David M. Buss & Kevin Bennett (2002). Forgiveness or Breakup: Sex Differences in Responses to a Partner's Infidelity. Cognition and Emotion 16 (2):299-307.
  28. Martin Voracek & Todd K. Shackelford (2002). An Evolutionary Theory of Pain Must Consider Sex Differences. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (4):474-475.
    According to Williams, human facially expressed pain, and its perception by conspecifics, is generated by evolved mechanisms. We argue that a key variable – sex (male, female) – needs to be considered for a complete theory of pain expression and perception. To illustrate, we cite findings on sex differences in pain and pain perception, and in crying and crying responsiveness.
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  29. Steven A. Hecht & Todd K. Shackelford (2001). Pure Short-Term Memory Capacity has Implications for Understanding Individual Differences in Math Skills. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (1):124-125.
    Future work is needed to establish that pure short-term memory is a coherent individual difference attribute that is separable from traditional compound short-term memory measures. Psychometric support for latent pure short-term memory capacity will provide an important starting point for future fine-grained analyses of the intrinsic factors that influence individual differences in math skills.
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  30. Todd K. Shackelford, Gregory J. LeBlanc & Elizabeth Drass (2000). Emotional Reactions to Infidelity. Cognition and Emotion 14 (5):643-659.
  31. Todd K. Shackelford, Gregory J. LeBlanc, Richard L. Michalski & Viviana A. Weekes (2000). Analyses of Mating Differences Within-Sex and Between-Sex Are Complementary, Not Competing. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (4):621-621.
    Analyses of between-sex differences have provided a powerful starting point for evolutionarily informed work on human sexuality. This early work set the stage for an evolutionary analysis of within-sex differences in human sexuality. A comprehensive theory of human sexual strategies must address both between-sex differences and within-sex differences in evolved psychology and manifest behavior.
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  32. Todd K. Shackelford & Viviana A. Weekes-Shackelford (2000). Threat Simulation, Dreams, and Domain-Specificity. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (6):1004-1004.
    According to Revonsuo, dreams are the output of a evolved “threat simulation mechanism.” The author marshals a diverse and comprehensive array of empirical and theoretical support for this hypothesis. We propose that the hypothesized threat simulation mechanism might be more domain-specific in design than the author implies. To illustrate, we discuss the possible sex-differentiated design of the hypothesized threat simulation mechanism. [Revonsuo].
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  33. Todd K. Shackelford, Viviana A. Weekes-Shackelford, Gregory J. LeBlanc, April L. Bleske, Harald A. Euler & Sabine Hoier (2000). Female Coital Orgasm and Male Attractiveness. Human Nature 11 (3):299-306.
    Female coital orgasm may be an adaptation for preferentially retaining the sperm of males with “good genes.” One indicator of good genes may be physical attractiveness. Accordingly, R. Thornhill, S. W. Gangestad, and R. Comer (1995) found that women mated to more attractive men reported an orgasm during a greater proportion of copulations than did women mated to less attractive men. The current research replicates this finding, with several design variations. We collected self-report data from 388 women residing in the (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation