48 found
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  1.  9
    Thomas Müller & Tomasz Placek (forthcoming). Defining Determinism. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science:axv049.
    The article puts forward a branching-style framework for the analysis of determinism and indeterminism of scientific theories, starting from the core idea that an indeterministic system is one whose present allows for more than one alternative possible future. We describe how a definition of determinism stated in terms of branching models supplements and improves current treatments of determinism of theories of physics. In these treatments, we identify three main approaches: one based on the study of equations, one based on mappings (...)
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  2.  42
    Leszek Wroński & Tomasz Placek (2009). On Minkowskian Branching Structures☆. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 40 (3):251-258.
    We introduce the notion of a Minkowskian Branching Structure ("MBS" for short). Then we prove some results concerning the phenomenon of funny business in its finitary and infinitary variants.
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  3.  7
    Tomasz Placek, Laplace's Demon Tries on Aristotle's Cloak: On Two Approaches to Determinism.
    The paper describes two approaches to determinism: one focuses on the features of global objects, such as possible worlds or models of a theory, whereas the other's concern is the possible behavior of individual objects. It then gives an outline of an individuals-based analysis of the determinism of theories. Finally, a general relativistic spacetime with non-isometric extensions is described and used to illustrate a conflict between the two approaches: this spacetime is indeterministic by the first approach but deterministic by the (...)
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  4.  54
    Tomasz Placek (2011). Possibilities Without Possible Worlds/Histories. Journal of Philosophical Logic 40 (6):737-765.
    The paper puts forward a theory of historical modalities that is framed in terms of possible continuations rather than possible worlds or histories. The proposal is tested as a semantic theory for a language with historical modalities, tenses, and indexicals.
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  5. Tomasz Placek (2000). Is Nature Deterministic? A Branching Perspective on Epr Phenomena.
     
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  6.  98
    Tomasz Placek (2000). Stochastic Outcomes in Branching Space-Time: Analysis of Bell's Theorem. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 51 (3):445-475.
    The paper extends the framework of outcomes in branching space-time (Kowalski and Placek [1999]) by assigning probabilities to outcomes of events, where these probabilities are interpreted either epistemically or as weighted possibilities. In resulting models I define the notion of common cause of correlated outcomes of a single event, and investigate which setups allow for the introduction of common causes. It turns out that a deterministic common cause can always be introduced, but (surprisingly) only special setups permit the introduction of (...)
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  7.  8
    Thomas Müller & Tomasz Placek, Defining Determinism.
    The paper puts forward a branching-style framework for the analysis of determinism and indeterminism of scientific theories, starting from the core idea that an indeterministic system is one whose present allows for more than one alternative possible future. We describe how a definition of determinism stated in terms of branching models supplements and improves current treatments of determinism of theories of physics. In these treatments we identify three main approaches: One based on the study of equations, one based on mappings (...)
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  8. Thomas Müller & Tomasz Placek (2001). Against a Minimalist Reading of Bell's Theorem: Lessons From Fine. Synthese 128 (3):343 - 379.
    Since the validity of Bell's inequalities implies the existence of joint probabilities for non-commuting observables, there is no universal consensus as to what the violation of these inequalities signifies. While the majority view is that the violation teaches us an important lesson about the possibility of explanations, if not about metaphysical issues, there is also a minimalist position claiming that the violation is to be expected from simple facts about probability theory. This minimalist position is backed by theorems due to (...)
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  9.  44
    Tomasz Placek & Leszek Wroński (2009). On Infinite Epr-Like Correlations. Synthese 167 (1):1 - 32.
    The paper investigates, in the framework of branching space–times, whether an infinite EPR-like correlation which does not involve finite EPR-like correlations is possible.
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  10.  24
    Tomasz Placek, Nuel Belnap & Kohei Kishida (2013). On Topological Issues of Indeterminism. Erkenntnis 79 (S3):1-34.
    Indeterminism, understood as a notion that an event may be continued in a few alternative ways, invokes the question what a region of chanciness looks like. We concern ourselves with its topological and spatiotemporal aspects, abstracting from the nature or mechanism of chancy processes. We first argue that the question arises in Montague-Lewis-Earman conceptualization of indeterminism as well as in the branching tradition of Prior, Thomason and Belnap. As the resources of the former school are not rich enough to study (...)
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  11.  49
    Tomasz Placek (2004). Quantum State Holism: A Case for Holistic Causation. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 35 (4):671-692.
  12.  18
    T. Kowalski & Tomasz Placek (1999). Outcomes in Branching Space-Time and GHZ-Bell Theorems. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 50 (3):349-375.
    The paper intends to provide an algebraic framework in which subluminal causation can be analysed. The framework merges Belnap's 'outcomes in branching time' with his 'branching space-time' (BST). it is shown that an important structure in BST, called 'family of outcomes of an event', is a boolean algebra. We define next non-stochastic common cause and analyse GHZ-Bell theorems. We prove that there is no common cause that accounts for results of GHZ-Bell experiment but construct common causes for two other quantum (...)
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  13.  64
    Tomasz Placek, Jacek Wawer & Leszek Wroński (2014). Causes and (in)Determinism. Erkenntnis 79 (S3):339-341.
    Introduction to a special issue of Erkenntnis.
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  14. J. Cachro & Tomasz Placek (2002). On Cartwright's Models for EPR. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 33 (3):413-433.
    We assess Cartwright's models for probabilistic causality and, in particular, her models for EPR-like experiments of quantum mechanics. Our first objection is that, contrary to econometric linear models, her quasi-linear models do not allow for the unique estimation of parameters. We next argue that although, as Cartwright proves, Reichenbach's screening-off condition has only limited validity, her generalized condition is not empirically applicable. Finally, we show that her models for the EPR are mathematically incorrect and physically implausible.
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  15.  89
    Tomasz Placek, A Locus for ``Now''.
    We investigate the concepts of past, present, and future that build upon a modal distinction between the settled past and the open future. The concepts are defined in terms of a pre-causal ordering and of qualitative differences between alternative histories. Finally, we look what an event's past, present, and future look like in the so-called Minkowskian Branching Structures, in which histories are isomorphic to Minkowski spacetime.
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  16.  64
    Leszek Wronski & Tomasz Placek (2009). On Infinite EPR-Like Correlations. Synthese 167 (1):1 - 32.
    The paper investigates, in the framework of branching space-times, whether an infinite EPR-like correlation which does not involve finite EPR-like correlations is possible.
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  17.  27
    Jacek Cachro & Tomasz Placek (2003). Cartwright's Models Are Not Adequate for EPR. In A. Rojszczak, J. Cachro & G. Kurczewski (eds.), Philosophical Dimensions of Logic and Science. Kluwer Academic Publishers 213--231.
    We assess Cartwright's models for probabilistic causality, and in particular, her models for EPR-like experiments of quantum mechanics. We show that her models for the EPR are mathematically incorrect and physically implausible. Finally, we argue that her models are not adequate for EPR-phenomena, since they ignore modal and spatiotemporal aspects inherent in their setup.
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  18.  4
    Tomasz Placek (2011). A Locus for “Now”. In Dennis Dieks, Wenceslao Gonzalo, Thomas Uebel, Stephan Hartmann & Marcel Weber (eds.), Explanation, Prediction, and Confirmation. Springer 395--410.
    We investigate the concepts of past, present, and future that build upon a modal distinction between the settled past and the open future. The concepts are defined in terms of a pre-causal ordering and of qualitative differences between alternative histories. Finally, we look what an event's past, present, and future look like in the so-called Minkowskian Branching Structures, in which histories are isomorphic to Minkowski spacetime.
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  19.  10
    Tomasz Placek (2002). Partial Indeterminism is Enough: A Branching Analysis of Bell-Type Inequalities. In T. Placek & J. Butterfield (eds.), Non-Locality and Modality. Kluwer 317--342.
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  20.  7
    Tomasz Placek, Branching for General Relativists.
    The paper develops a theory of branching spatiotemporal histories that accommodates indeterminism and the insights of general relativity. A model of this theory can be viewed as a collection of overlapping histories, where histories are defined as maximal consistent subsets of the model's base set. Subsequently, generalized manifolds are constructed on the theory's models, and the manifold topology is introduced. The set of histories in a model turns out to be identical with the set of maximal subsets of the model's (...)
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  21.  7
    Tomasz Placek, On Attempting.
    The paper analyses the notion of attempting in the formal framework of stit.
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  22.  7
    Tomasz Placek & Leszek Wroński, Separate Common Causes and EPR Correlations---A No-Go Result.
    One diagnosis of Bell's theorem is that its premise of Outcome Independence is unreasonably strong, as it postulates one common screener system that purports to explain all the correlations involved. This poses a challenge of constructing a model for quantum correlations that is local, non-conspiratorial, and has many separate screener systems rather than one common screener system. In particular, the assumptions of such models should not entail Bell's inequalities. We prove that the models described do not exist, and hence, the (...)
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  23.  47
    Tomasz Placek, On Propensity-Frequentist Models for Stochastic Phenomena; with Applications to Bell's Theorem.
    The paper develops models of statistical experiments that combine propensities with frequencies, the underlying theory being the branching space-times (BST) of Belnap (1992). The models are then applied to analyze Bell's theorem. We prove the so-called Bell-CH inequality via the assumptions of a BST version of Outcome Independence and of (non-probabilistic) No Conspiracy. Notably, neither the condition of probabilistic No Conspiracy nor the condition of Parameter Independence is needed in the proof. As the Bell-CH inequality is most likely experimentally falsified, (...)
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  24. Tomasz Placek & Leszek Wroński (2009). On Infinite EPR-Like Correlations. Synthese 167 (1):1-32.
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  25. Tomasz Placek & Thomas Müller (2007). Counterfactuals and Historical Possibility. Synthese 154 (2):173-197.
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  26.  9
    Tomasz Placek, Comparative Similarity in Branching Space-Times.
    My aim in this paper is to investigate the notions of comparative similarity definable in the framework of branching space-times. A notion of this kind is required to give a rigorous Lewis-style semantics of space-time counterfactuals, which is the task undertaken by Thomas Muller (PITT-PHIL-SCI00000509, this archive). In turn, the semantical analysis is needed to decide whether the recently proposed proofs of the non-locality of quantum mechanics are correct. From among the three notions of comparative similarity I select two which (...)
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  27.  18
    Tomasz Placek (2012). On Individuals in Branching Histories. Synthese 188 (1):23-39.
    Against the background of the theory of branching space-times (BST), the paper sketches a concept of individuals. It discusses Kripkean modal intuitions concerning individuation, and, finally it addresses Lewis’s objections to branching individuals.
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  28.  3
    Tomasz Placek (2014). Vienna Circle on Determinism. Vienna Circle Institute Yearbook 17:183-195.
    Members of Vienna Circle explicated determinism in terms of predictability in principle, or calculability. This paper attempts to uncover the rationale for this explication. It argues that the explication was an attempt to escape trivialization arguments; another important factor was the Circle’s views on meaning as testability.
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  29.  11
    Tomasz Placek & Thomas Müller (2007). Branching Space-Times. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 38 (3):590-592.
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  30.  4
    Tomasz Placek (1994). Against Straightforward Anti-Realism. In Jan Wolenski (ed.), Philosophical Logic in Poland. Kluwer 199--211.
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  31.  4
    Tomasz Placek (2003). Charting the Labyrinth of Bell-Type Theorems. Logic and Logical Philosophy 5:93-120.
    The objective of the paper is to present a comprehensive picture of Bell-type theorems, by giving both the theorems and the proofs of them.Special care is given to specifying the assumptions of the arguments and their physical or metaphysical significance. Taking the EPR argument as a point of departure, the paper discusses four probabilitic Bell-type theorems,which are then followed by two versions on non-probailitic (GHZ) arguments.The final section provides the reader with a classification of the assumptions, which specifies which assumption (...)
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  32.  4
    Tomasz Placek (2003). On Brouwer's Criticism of Classical Logic and Mathematics. Logic and Logical Philosophy 5:19-33.
    The aim of this paper is to reconstruct Brouwer’s justification for the intuitionistic revision of logic and mathematics. It is attempted to show that pivotal premisses of his argument are supplied by his philosophy. To this end, the basic tenets of his philosophical doctrine are discussed: the concepts of mind, causal attention, intuition of two-ity and his repudiation of realism.The restriction of intuitionistically allowable objects to spreads and species is traced back to Brouwer’s concept of intuition that is a defining (...)
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  33.  9
    Tomasz Placek (2002). A Philosopher's Understanding of Quantum Mechanics. Possibilities and Impossibilities of a Modal Interpretation - Pieter Vermaas, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1999, Pp. XI+295, US $69.95 Hardback, ISBN 0521651085. [REVIEW] Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 33 (4):739-744.
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  34.  1
    Tomasz Placek (2006). A Puzzle About Semantic Determinism1 Àukasiewicz's “on Determinism” Years Later. In J. Jadacki & J. Pasniczek (eds.), Poznan Studies in the Philosophy of the Sciences and the Humanities. Reidel 6--171.
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  35.  1
    Tomasz Placek (1998). Łukasiewicz's Logical Probability and a Puzzle About Conditionalization. In Katarzyna Kijania-Placek & Jan Woleński (eds.), The Lvov-Warsaw School and Contemporary Philosophy. Kluwer Academic Publishers 337--340.
  36. Jacek Cachro & Tomasz Placek (2002). On Cartwright's Models for EPR. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 33 (3):413-433.
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  37. Leon Horsten & Tomasz Placek (2002). Mathematical Intuitionism and Intersubjectivity. A Critical Exposition of Arguments for Intuitionism. Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 8 (4):518.
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  38. Piotr Lipski, Tomasz Placek & Jacek Wawer (2008). Realne Możliwości a Modalna Demokracja. Przeglad Filozoficzny - Nowa Seria 66.
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  39. Thomas Müller & Tomasz Placek (2004). Against a Minimalist Reading of Bell's Theorem: Lessons From Fine. Synthese 128 (3):343-379.
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  40. Tomasz Placek & Thomas Müller (2007). Branching Space-Times. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 38 (3):590-592.
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  41. Tomasz Placek (1999). Mathematical Intuitionism and Intersubjectivity a Critical Exposition of Arguments for Intuitionism. Association for Symbolic Logic.
     
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  42. Tomasz Placek (2008). O Indywiduach W Światach Możliwych. Przeglad Filozoficzny - Nowa Seria 66.
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  43. Tomasz Placek (1997). Obserwacja kota Schrödingera i dekoherencji. Przeglad Filozoficzny - Nowa Seria 22 (2):27-44.
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  44. Tomasz Placek (1997). Paradoksy ruchu Zenona z Elei a labirynt kontinuum: „Achilles i żółw”, „Strzała”, „Stadion”. Filozofia Nauki 1 (17):65-77.
    In the article three Zeno's paradoxes are reconstructed. They are: „Achilles and the turtle”, „Arrow” and „Stadium”. Together with the paradox of „Dichotomy” (which was analysed by the author elsewhere) they form the question about the nature of continuum. In the paper the following hypothesis is accepted: „Dichotomy” is principally connected with the mathematical theory of continuum, whereas other paradoxes concern the application of this theory to the description of physical motion.
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  45. Tomasz Placek (1989). Paradoksy ruchu Zenona z Elei a problem \"continuum\". Dychotomia. Studia Filozoficzne 281 (4):57-73.
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  46. Tomasz Placek (2004). Quantum State Holism: A Case for Holistic Causation. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 35 (4):671-692.
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  47. Tomasz Placek (1991). Sposoby istnienia w czasie według R. Ingardena i A. N. Whitheada. Principia 3.
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  48. Leszek Wroński & Tomasz Placek (2009). On Minkowskian Branching Structures. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 40 (3):251-258.
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