Search results for 'Tomography' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  13
    Howard Barnum & Alexander Wilce (2014). Local Tomography and the Jordan Structure of Quantum Theory. Foundations of Physics 44 (2):192-212.
    Using a result of H. Hanche-Olsen, we show that (subject to fairly natural constraints on what constitutes a system, and on what constitutes a composite system), orthodox finite-dimensional complex quantum mechanics with superselection rules is the only non-signaling probabilistic theory in which (i) individual systems are Jordan algebras (equivalently, their cones of unnormalized states are homogeneous and self-dual), (ii) composites are locally tomographic (meaning that states are determined by the joint probabilities they assign to measurement outcomes on the component systems) (...)
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  2.  30
    Mark Sherer, Tessa Hart, John Whyte, Toad G. Nick & Stuart A. Yablon (2005). Neuroanatomic Basis of Impaired Self-Awareness After Traumatic Brain Injury: Findings From Early Computed Tomography. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation. Special Issue 20 (4):287-300.
  3.  11
    C. Carmeli, G. Cassinelli & F. Zizzi (2009). Generalized Orthogonality Relations and SU(1,1)-Quantum Tomography. Foundations of Physics 39 (6):521-549.
    We present a mathematically precise derivation of some generalized orthogonality relations for the discrete series representations of SU(1,1). These orthogonality relations are applied to derive tomographical reconstruction formulas. Their physical interpretation is also discussed.
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  4.  56
    V. I. Man'ko (1998). Dynamical Symmetries and Tomography. Foundations of Physics 28 (3):429-438.
    The notion of dynamical symmetry is discussed in the framework of the symplectic tomography scheme for the harmonic oscillator. The stationary states are shown to appear as solutions to eigenvalue equation for “classical” probabilities. All the probabilities describing the energy levels are constructed using dynamical-symmetry operators.
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  5.  46
    Stefano Mancini, Vladimir I. Man'ko & Paolo Tombest (1997). Classical-Like Description of Quantum Dynamics by Means of Symplectic Tomography. Foundations of Physics 27 (6):801-824.
    The dynamical equations of quantum mechanics are rewritten in the form of dynamical equations for the measurable, positive marginal distribution of the shifted, rotated, and squeezed quadrature introduced in the so-called “symplectic tomography”. Then the possibility of a purely classical description of a quantum system as well as a reinterpretation of the quantum measurement theory is discussed and a comparison with the well-known quasi-probabilities approach is given. Furthermore, an analysis of the properties of this marginal distribution, which contains all (...)
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  6.  15
    Kathrin Friedrich (2010). 'Sehkollektiv': Sight Styles in Diagnostic Computed Tomography. [REVIEW] Medicine Studies 2 (3):185-195.
    This paper aims to trace individual as well as collective aspects of ‘sight styles’ in diagnostic computed tomography. Radiologists need to efficiently translate the visualized data from the living human body into a reliable and significant diagnosis. During this process, their visual thinking and the created images are incorporated into a complex network of other visualizations, communication strategies, professional traditions, and (tacit) visual knowledge. To investigate the interplay of collective as well as individual dimensions of diagnostic seeing, the concept (...)
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  7.  11
    N. Galldiks, A. Thiel, C. Haense, G. R. Fink & R. Hilker (2008). 11 C-Flumazenil Positron Emission Tomography Demonstrates Reduction of Both Global and Local Cerebral Benzodiazepine Receptor Binding in a Patient with Stiff Person Syndrome. Journal of Neurology 255 (9).
    Stiff Person Syndrome is a rare autoimmune disorder associated with antibodies against glutamic acid decarboxylase, the key enzyme in γ -aminobutyric acid synthesis. In order to investigate the role of cerebral benzodiazepinereceptor binding in SPS, we performed [ 11 C]flumazenil positron emission tomography in a female patient with SPS compared to nine healthy controls. FMZ is a radioligand to the postsynaptic central benzodiazepine receptor which is co-localized with the GABA-A receptor. In the SPS patient, we found a global reduction (...)
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  8.  7
    Ilkka Niiniluoto (2011). Abduction, Tomography, and Other Inverse Problems. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 42 (1):135-139.
    Charles S. Peirce introduced in the late 19th century the notion of abduction as inference from effects to causes, or from observational data to explanatory theories. Abductive reasoning has become a major theme in contemporary logic, philosophy of science, and artificial intelligence. This paper argues that the new growing branch of applied mathematics called inverse problems deals successfully with various kinds of abductive inference within a variety of scientific disciplines. The fundamental theorem about the inverse reconstruction of plane functions from (...)
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  9.  8
    Dirk Marwede & James Matthew Fielding (2007). Entities and Relations in Medical Imaging: An Analysis of Computed Tomography Reporting. Applied Ontology 2 (1):67-79.
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  10.  1
    E. Reiman, R. Lane, G. Ahern, R. Davidson & G. Schwartz (2000). Positron Emission Tomography in the Study of Emotion, Anxiety and Anxiety Disorders. In Richard D. R. Lane, L. Nadel, G. L. Ahern, J. Allen & Alfred W. Kaszniak (eds.), Cognitive Neuroscience of Emotion. Oxford University Press
  11.  3
    Neal Cutler & Prem Narang (1988). Alzheimer's Disease, Dementia and Down Syndrome: An Evaluation Using Positron Emmissions Tomography. Journal of Mind and Behavior 9 (3).
  12.  2
    N. Hema Rajini & R. Bhavani (2014). Automatic Classification of Computed Tomography Brain Images Using ANN, K-NN and SVM. AI and Society 29 (1):97-102.
  13.  2
    Gerry McDermott, Douglas M. Fox, Lindsay Epperly, Modi Wetzler, Annelise E. Barron, Mark A. Le Gros & Carolyn A. Larabell (2012). Visualizing and Quantifying Cell Phenotype Using Soft X‐Ray Tomography. Bioessays 34 (4):320-327.
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  14.  1
    Barry Snow (1993). Seeing Yourself Think Exploring Brain Functional Anatomy with Positron Emission Tomography (1991). By D. J. Chadwick and J. Whelan. Ciba Foundation Symposium 163 (Ed. R. Porter). John Wiley and Sons, Chichester. Pp. Ix+287. £43.50. ISBN 0‐471‐92970‐0. [REVIEW] Bioessays 15 (7):496-497.
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  15.  1
    S. J. Gibowicz (1999). Seismic Tomography, Earth's Inner Core, and Earthquake Source Mechanism. Dialogue and Universalism 9:8-11.
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  16.  1
    L. R. Tancredi & N. D. Volkow (1992). A Theory of the Mind/Brain Dichotomy with Special Reference to the Contribution of Positron Emission Tomography. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 35 (4):549.
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  17. George Goldenberg, Ivo Podreka & Margarete Steiner (1990). The Cerebral Localization of Visual Imagery: Evidence From Emission Computerized Tomography of Cerebral Blood Flow. In P. J. Hampson, D. F. Marks & Janet Richardson (eds.), Imagery: Current Developments. Routledge
     
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  18. S. H. Kienle, M. Freyberger, W. P. Schleich & M. G. Raymer (forthcoming). Quantum Beam Tomography. Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science.
     
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  19. M. E. Phelps (1991). The Evolution of Positron Emission Tomography. In P. Corsi (ed.), The Enchanted Loom: Chapters in the History of Neuroscience. Oxford University Press
  20. E. M. Reiman, Richard D. R. Lane, G. L. Ahern & Gary E. Schwartz (1996). Positron Emission Tomography, Emotion, and Consciousness. In S. Hamreoff, Alfred W. Kaszniak & A. C. Scott (eds.), Toward a Science of Consciousness. MIT Press
     
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  21. Herbert Rinneberg (1995). Scattering of Laser Light in Turbid Media: Optical Tomography for Medical Diagnostics? In Heinz Lübbig (ed.), The Inverse Problem. Akademie Verlag Und Vch Weinheim 107--141.
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  22. Sm Stahl, R. Moratalla & Ng Bowery (1988). Neurotransmitter Receptor Imaging in Living Human-Brain with Positron Emission Tomography. Journal of Mind and Behavior 9 (3):367-384.
     
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  23. Joseph C. Wu, Benjamin V. Siegel, Richard J. Haier & Monte S. Buchsbaum (1990). Testing the Swerdlow/Koob Model of Schizophrena Pathophysiology Using Positron Emission Tomography. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 13 (1):168-170.
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  24.  85
    Yuji Hasegawa (2012). Entanglement Between Degrees of Freedom in a Single-Particle System Revealed in Neutron Interferometry. Foundations of Physics 42 (1):29-45.
    Initially Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen (EPR) and later Bell shed light on the non-local properties exhibited by subsystems in quantum mechanics. Separately, Kochen and Specker analyzed sets of measurements of compatible observables and found that a consistent coexistence of these results is impossible, i.e., quantum indefiniteness of measurement results. As a consequence, quantum contextuality, a more general concept compared to non-locality, leads to striking phenomena predicted by quantum theory. Here, we report neutron interferometric experiments which investigate entangled states in a (...)
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  25.  41
    Pekka Lahti & Juha-Pekka Pellonpää (2010). On the Complementarity of the Quadrature Observables. Foundations of Physics 40 (9-10):1419-1428.
    In this paper we investigate the coupling properties of pairs of quadrature observables, showing that, apart from the Weyl relation, they share the same coupling properties as the position-momentum pair. In particular, they are complementary. We determine the marginal observables of a covariant phase space observable with respect to an arbitrary rotated reference frame, and observe that these marginal observables are unsharp quadrature observables. The related distributions constitute the Radon transform of a phase space distribution of the covariant phase space (...)
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  26.  40
    Lucien Hardy & William K. Wootters (2012). Limited Holism and Real-Vector-Space Quantum Theory. Foundations of Physics 42 (3):454-473.
    Quantum theory has the property of “local tomography”: the state of any composite system can be reconstructed from the statistics of measurements on the individual components. In this respect the holism of quantum theory is limited. We consider in this paper a class of theories more holistic than quantum theory in that they are constrained only by “bilocal tomography”: the state of any composite system is determined by the statistics of measurements on pairs of components. Under a few (...)
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  27.  16
    Russell A. Poldrack (2006). Can Cognitive Processes Be Inferred From Neuroimaging Data? Trends in Cognitive Sciences 10 (2):59-63.
  28. Bernard J. Baars (2002). The Conscious Access Hypothesis: Origins and Recent Evidence. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 6 (1):47-52.
  29.  10
    G. Northoff & F. Bermpohl (2004). Cortical Midline Structures and the Self. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 8 (3):102-107.
  30.  4
    P. C. Fletcher, F. Happé, U. Frith, S. C. Baker, R. J. Dolan, R. S. Frackowiak & C. D. Frith (1995). Other Minds in the Brain: A Functional Imaging Study of "Theory of Mind" in Story Comprehension. Cognition 57 (2):109-128.
  31.  8
    H. Damasio, D. Tranel, T. Grabowski, R. Adolphs & A. Damasio (2003). Neural Systems Behind Word and Concept Retrieval. Cognition 92 (1-2):179-229.
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  32.  29
    Debra A. Gusnard (2005). Being a Self: Considerations From Functional Imaging. Consciousness and Cognition 14 (4):679-697.
    Having a self is associated with important advantages for an organism.These advantages have been suggested to include mechanisms supporting elaborate capacities for planning, decision-making, and behavioral control. Acknowledging such functionality offers possibilities for obtaining traction on investigation of neural correlates of selfhood. A method that has potential for investigating some of the brain-based properties of self arising in behavioral contexts varying in requirements for such behavioral guidance and control is functional brain imaging. Data obtained with this method are beginning to (...)
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  33.  52
    Georg Northoff, Pengmin Qin & Todd E. Feinberg (2011). Brain Imaging of the Self–Conceptual, Anatomical and Methodological Issues. Consciousness and Cognition 20 (1):52–63.
    In this paper we consider two major issues: conceptual–experimental approaches to the self, and the neuroanatomical substrate of the self. We distinguish content- and processed-based concepts of the self that entail different experimental strategies, and anatomically, we investigate the concept of midline structures in further detail and present a novel view on the anatomy of an integrated subcortical–cortical midline system. Presenting meta-analytic evidence, we show that the anterior paralimbic, e.g. midline, regions do indeed seem to be specific for self-specific stimuli. (...)
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  34.  37
    Cozmin Ududec, Howard Barnum & Joseph Emerson (2011). Three Slit Experiments and the Structure of Quantum Theory. Foundations of Physics 41 (3):396-405.
    In spite of the interference manifested in the double-slit experiment, quantum theory predicts that a measure of interference defined by Sorkin and involving various outcome probabilities from an experiment with three slits, is identically zero. We adapt Sorkin’s measure into a general operational probabilistic framework for physical theories, and then study its relationship to the structure of quantum theory. In particular, we characterize the class of probabilistic theories for which the interference measure is zero as ones in which it is (...)
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  35.  16
    Anthony Randal McIntosh, M. Natasha Rajah & Nancy J. Lobaugh (2003). Functional Connectivity of the Medial Temporal Lobe Relates to Learning and Awareness. Journal of Neuroscience 23 (16):6520-6528.
  36.  80
    Arthur I. Miller (2007). Unconscious Thought, Intuition, and Visual Imagery: A Critique of "Working Memory, Cerebellum, and Creativity". Creativity Research Journal 19 (1):47-48.
  37.  44
    Joseph J. Fins & F. Plum (2004). Neurological Diagnosis is More Than a State of Mind: Diagnostic Clarity and Impaired Consciousness. Archives of Neurology 61 (9):1354-1355.
  38.  19
    Steven T. Flammia, Andrew Silberfarb & Carlton M. Caves (2005). Minimal Informationally Complete Measurements for Pure States. Foundations of Physics 35 (12):1985-2006.
  39.  22
    T. W. Kjaer, M. Nowak, K. W. Kjaer, A. R. Lou & H. C. Lou (2001). Precuneus-Prefrontal Activity During Awareness of Visual Verbal Stimuli. Consciousness and Cognition 10 (3):356-365.
    Awareness is a personal experience, which is only accessible to the rest of world through interpretation. We set out to identify a neural correlate of visual awareness, using brief subliminal and supraliminal verbal stimuli while measuring cerebral blood flow distribution with H215O PET. Awareness of visual verbal stimuli differentially activated medial parietal association cortex (precuneus), which is a polymodal sensory cortex, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, which is thought to be primarily executive. Our results suggest participation of these higher order perceptual (...)
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  40.  21
    Antti Revonsuo (2001). Discovering the Mechanisms of Consciousness: Reply to Commentaries. Journal of Consciousness Studies 8 (3):44-50.
    The empirical exploration of the neural mechanisms of consciousness is undoubtedly going to be one of the most central lines of research in the scientific study of consciousness. Therefore, it is important for the researchers involved in these studies to have a clear idea of the phenomenon they are searching for and of the capabilities of the methods they are using to accomplish the task. The main point of my paper ‘Can functional brain imaging discover consciousness in the brain?’ was (...)
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  41.  3
    Robert Chambers & Tigran Melkonyan (2008). Eliciting Beliefs. Theory and Decision 65 (4):271-284.
    We develop an algorithm that can be used to approximate a decisionmaker’s beliefs for a class of preference structures that includes, among others, α-maximin expected utility preferences, Choquet expected utility preferences, and, more generally, constant additive preferences. For both exact and statistical approximation, we demonstrate convergence in an appropriate sense to the true belief structure.
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  42. Christopher D. Frith (2001). Commentary on Revonsuo's Can Functional Brain Imaging Discover Consciousness in the Brain?. Journal of Consciousness Studies 8 (3):30.
    Antti Revonsuo has given us an engaging and deliberately provocative paper discussing the value of brain imaging in the search for the neural basis of consciousness. In some places, however, his enthusiasm for the controversial nature of the topic has led him to overstate or misdirect his case.
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  43.  28
    Bernard J. Baars (2001). How Could Brain Imaging Not Tell Us About Consciousness? Journal of Consciousness Studies 8 (3):24-29.
    Revonsuo argues that current brain imaging methods do not allow us to ‘discover’ consciousness. While all observational methods in science have limitations, consciousness is such a massive and pervasive phenomenon that we cannot fail to observe its effects at every level of brain organization: molecular, cellular, electrical, anatomical, metabolic, and even the ‘higher levels of electrophysiological organization that are crucial for the empirical discovery and theoretical explanation of consciousness’ . Indeed, the first major discovery in that respect was Hans Berger's (...)
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  44.  5
    Mélanie Boly, Marie-Elisabeth Faymonville, Brent A. Vogt, Pierre Maquet & Steven Laureys (2007). Hypnotic Regulation of Consciousness and the Pain Neuromatrix. In Graham A. Jamieson (ed.), Hypnosis and Conscious States: The Cognitive Neuroscience Perspective. Oxford University Press 15-27.
  45. Michael I. Posner & Marcus E. Raichle (1995). Précis of Images of Mind. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (2):327.
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  46.  4
    Geraint Rees (2001). Can Philosophy Discover Consciousness in the Brain? Commentary on Revonsuo's Can Functional Brain Imaging Discover Consciousness in the Brain?. Journal of Consciousness Studies 8 (3):34-38.
    Revonsuo makes a provocative and interesting claim: that currently available neurophysiological recording techniques will be unable to discover the neural basis of consciousness in the brain. Although the title refers exclusively to functional brain imaging, Revonsuo considers MEG, EEG, ERP and measurements of firing rate in single cell electrophysiology all in principle incapable of discovering consciousness in the brain. This conclusion is reached by assuming that only one particular type of physical entity constitutes awareness.
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  47.  12
    John G. Taylor (2001). Functional Brain Imaging to Search for Consciousness Needs Attention. Journal of Consciousness Studies 8 (3):39-43.
    The approach of Revonsuo is criticised as being based on a misplaced emphasis on coupled oscillatory dynamics, as well as on too limited an approach to recent advances in brain imaging. This results in the nature of attention as a basic component in consciousness being ignored, and prevents any attempt to attack the crucial problem for consciousness of inner experience: of ‘what it is like to be’.
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  48. James F. Burke, Douglas J. Gelb, Douglas J. Quint, Lewis B. Morgenstern & Kevin A. Kerber (2013). The Impact of MRI on Stroke Management and Outcomes: A Systematic Review. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 19 (6):987-993.
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  49. Mårten Söderberg, Johan Brohult, Lennart Jorfeldt & Gerd Lärfars (2009). The Use of D‐Dimer Testing and Wells Score in Patients with High Probability for Acute Pulmonary Embolism. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 15 (1):129-133.
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  50.  24
    Rex E. Jung & Richard J. Haier (2007). The Parieto-Frontal Integration Theory (P-FIT) of Intelligence: Converging Neuroimaging Evidence. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 30 (2):135-154.
    Here we review 37 modern neuroimaging studies in an attempt to address this question posed by Halstead (1947) as he and other icons of the last century endeavored to understand how brain and behavior are linked through the expression of intelligence and reason. Reviewing studies from functional (i.e., functional magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography) and structural (i.e., magnetic resonance spectroscopy, diffusion tensor imaging, voxel-based morphometry) neuroimaging paradigms, we report a striking consensus suggesting that variations in a distributed network (...)
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