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  1. Tongdong Bai (2012). China: The Political Philosophy of the Middle Kingdom. Zed Books.
    But what is the message of China's rise as an economic and political power? Tongdong Bai addresses this pressing question by examining the history of political theories and practices from China's past, and showing how it impacts upon the present. Chinese political traditions are often viewed as "authoritarian" (in contrast with "Western" democratic traditions), but the historical reality is much more complex and there is a need to understand the political values shaping China. Bai argues that the debates between China's (...)
     
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  2. Tongdong Bai (2012). Philosophy of China. In Gerald F. Gaus & Fred D'Agostino (eds.), The Routledge Companion to Social and Political Philosophy. Routledge. 181.
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  3. Tongdong Bai (2011). Preliminary Remarks: Han Fei Zi—First Modern Political Philosopher? Journal of Chinese Philosophy 38 (1):4-13.
  4. Tongdong Bai (2010). Guest Editor's Words. Synthese 175 (1):1-2.
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  5. Tongdong Bai (2010). What to Do in an Unjust State?: On Confucius's and Socrates's Views on Political Duty. [REVIEW] Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 9 (4):375-390.
    Confucius argued for the centrality of the superior man’s political duty to his fellow human beings and to the state, while Socrates suggested that the superior man (the philosopher) may have no such political duty. However, Confucius also suggested that one not enter or stay—let alone save—a troubled state, while Socrates stayed in an unjust state, apparently fulfilling his political duty to the state by accepting an unjust verdict. In this essay, I will try to show how Confucius could solve (...)
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  6. Yi Jiang & Tongdong Bai (2010). Studies in Analytic Philosophy in China. Synthese 175 (1):3 - 12.
    This essay explores the history of studies in analytical philosophy in China since the beginning of the last century, by dividing into three phases. It shows that, in these phases, analytic philosophy was always at a disadvantage in confronting serious challenges coming from both Chinese traditional philosophy and modern philosophical trends. The authors argue that Chinese philosophers have both done preliminary studies and offered their own analyses of various problems as well as some new applications of analytic philosophy (...)
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  7. Tongdong Bai (2009). How to Rule Without Taking Unnatural Actions (无为而治): A Comparative Study of the Political Philosophy of the Laozi. Philosophy East and West 59 (4):pp. 481-502.
    In this essay, the understanding of naturalness and of ruling without taking unnatural actions in the "Laozi" will be clarified and elaborated on, and it will be argued that the "Laozi" offers a theoretically adequate and realistic proposal to address both the problems of its times and some of the problems of modernity.
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  8. Tongdong Bai (2009). The Price of Serving Meat—on Confucius's and Mencius's Views of Human and Animal Rights. Asian Philosophy 19 (1):85 – 99.
    The apparent conflict between some fundamental ideas of Confucianism and of rights seems to render Confucianism incompatible with rights. I will illustrate the general strategies, based upon an insight of the later Rawls, to solve the incompatibility problem. I will then show how these strategies can help us to develop a Confucian account of animal rights, which, by way of example, demonstrates how Confucianism can endorse and develop unique and constructive accounts of most rights that are commonly recognized today.
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  9. Tongdong Bai (2008). A Mencian Version of Limited Democracy. Res Publica 14 (1):19-34.
    The compatibility between Western democracy and other cultures, and the desirability of democracy, are two important problems in democratic theory. Following an insight from John Rawls’s later philosophy, and using some key passages in Mencius, I will show the compatibility between a ‘thin’ version of liberal democracy and Confucianism. Moreover, elaborating on Mencius’s ideas of the responsibility of government for the physical and moral well-being of the people, the respectability of the government and the ruling elite, and the competence-based limited (...)
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  10. Tongdong Bai (2008). An Ontological Interpretation of You (Something) (有) and Wu (Nothing) (无) in the Laozi. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 35 (2):339-351.
  11. Tongdong Bai (2008). Back to Confucius: A Comment on the Debate on the Confucian Idea of Consanguineous Affection. Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 7 (1):27-33.
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  12. Tongdong Bai (2007). Daniel Bell, Beyond Liberal Democracy: Political Thinking for an East Asian Context:Beyond Liberal Democracy: Political Thinking for an East Asian Context. Ethics 117 (4):739-742.
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