Search results for 'Torture' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Uwe Steinhoff (2006). Torture — the Case for Dirty Harry and Against Alan Dershowitz. Journal of Applied Philosophy 23 (3):337–353.score: 24.0
    Can torture be morally justified? I shall criticise arguments that have been adduced against torture and demonstrate that torture can be justified more easily than most philosophers dealing with the question are prepared to admit. It can be justified not only in ticking nuclear bomb cases but also in less spectacular ticking bomb cases and even in the socalled Dirty Harry cases. There is no morally relevant difference between self-defensive killing. of a culpable aggressor and torturing someone (...)
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  2. Andreas Maier (forthcoming). Torture. How Denying Moral Standing Violates Human Dignity. In Webster Elaine & Kaufmann Paulus (eds.), Violations of Human Dignity. Springer.score: 24.0
    In this article I try to elucidate the concept of human dignity by taking a closer look at the features of a paradigmatic torture situation. After identifying the salient aspects of torture, I discuss various accounts for the moral wrongness of such acts and argue that what makes torture a violation of human dignity is the perverted moral relationship between torturer and victim. This idea is subsequently being substantiated and defended against important objections. In the final part (...)
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  3. Jean Maria Arrigo (2004). A Utilitarian Argument Against Torture Interrogation of Terrorists. Science and Engineering Ethics 10 (3):543-572.score: 24.0
    Following the September 2001 terrorist attacks on the United States, much support for torture interrogation of terrorists has emerged in the public forum, largely based on the “ticking bomb” scenario. Although deontological and virtue ethics provide incisive arguments against torture, they do not speak directly to scientists and government officials responsible for national security in a utilitarian framework. Drawing from criminology, organizational theory, social psychology, the historical record, and my interviews with military professionals, I assess the potential of (...)
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  4. Jessica Wolfendale (2007). Torture and the Military Profession. Palgrave Macmillan.score: 24.0
    The military claims to be an honourable profession, yet military torture is widespread. Why is the military violating its own values? Jessica Wolfendale argues that the prevalence of military torture is linked to military training methods that cultivate the psychological dispositions connected to crimes of obedience. While these methods are used, the military has no credible claim to professional status. Combating torture requires that we radically rethink the nature of the military profession and military training.
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  5. Paul Lauritzen (2010). Torture Warrants and Democratic States: Dirty Hands in an Age of Terror. Journal of Religious Ethics 38 (1):93-112.score: 24.0
    In the aftermath of September 11, 2001, policy makers and others have debated the question of whether or not the United States should torture in an effort to prevent terrorist attacks. In a series of controversial essays, the legal theorist Alan Dershowitz argues that, if a democratic society is going to torture, it should at least be done under the cover of law. To that end, he recommends establishing a legal mechanism by which a judge could issue (...) warrants—much as they do now for search warrants. In this essay, I examine Dershowitz's proposal in light of Michael Walzer's classic essay on dirty hands. Just as Walzer uses political theater as a lens for viewing the issue of political assassination, I similarly draw upon a dramatic response to Dershowitz's proposal to think through the issue of torture warrants. (shrink)
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  6. Darrell Cole (2012). Torture and Just War. Journal of Religious Ethics 40 (1):26-51.score: 24.0
    I offer an argument for why torture, as an act of state-sponsored force to gain information crucial to the well-being of the common good, should be considered as a tactic of war, and therefore scrutinized in terms of just war theory. I argue that, for those committed to the justifiability of the use of force, most of the popular arguments against all acts of torture are unpersuasive because the logic behind them would forbid equally any act of mutilating (...)
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  7. Claudia Card (2010). Confronting Evils: Terrorism, Torture, Genocide. Cambridge University Press.score: 24.0
    Machine generated contents note: Part I. The Concept of Evil: 1. Inexcusable wrongs; 2. Between good and evil; 3. Complicity in structural evils; 4. To whom (or to what?) can evils be done?; Part II. Terrorism, Torture, Genocide: 5. Counterterrorism; 6. Low-profile terrorism; 7. Conscientious torture?; 8. Ordinary torture; 9. Genocide is social death; 10. Genocide by forced impregnation; Bibliography; Filmography; Websites; Index.
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  8. Jonathan K. Crane (2011). PERSPECTIVES ON TORTURE: Reports From a Dialogue Including Christian, Judaic, Islamic, and Feminist Viewpoints. Journal of Religious Ethics 39 (4):585-588.score: 24.0
    Torture continues to be a pressing political issue in North America, yet religious scholarly reflection on the ethics of torture remains all but sidelined in public discourse for a variety of complex reasons. These reasons are explored—and critiqued—in this collection of reflections by Christian, Jewish, Muslim, and feminist religious ethicists. These scholars find that historical amnesia, forced if not twisted readings of classical texts and contemporary human rights instruments, and sociological factors are but a few of the factors (...)
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  9. Moran Yemini (2014). Conflictual Moralities, Ethical Torture: Revisiting the Problem of “Dirty Hands”. [REVIEW] Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 17 (1):163-180.score: 24.0
    The problem of “dirty hands” has become an important term, indeed one of the most important terms of reference, in contemporary academic scholarship on the issue of torture. The aim of this essay is to offer a better understanding of this problem. Firstly, it is argued that the problem of “dirty hands” can play neither within rule-utilitarianism nor within absolutism. Still, however, the problem of “dirty hands” represents an acute, seemingly irresolvable, conflict within morality, with the moral agent understood, (...)
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  10. Rumee Ahmed (2011). The Lash is Mightier Than the Sword1: Torture and Citizenry in Medieval Muslim Jurisprudence. Journal of Religious Ethics 39 (4):606-612.score: 24.0
    Medieval Muslim scholars unequivocally prohibited the torture of prisoners of war out of a concern for maintaining theoretical constructs about the boundaries of the Muslim and non-Muslim communities. Muslim scholars worried that the torturing prisoners of war would compromise values and ideals predicated on such constructs, and that the demands of citizenship trumped any benefit to the Muslim community that might accrue from torture.
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  11. Christine E. Gudorf (2011). Feminist Approaches to Religion and Torture. Journal of Religious Ethics 39 (4):613-621.score: 24.0
    Feminists look critically at any infliction of pain on others, usually requiring that it be consensual, and often both consensual and for the benefit of the person afflicted. Most torture of women is not recognized under official definitions of torture because it is not performed by or with the consent of (government) officials. Women are, however, also victims of torture under official definitions as military or civilian prisoners or as members of defeated populations in war, and are (...)
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  12. J. Jeremy Wisnewski (2010). Understanding Torture. Edinburgh University Press.score: 24.0
    Understanding Torture surveys the massive literature surrounding torture, arguing that, once properly understood, there can be no defence of torture in any circumstances.
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  13. David P. Gushee (2011). The Contemporary U.S. Torture Debate in Christian Historical Perspective. Journal of Religious Ethics 39 (4):589-597.score: 24.0
    The U.S. turn toward torture tested the moral resources of all faiths, but perhaps especially of Christianity, which has the greatest number of adherents in the United States. This moral crucible revealed that American Christian scholars and leaders were generally blind to the resources available in relation to the resources available to address torture in a study of scripture, early Christian experience under empire, Christian abuses of suspected heretics, and the just war theory, all of which are considered (...)
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  14. Peter Miller (2011). Torture Approval in Comparative Perspective. Human Rights Review 12 (4):441-463.score: 24.0
    Torture is (almost) universally condemned as barbaric and ineffective, yet it persists in the modern world. What factors influence levels of support for torture? Public opinion data from 31 countries in 2006 and 2008 (a total of 44 country-years) are used to test three hypotheses related to the acceptability of torture. The findings, first, show that outright majorities in 31 country-years reject the use of torture. Multiple regression results show that countries with high per capita income (...)
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  15. Uwe Steinhoff (2013). On the Ethics of Torture. State University of New York Press.score: 24.0
    A detailed, clear, and comprehensive overview of the current philosophical debate on. The question of when, and under what circumstances, the practice of torture might be justified has received a great deal of attention in the last decade in both academia and in the popular media. Many of these discussions are, however, one-sided with other perspectives either ignored or quickly dismissed with minimal argument. In On the Ethics of Torture, Uwe Steinhoff provides a complete account of the philosophical (...)
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  16. Ruxandra Cesereanu (2010). An Overview of Political Torture in the Twentieth Century. Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies 5 (14):120-143.score: 24.0
    The present essay focuses on political torture during the twentieth century. It takes a multidisciplinary approach, because it entails insights from history, politics, ideology, anthropology, psychology and literature. The aim of the present essay is to discuss the relation between "Classical" torture (in the past centuries) and "Modern" torture (in the twentieth century), analyzing the phenomena in a comparative perspective and paying attention to the hidden and unconscious motives behind historical facts. What I am interested in is (...)
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  17. Clare McGlynn (2008). Rape as 'Torture'? Catharine MacKinnon and Questions of Feminist Strategy. Feminist Legal Studies 16 (1):71-85.score: 24.0
    How can we eradicate violence against women? How, at least, can we reduce its prevalence? One possibility offered by Catharine MacKinnon is to harness international human rights norms, especially prohibitions on torture, and apply them to sexual violence with greater rigour and commitment than has hitherto been the case. This article focuses particularly on the argument that all rapes constitute torture in which states are actively complicit. It questions whether a feminist strategy to reconceptualise rape as torture (...)
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  18. Jonathan K. Crane (2011). Torturous Ambivalence: Judaic Struggles with Torture. Journal of Religious Ethics 39 (4):598-605.score: 24.0
    A surprising lack of consensus exists among contemporary Jewish scholars about Judaism's position vis-à-vis torture. Some claim that Judaism condones torture while others insist that Judaism condemns it. These diverging opinions on such a troubling practice suggest an ambivalence deep within the Judaic textual tradition about torturing bodies. This brief essay critiques both perspectives for twisting the textual tradition and offers some preliminary suggestions for a more robust Judaic approach to torture.
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  19. F. M. Kamm (ed.) (2011). Ethics for Enemies: Terror, Torture, and War. Oxford University Press.score: 24.0
    Ethics for Enemies comprises three original philosophical essays on torture, terrorism, and war. F. M. Kamm deploys ethical theory in her challenging new treatments of these most controversial practical issues. First she considers the nature of torture and the various occasions on which it could occur, in order to determine why it might be wrong to torture a wrongdoer held captive, even if this were necessary to save his victims. In the second essay she considers what makes (...)
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  20. Norain A. Siddiqui, Murat Civaner & Omur Cinar Elci (2013). Physician Involvement in Torture: An Ethical Perspective. [REVIEW] Journal of Medical Humanities 34 (1):59-71.score: 24.0
    Evidence proves that physician involvement in torture is widely practiced in society. Despite its status as an illegal act as established by multiple international organizations, mandates are routinely unheeded and feebly enforced. Philosophies condemning and condoning torture are examined as well as physicians’ professional responsibilities and the manner in which such varying allegiances can be persuasive. Physician involvement in torture has proven detrimental to the core values of medicine and has tainted the field’s commitment to individuals’ health (...)
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  21. Holger Furtmayr & Andreas Frewer (2010). Documentation of Torture and the Istanbul Protocol: Applied Medical Ethics. [REVIEW] Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 13 (3):279-286.score: 24.0
    The so-called Istanbul Protocol, a Manual on the Effective Investigation and Documentation of Torture and other Cruel, Inhumane or Degrading Treatment or Punishment was adopted by the United Nations soon after its completion in 1999 and since then has become an acknowledged standard for documenting cases of alleged torture and other forms of severe maltreatment. In 2009 the “Forum for medicine and human rights” at the Medical Faculty at the University Erlangen-Nuremburg has provided the first German edition of (...)
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  22. Mary Dominick (2008). The US Alien Tort Claims Act of 1789, the US Torture Victims Protection Act of 1992, and the Gongadze Case: A Right Without Adequate Remedy? [REVIEW] Human Rights Review 9 (4):545-547.score: 24.0
    The US 1992 Torture Victims Protection Act (TVPA) strengthens the reach of the 1789 Alien Tort Claims Act (ATCA) to US citizens alleging claims of torture and/or extrajudicial killings that occur abroad, but only if the plaintiffs were US citizens at the time of the criminal acts. Should the later-in-time statute, which gives effect to the United Nations Convention against Torture and extends remedies under the ATCA, be amended to apply to those given political asylum in this (...)
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  23. David Rodin (ed.) (2007). War, Torture and Terrorism: Ethics and War in the 21st Century. Blackwell Pub..score: 24.0
    This collection by leading scholars represents state of the art writings on the ethics of war. Many of the most important and contested controversies in modern war receive comprehensive discussion: the practice of torture, terrorism, assassination and targeted killing, the bombing of civilians in war, humanitarian intervention, and the invasion of Iraq Analytical introduction provides a guide to recent developments in the ethics of war An excellent overview for general readers interested in the current debate and controversies over the (...)
     
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  24. Dana Zartner & Jennifer Ramos (2011). Human Rights as Reputation Builder: Compliance with the Convention Against Torture. [REVIEW] Human Rights Review 12 (1):71-92.score: 24.0
    A strong record of human rights protections is an important factor for a state to maintain a positive international reputation. In this article, we suggest that states will use compliance with human rights treaties as a mechanism by which to improve their reputations to help achieve their foreign policy goals. We hypothesize that international human rights compliance is a means to improve a state’s reputation in three specific situations: when the state is facing regional pressures as the result of a (...)
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  25. Page DuBois (1991). Torture and Truth. Routledge.score: 21.0
     
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  26. Fritz Allhoff (2005). Terrorism and Torture. In Timothy Shanahan (ed.), Philosophy 9/11: Thinking About the War on Terrorism. Open Court. 121-134.score: 18.0
    After the events of 9/11, the concept of torture has emerged as one that is both pertinent and provoking. National polls have shown that some Americans support torture in some situations, though the majority still stand opposed. Torture has not received a tremendous amount of discussion in the philosophical literature, though I suspect that the leftward slant of academia would, for the most part, ensure limited support for torture. In this paper, I would like to first (...)
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  27. James Franklin (2009). Evidence Gained From Torture: Wishful Thinking, Checkability, and Extreme Circumstances. Cardozo Journal of International and Comparative Law 17:281-290.score: 18.0
    "Does torture work?" is a factual rather than ethical or legal question. But legal and ethical discussions of torture should be informed by knowledge of the answer to the factual question of the reliability of torture as an interrogation technique. The question as to whether torture works should be asked before that of its legal admissibility—if it is not useful to interrogators, there is no point considering its legality in court.
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  28. Fritz Allhoff (2006). A Defense of Torture: Separation of Cases, Ticking Time-Bombs, and Moral Justification. International Journal of Applied Philosophy 19 (2):243-264.score: 18.0
    In this paper, I argue for the permissibility of torture in idealized cases by application of separation of cases: if torture is permissible given any of the dominant moral theories (and if one of those is correct), then torture is permissible simpliciter and I can discharge the tricky business of trying to adjudicate among conflicting moral views. To be sure, torture is not permissible on all the dominant moral theories as at least Kantianism will prove especially (...)
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  29. Craig Duncan, Torture: Foolish and Wrong.score: 18.0
    In all likelihood, the Bush Administration’s aim is to continue abusive interrogation methods that on any reasonable definition amount to torture (methods such as waterboarding,” for example, in which a detainee is laid on his back and choked with water until he believes he is drowning). This new law, however, is both foolish and immoral: foolish, because torture won’t make Americans safer; and immoral, because torture is the grossest of affronts to human dignity.
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  30. Uwe Gteinhoff (2007). Torture? : The Case for Dirty Harry and Against Alan Dershowitz. In David Rodin (ed.), War, Torture, and Terrorism: Ethics and War in the 21st Century. Blackwell Pub.. 337-353.score: 18.0
  31. Michael Davis (2005). The Moral Justifiability of Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman, or Degrading Treatment. International Journal of Applied Philosophy 19 (2):161-178.score: 18.0
    Since Henry Shue’s classic 1978 paper on torture, the “ticking-bomb case” has seemed to demonstrate that torture is morally justified in some moral emergencies (even if not as an institution). After presenting an analysis of torture as such and an explanation of why it, and anything much like it, is morally wrong, I argue that the ticking-bomb case demonstrates nothing at all—for at least three reasons. First, it is an appeal to intuition. The intuition is not as (...)
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  32. Paul W. Kahn (2009). Torture and Democratic Violence. Ratio Juris 22 (2):244-259.score: 18.0
    Abstract. To understand the problem of torture in a democratic society, we have to take up a political-theological perspective. We must ask how violence creates political meaning. Torture is no more destructive and no more illiberal than other forms of political violence. The turn away from torture was not a turn away from violence, but a change in the locus of sacrifice: from scaffold to battlefield. Torture had been a ritual of mediation between sovereign and subject. (...)
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  33. Seumas Miller (2005). Is Torture Ever Morally Justifiable? International Journal of Applied Philosophy 19 (2):179-192.score: 18.0
    In this paper I argue that torture is morally justified in some extreme emergencies. However, I also argue that notwithstanding the moral permissibility of torture in some extreme emergencies, torture ought not to be legalised or otherwise institutionalised.
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  34. Bob Brecher, The "Ticking Bomb": A Spurious Argument for Torture.score: 18.0
    The so-called ticking bomb is invoked by philosophers and lawyers trying to justify, on behalf of their political masters, the use of torture in extremis. I show that the scenario is spurious; and that the likely consequences of the use of interrogational torture in such cases are disastrous. Finally, I test the argument against a real case.
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  35. Bernard G. Prusak (2007). The Ticking Time Bomb Case for Torture. Social Philosophy Today 23:201-209.score: 18.0
    I make two arguments in this paper. First, I argue briefly that the ticking time bomb case is unrealistic and as such is liable to mislead us badly on the ground. Second, after conceding that the conditions of the ticking time bomb case might someday be realized, I argue that it may in fact be morally permissible to torture a terrorist in this case on the grounds of self-defense. My reason for making this argument is that rejecting torture (...)
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  36. Fritz Allhoff (2003). Terrorism and Torture. International Journal of Applied Philosophy 17 (1):121-134.score: 18.0
    This paper investigates the moral permissibility of torture. After briefly considering some empirical evidence, it discusses the conflict between deontological and consequentialist approaches to torture. It is argued that, even if we are to take rights seriously, torture should at least be allowed if some conditions are satisfied. Finally, the paper discusses what those conditions should be and what sorts of torture are morally permissible.
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  37. Fritz Allhoff (2005). A Defense of Torture. International Journal of Applied Philosophy 19 (2):243-264.score: 18.0
    In this paper, I argue for the permissibility of torture in idealized cases by application of separation of cases: if torture is permissible given any of the dominant moral theories (and if one of those is correct), then torture is permissible simpliciter and I can discharge the tricky business of trying to adjudicate among conflicting moral views. To be sure, torture is not permissible on all the dominant moral theories as at least Kantianism will prove especially (...)
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  38. Frank Arntzenius & David McCarthy (1997). Self Torture and Group Beneficence. Erkenntnis 47 (1):129-144.score: 18.0
    Moral puzzles about actions which bring about very small or what are said to be imperceptible harms or benefits for each of a large number of people are well known. Less well known is an argument by Warren Quinn that standard theories of rationality can lead an agent to end up torturing himself or herself in a completely foreseeable way, and that this shows that standard theories of rationality need to be revised. We show where Quinn's argument goes wrong, and (...)
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  39. Bob Brecher, Why Torture is Wrong.score: 18.0
    Even people who think torture is justified in certain circumstances regard it - to say the least - as undesirable, however necessary they think it is. So I approach the issue by analysing the extreme case where people such as Dershowitz, Posner and Walzer think torture is justified, the so-called ticking bomb scenario. And since the justification offered is always consequentialist - no one thinks that torture is in any way “good in itself” – I confine myself (...)
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  40. Philip E. Devine (2009). What's Wrong with Torture? International Philosophical Quarterly 49 (3):317-332.score: 18.0
    Many of us want to say that there is an absolute—or at least a virtually absolute—prohibition on torturing people. But we live in a world in which firm moral restraints of all sorts are hard to defend. Neither contemporary conventional morality, nor any of the available moral theories, provides adequate support for the deliverances of the “wisdom of repugnance” in this area. Nor do they support casuistry capable of distinguishing torture from (sometimes legitimate) forms of rough treatment. I here (...)
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  41. Daniel M. Wegner & Kurt Gray, Torture and Judgments of Guilt.score: 18.0
    Although torture can establish guilt through confession, how are judgments of guilt made when tortured suspects do not confess? We suggest that perceived guilt is based inappropriately upon how much pain suspects appear to suffer during torture. Two psychological theories provide competing predictions about the link between pain and perceived blame: cognitive dissonance, which links pain to blame, and moral typecasting, which links pain to innocence. We hypothesized that dissonance might characterize the relationship between torture and blame (...)
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  42. Bob Brecher, Torture: A Touchstone for Global Social Justice.score: 18.0
    This chapter considers the wider significance of torture, addressing the manner in which it represents a touchstone for any universalistic morality, and arguing that it offers a means of refuting any moral relativism, something that ties in closely with my long-term theoretical work in metaethics (eg Getting What You Want? A Critique of Liberal Morality (Routledge: London and New York, 1998; and ongoing work around the ultimate justification of morality). Since torture consists in the erasure of a person (...)
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  43. Shunzo Majima (2012). Just Torture? Journal of Military Ethics 11 (2):136-148.score: 18.0
    Abstract The purpose of this paper is to develop and analyse a possible theory of ?just torture?, by reference to the framework of just war theory, which proposes moral criticism of war, in order that we can critically consider the morality or otherwise of torture, including that undertaken for interrogation purposes. Initially, we will explore the legal definitions and regulations of torture. Secondly, we will investigate several ethical aspects of torture. Thirdly, in order to apply the (...)
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  44. Noam Chomsky, The Torture Memos.score: 18.0
    (earlier version published on Tom Dispatch, May 21, 2009) The torture memos released by the White House elicited shock, indignation, and surprise. The shock and indignation are understandable -- particularly the testimony in the Senate Armed Services Committee report on Cheney-Rumsfeld desperation to find links between Iraq and al-Qaeda, links that were later concocted as justification for the invasion, facts irrelevant. Former Army psychiatrist Maj. Charles Burney testified that "a large part of the time we were focused on trying (...)
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  45. Thomas P. Crocker, Overcoming Necessity: Torture and the State of Constitutional Culture.score: 18.0
    A perceived national emergency creates the temptation to abandon principled constraints to official action in order to pursue whatever is thought necessary to confront the crisis. Principled constraints are thought good precisely when they are least needed - during normal times - and thought obstructionist when they are most needed to guide and constrain official action - during times of perceived exceptional circumstances. We are accustomed to thinking of constitutional rights not as absolutes, but as subject to balancing against compelling (...)
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  46. Jeremy Waldron (2010). Torture, Terror, and Trade-Offs: Philosophy for the White House. OUP Oxford.score: 18.0
    Jeremy Waldron has been a challenging and influential voice in the moral, political and legal debates surrounding the response to terrorism since 9/11. His contributions have spanned the major controversies of the War on Terror - including the morality and legality of torture, whether security can be 'balanced' with liberty, and the relationship between public safety and individual rights. He has also tackled underlying questions essential to understanding the practical debates - including what terrorism is, and what a right (...)
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  47. Jane Duran (2000). Rape as a Form of Torture. International Journal of Applied Philosophy 14 (2):191-196.score: 18.0
    Using material taken from contemporary feminist theory and also from work on human rights, it is argued that rape is a form of torture, and that it operates on powerful levels, both literally and metaphorically. Part of the argument is that rape has achieved the status it has as political force for exploitation because of strong beliefs about cultural reproduction and about the roles that women play in cultural reproduction.
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  48. Stephen Kershnar (2005). For Interrogational Torture. International Journal of Applied Philosophy 19 (2):223-241.score: 18.0
    Interrogational torture is torture that is done in order to gain information. It is wrong if it either wrongs the person being interrogated or is a free-floating wrong. In the relevant cases, interrogational torture need not wrong the person being interrogated. This is because in many cases it doesn’t, and is known not to, infringe on the tortured person’s moral rights. It is not clear whether interrogational torture is a free-floating wrong since we lack confidence in (...)
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  49. Andrew Mumford (2012). Minimum Force Meets Brutality: Detention, Interrogation and Torture in British Counter-Insurgency Campaigns. Journal of Military Ethics 11 (1):10-25.score: 18.0
    Abstract This paper explores brutality and torture in the history of British counter-insurgency campaigns. Taking as a pretext the British government's announcement in January 2012 to scrap a judicial review into the rendition and torture of UK citizens at Guantanamo Bay by American intelligence operatives with the complicity of British intelligence agencies, the paper posits that the actions this review was supposed to evaluate are not restricted to counter-terrorism. By examining the historical usage of interrogation methods by the (...)
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  50. D. McCready (2007). When Is Torture Right? Studies in Christian Ethics 20 (3):383-398.score: 18.0
    Despite nearly universal condemnation, torture remains a tool for interrogation, intimidation, and punishing. Even many who abhor torture are willing to consider its use in extraordinary situations. Both the deontological absolute prohibition of torture and the consequentialist justification of torture are inadequate ethics to address the issue. Dershowitz, Walzer, and Elshtain, among others, have attempted to redress the problem with more finely-tuned approaches, of which Elshtain's rejection of justification in favor of grace and forgiveness appears the (...)
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