In , D. W. Hart and C. Mcginn considered two logics Al and A2. These logics embody part of a tradition about a priori knowledge and necessity. They proved that A2 is a conservative extension of a well-known modal logic S5 but left the problem whether Al is a conservative extension of S4 open. In this note, we shall show that Al is not a conservative extension of S4 but of S5, and also correct an inadequate proof.
Almost no literature exists, both in Japanese and English, when it comes to the CSR activities of Japanese MNEs operating outside Japan, especially in developing countries. This exploratory research will try to fill this gap of literature by examining CSR activities of Japanese MNEs in one of the developing Asian countries, the Philippines.
In this paper we give an axiom system of a logic which we call an approximation logic (AL), whose Lindenbaum-Tarski algebra is a strong Bunge algebra (or simply s-Bunge algebra), and show thatFor every s-Bunge algebra , a quotient algebra by a maximal filter is isomorphic to the simplest nontrivial s-Bunge algebra ;The Lindenbaum algebra of AL is an s-Bunge algebra;AL is complete;AL is decidable.
The purpose of this paper is to introduce corporate social responsibility case, a micro-finance program, conducted at Mindanao, Philippines, by a local Filipinocompany. The paper is a description of the Islamic micro-finance program and challenges in the area affected by conflicts.
This paper investigates one aspect of corporate social responsibility, incorporating diversity, especially the employment of people with disabilities in Japan. Where literature on incorporating diversity through the inclusion of minorities in Japan is concerned, a reasonable number exists that focus on gender and women managers. In contrast, very scant literature (in English) exists on the employment of people with disabilities in Japan. This paper will try to fill the gap.
Our paper explores several factors related to the relatively small percentage of women managers in organizations in Japan (especially in comparison to otherindustrialized nations) and examines the strategies of several major corporations that have incorporated diversity management into their corporate social responsibility programs to address problems of gender equity.
The development of speech perception shows a dramatic transition between infancy and adulthood. Between 6 and 12 months, infants’ initial ability to discriminate all phonetic units across the worlds’ languages narrows—native discrimination increases while nonnative discrimination shows a steep decline. We used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to examine whether brain oscillations in the theta band (4-8Hz), reflecting increases in attention and cognitive effort, would provide a neural measure of the perceptual narrowing phenomenon in speech. Using an oddball paradigm, we varied speech stimuli (...) in two dimensions, stimulus frequency (frequent vs. infrequent) and language (native vs. nonnative speech syllables) and tested 6-month-old infants, 12-month-old infants, and adults. We hypothesized that 6-month-old infants would show increased relative theta power (RTP) for frequent syllables, regardless of their status as native or nonnative syllables, reflecting young infants’ attention and cognitive effort in response to highly frequent stimuli (“statistical learning”). In adults, we hypothesized increased RTP for nonnative stimuli, regardless of their presentation frequency, reflecting increased cognitive effort for nonnative phonetic categories. The 12-month-old infants were expected to show a pattern in transition, but one more similar to adults than to 6-month-old infants. The MEG brain rhythm results supported these hypotheses. We suggest that perceptual narrowing in speech perception is governed by an implicit learning process. This learning process involves an implicit shift in attention from frequent events (infants) to learned categories (adults). Theta brain oscillatory activity may provide an index of perceptual narrowing beyond speech, and would offer a test of whether the early speech learning process is governed by domain-general or domain-specific processes. (shrink)
End-of-life issues have become an urgent problem in Japan, where people are among the longest lived in the world and most of them die while connected to high-technology medical equipment. This study examines a sensitive end-of-life ethical issue that concerns patients, families and nurses: the withdrawal of artificial food and fluid from terminally ill patients. A sample of 160 Japanese nurses, who completed a questionnaire that included forced-choice and open-ended questions, supported this act under only two specific conditions: if the (...) patient requested it, and if it relieved the patient’s suffering. They considered that the doctor’s orders, the family’s request, or the patient’s advanced age did not ethically justify this act. A small number of people who had recently lost a relative took part in semistructured interviews focusing on their experiences of their terminally ill relatives being given artificial food and fluid. Ethical, social and cultural factors surrounding this issue are discussed. (shrink)
Este artigo propõe um exame crítico do multiculturalismo. Este último está baseado dentro de uma visão errônea da identidade cultural, pois ela é uma caixa vazia onde podemos, em teoria, pôr qualquer conteúdo. A cultura não deve ser vista como uma substância, mas como um conceito relacional. Contudo..
Poor mathematical abilities adversely affect academic and career opportunities. The neuroanatomical basis of developmental dyscalculia (DD), a specific learning deficit with prevalence rates exceeding 5%, is poorly understood. We used structural MRI and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to examine macro- and micro-structural impairments in 7-9 year old children with DD, compared to a group of typically developing (TD) children matched on age, gender, intelligence, reading abilities and working memory capacity. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) revealed reduced grey matter (GM) bilaterally in superior (...) parietal lobule, intra-parietal sulcus, fusiform gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus and right anterior temporal cortex in children with DD. VBM analysis also showed reduced white matter (WM) volume in right temporal-parietal cortex. DTI revealed reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) in this WM region, pointing to significant right hemisphere micro-structural impairments. Furthermore, FA in this region was correlated with numerical operations but not verbal mathematical reasoning or word reading. Atlas-based tract mapping identified the inferior longitudinal fasciculus, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus and caudal forceps major as key pathways impaired in DD. DTI tractography suggests that long-range WM projection fibers linking the right fusiform gyrus with temporal-parietal WM are a specific source of vulnerability in DD. Network and classification analysis suggest that DD in children may be characterized by multiple dysfunctional circuits arising from a core WM deficit. Our findings link GM and WM abnormalities in children with DD and they point to macro- and micro-structural abnormalities in right hemisphere temporal-parietal WM, and pathways associated with it, as key neuroanatomical correlates of DD. (shrink)