In the history of Newtonian Mechanics physicists and astronomers did not rely on so-called inertial frames, indeed they were not able to identify such frames. So the usual neo-Newtonian formalism of Newtonian Mechanics contains some superfluous components. In the present paper I will formulate a formal system for classical particle mechanics in Leibnizian space-time, where a relation, a counterpart of the second law of motion, between force on bodies and derivative of their momentum will be defined relative to every, inertial (...) or not, reference frame. And I will present a view that in the research process under Newtonian mechanics the accumulation of those models of the relation that satisfied some realistic conditions determined an additional structure of non-rotating frames to Leibnizian space-time. (shrink)
The uncertainty relation in quantum mechanics has been explicated sometimes as a statistical relation and at other times as a relation concerning precision of simultaneous measurements. In the present paper, taking the indefiniteness of individual experiments as represented by diameters of Borel sets in projection-valued measure, we mathematically distinguish four expressions, two statistical and two concerning simultaneous measurements, of the uncertainty relation, study their interrelations, and prove that they are nonequivalent to each other and to the eigenvector condition (EV) in (...) infinite-dimensional Hilbert space. (shrink)
Alternative interpretations are proposed for the finding that market integration is positively related to fair behavior in experimental games. Market activities may produce market relevant concepts and stories that interpret experimental games as incidences of social exchange, and thus may enhance the relevance of (1) market-related preferences or (2) a decision heuristic designed for social exchange.
This note is a continuation of our former paper ''Complexity of the r-query tautologies in the presence of a generic oracle.'' We give a very short direct proof of the nonexistence of t-generic oracles, a result obtained first by Dowd. We also reconstitute a proof of Dowd's result that the class of all r-generic oracles in his sense has Lebesgue measure one.
Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are known to have difficulty with eye contact. This might make it difficult for partners to communicate with them face-to-face. To elucidate the neural substrates of live inter-subject interactions of ASD patients and typically-developed (normal) subjects, we conducted hyper-scanning functional MRI with 21 subjects with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) paired with normal subjects, and with 19 pairs of normal subjects as a control. Baseline eye contact was maintained while subjects performed a real-time joint-attention task. (...) The task-related effects were modeled out, and inter-individual correlation analysis was performed on the residual time-course data. ASD–Normal pairs were less accurate at detecting gaze direction than Normal–Normal pairs. Performance was impaired both in ASD subjects and in their normal partners. The left occipital pole activation caused by gaze processing was reduced in ASD subjects, suggesting that deterioration of eye-cue detection in ASD is related to impairment of early visual processing of gaze. By contrast, their normal partners showed greater activity in the bilateral occipital cortex and the right prefrontal area, indicating a compensatory workload. Inter-brain coherence in the right IFG reported previously in Normal–Normal pairs during eye contact was diminished in ASD–Normal pairs. Intra-brain functional connectivity between the right IFG and right superior temporal sulcus (STS) in normal subjects paired with ASD subjects was reduced compared with in Normal–Normal pairs. This functional connectivity was positively correlated with performance of normal partners in eye-cue detection. Considering the integrative role of the right STS in gaze processing, inter-subject synchronization during eye contact might be a prerequisite for eye-cue detection by the normal partner. (shrink)
A hysteresis loop was measured in a round-plate sample of triglycine sulfate (TGS) ferroelectric using two measurement and one side electrode. Due to a non-zero electric potential, V s, applied to the side electrode the hysteresis loop gradually decayed with time. It was shown that the higher the V s value, the shorter time t d is required for the hysteresis loop to disappear. The value of turned out to be proportional to the electric potential V s, generating a transverse (...) field at a constant temperature. Within the limits of experimental error, the inverse of the slope of the dependence versus V s is proportional to the difference T C???T. A relationship between the temperature T, the spontaneous polarisation P ± (positive or negative) and the freezing parameter f has been proposed. The parameter f describes the influence of the transverse electric field. Arguments in favour of considering the transverse field effect as occurring due to free electric charges flowing into the crystal are given. A method is proposed by which the parameters of the hysteresis loop can be easily adjusted by an electric potential of an additional side electrode. (shrink)
In our former works, for a given concept of reduction, we study the following hypothesis: “For a random oracle A, with probability one, the degree of the one-query tautologies with respect to A is strictly higher than the degree of A.” In our former works (Suzuki in Kobe J. Math. 15, 91–102, 1998; in Inf. Comput. 176, 66–87, 2002; in Arch. Math. Logic 44, 751–762), the following three results are shown: The hypothesis for p-T (polynomial-time Turing) reduction is equivalent to (...) the assertion that the probabilistic complexity class R is not equal to NP; The hypothesis for p-tt (polynomial-time truth-table) reduction implies that P is not NP; The hypothesis holds for each of the following: disjunctive reduction, conjunctive reduction, and p-btt (polynomial-time bounded-truth-table) reduction. In this paper, we show the following three results: (1) Let c be a positive real number. We consider a concept of truth-table reduction whose norm is at most c times size of input, where for a relativized propositional formula F, the size of F denotes the total number of occurrences of propositional variables, constants and propositional connectives. Then, our main result is that the hypothesis holds for such tt-reduction, provided that c is small enough. How small c can we take so that the above holds? It depends on our syntactic convention on one-query tautologies. In our setting, the statement holds for all c < 1. (2) The hypothesis holds for monotone truth-table reduction (also called positive reduction). (3) Dowd (in Inf. Comput. 96, 65–76, 1992) shows a polynomial upper bound for the minimum sizes of forcing conditions associated with a random oracle. We apply the above result (1), and get a linear lower bound for the sizes. (shrink)
This paper offers some ideas and methods of consensus building towards integration of values in flood control, environment, and landscape. These three factors sometimes oppose to each other in the process of construction of public infrastructure such as roadbuilding and river improvement. It is crucial to avoid or resolute conflicts between the government and the local people through project management with the consensus building process. In public works in Japan, flood control has been given priority over the environmental preservation and (...) the landscape conservation due to the perception that it is through flood control that the life and property of individuals are adequately protected. As a consequence, the landscape and the environment have been paid only lip‐service. In the case of the Ohashi River Project in Izumo region presented in this paper, however, the river repair process might entail a severe blow to the tourism industry and have a dramatic impact on the fishery resources of the region, which would be considered a major loss in terms of the urban development of the city. One of our concerns is thus to avoid any losses, through proper consideration of the relationship between the three crucial factors. In this paper, the author reports some ideas and methods that appear in “Basic Policy for the Development of the Area around Ohashi River” composed by the Matsue Review Committee on the Development of the Area around the Ohashi River, in which the author is involved as a committee member. The most important task of the Committee wasto search for the ideas and methods to harmonize the values of flood control, environment, and landscape. (shrink)
The relativized propositional calculus is a system of Boolean formulas with query symbols. A formula in this system is called a one-query formula if the number of occurrences of query symbols is just one. If a one-query formula is a tautology with respect to a given oracle A then it is called a one-query tautology with respect to A. By extending works of Ambos-Spies (1986) and us (2002), we investigate the measure of the class of all oracles A such that (...) the set of all one-query tautologies with respect to A does not p-btt-reduce to A, where p-btt denotes polynomial-time bounded-truth-table. We show that certain Dowd-type generic oracles all belong to the class, and hence measure of the class is one. (shrink)
Extending techniques of Dowd and those of Poizat, we study computational complexity of in the case when is a generic oracle, where is a positive integer, and denotes the collection of all -query tautologies with respect to an oracle . We introduce the notion of ceiling-generic oracles, as a generalization of Dowd's notion of -generic oracles to arbitrary finitely testable arithmetical predicates. We study how existence of ceiling-generic oracles affects behavior of a generic oracle, by which we show that is (...) not a subset of is comeager in the Cantor space. Moreover, using ceiling-generic oracles, we present an alternative proof of the fact (Dowd) that the class of all -generic oracles has Lebesgue measure zero. (shrink)