Search results for 'Touch History' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  3
    Michael J. Morgan (1977). Molyneux's Question: Vision, Touch, and the Philosophy of Perception. Cambridge University Press.
  2.  27
    Marjorie O'Rourke Boyle (1998). Senses of Touch: Human Dignity and Deformity From Michelangelo to Calvin. Brill.
    From posture to piety, from manicure to magic, the book discovers touch in a critical period of its historical development, in anatomy and society.
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  3.  14
    Jan Plamper (2010). The History of Emotions: An Interview with William Reddy, Barbara Rosenwein, and Peter Stearns. History and Theory 49 (2):237-265.
    The history of emotions is a burgeoning field—so much so, that some are invoking an “emotional turn.” As a way of charting this development, I have interviewed three of the leading practitioners of the history of emotions: William Reddy, Barbara Rosenwein, and Peter Stearns. The interviews retrace each historian’s intellectual-biographical path to the history of emotions, recapitulate key concepts, and critically discuss the limitations of the available analytical tools. In doing so, they touch on Reddy’s concepts (...)
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  4. A. L. Macfie (ed.) (2007). The Philosophy of History: Talks Given at the Ihr, London, 2000-2006. Palgrave Macmillan.
    The Philosophy of History contains a selection of the talks given at the Philosophy of History seminar in the Institute of Historical Research, London, in the period 2000-6. It puts students of the Philosophy of History, historians, teachers of History and anyone else interested in the subject in touch with what is being researched and discussed today at the cutting edge of Philosophy of History studies. With contributions from, among others, Robert Burns, Keith Jenkins, (...)
     
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  5. A. L. Macfie (ed.) (2006). The Philosophy of History: Talks Given at the Institute of Historical Research, London, 2000-2006. Palgrave Macmillan.
    The Philosophy of History contains a selection of the talks given at the Philosophy of History seminar in the Institute of Historical Research, London, in the period 2000-6. It puts students of the Philosophy of History, historians, teachers of History and anyone else interested in the subject in touch with what is being researched and discussed today at the cutting edge of Philosophy of History studies. With contributions from, among others, Robert Burns, Keith Jenkins, (...)
     
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  6.  60
    Thomas Junker (1996). Factors Shaping Ernst Mayr's Concepts in the History of Biology. Journal of the History of Biology 29 (1):29 - 77.
    As frequently pointed out in this discussion, one of the most characteristic features of Mayr's approach to the history of biology stems from the fact that he is dealing to a considerable degree with his own professional history. Furthermore, his main criterion for the selection of historical episodes is their relevance for modern biological theory. As W. F. Bynum and others have noted, the general impression of his reviewers is that “one of the towering figures of evolutionary biology (...)
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  7.  18
    Margaret Boden (2006). Mind as Machine: A History of Cognitive Science. OUP Oxford.
    The development of cognitive science is one of the most remarkable and fascinating intellectual achievements of the modern era. The quest to understand the mind is as old as recorded human thought; but the progress of modern science has offered new methods and techniques which have revolutionized this enquiry. Oxford University Press now presents a masterful history of cognitive science, told by one of its most eminent practitioners. -/- Cognitive science is the project of understanding the mind by modelling (...)
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  8. Margaret Boden (2006). Mind as Machine: A History of Cognitive Science. Oxford University Press Uk.
    Cognitive science is among the most fascinating intellectual achievements of the modern era. The quest to understand the mind is an ancient one. But modern science has offered new insights and techniques that have revolutionized this enquiry. Oxford University Press now presents a masterly history of the field, told by one of its most eminent practitioners. Psychology is the thematic heart of cognitive science, which aims to understand human minds. But its core theoretical ideas are drawn from cybernetics and (...)
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  9.  5
    Maria Botero (forthcoming). Tactless Scientists: Ignoring Touch in the Study of Joint Attention. Philosophical Psychology:1-15.
    Since the 1970s, researchers have focused on visual joint attention as a way to observe and operationalize joint attention. I will argue that this methodological choice has neglected other modalities and as a consequence might be missing important elements in the account of the development of JA and the evolutionary history of JA. I argue that by including other modes of interaction, such as touch, we open the possibility of finding that non-human primates and younger human infants engage (...)
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  10.  3
    Daniel Heller-Roazen (2007). The Inner Touch: Archaeology of a Sensation. Distributed by the MIT Press.
    The Inner Touch presents the archaeology of a single sense: the sense of being sentient. Aristotle was perhaps the first to define this faculty when in his treatise On the Soul he identified a sensory power, irreducible to the five senses, by which animals perceive that they are perceiving: the simple "sense," as he wrote, "that we are seeing and hearing." After him, thinkers returned, time and again, to define and redefine this curious sensation. The classical Greek and Roman (...)
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  11.  24
    Fawn M. McNeil-Haber (2004). Ethical Considerations in the Use of Nonerotic Touch in Psychotherapy with Children. Ethics and Behavior 14 (2):123 – 140.
    Although touch frequently occurs in psychotherapy with children, there is little written on the ethical considerations of therapeutic touch. Because physical contact does occur, therapists must consider if, how, and when it is used, for both their clients' safety and their own. In this review, I further develop the issues suggested by Aquino and Lee (2000) in the use of nurturing touch in therapy by considering many types of touch that occur in psychotherapy with children; the (...)
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  12.  17
    Jane Tompkins (1986). "Indians": Textualism, Morality, and the Problem of History. Critical Inquiry 13 (1):101-119.
    This essay enacts a particular instance of the challenge post-structuralism poses to the study of history. In simpler, language, it concerns the difference that point of view makes when people are giving account of events, whether at first or second hand. The problem is that if all accounts of events are determined through and through by the observer’s frame of reference, then one will never know, in any given case, what really happened.I encountered this problem in concrete terms while (...)
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  13.  5
    Eduardo Cadava (1998). Words of Light: Theses on the Photography of History. Princeton University Press.
    Focusing on Walter Benjamin's discussions of the flashes and images of history, this book argues that the questions raised by this link between photography and history touch on issues that belong to the entire trajectory of Benjamin's ...
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  14.  36
    Stephen Barker (2009). Threshold (Pro-)Positions: Touch, Techné, Technics. Derrida Today 2 (1):44-65.
    Touching on Nancy and Derrida offers a glimpse not only into the thesis both of Jean-Luc Nancy's critique of touch and of Derrida's Le Toucher, but also into the threshold of a technology of (the) sense to come. This glimpse is an interrogation, and one that is both historic and historical, in the sense that Derrida, in addressing Jean-Luc Nancy's work, has presented us with an encyclopedic history of touch in the philosophic tradition from Aristotle to Nancy, (...)
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  15.  18
    Ge Zhaoguang (2002). How Many More Mysteries Are There in Ancient China?: After Reading Li Xueqin's Lost Bamboo Slips and Silk Manuscripts and the History of Learning. Contemporary Chinese Thought 34 (2):75-91.
    As historiographical studies on ancient China gradually move from the center to the margins of the public's field of vision, research on historiographical studies concerning ancient China have been undergoing some unusual changes. A truly considerable quantity of bamboo slip and silk manuscripts have either been discovered by archaeologists or accidentally unearthed in the last twenty years. Although these have been made public very slowly, even maddeningly so, the few of them that have appeared before the world in the course (...)
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  16.  13
    Z. A. Kamenskii (2000). Was There a Break in the Development of Russian Philosophy in the Soviet Period of Its History? Russian Studies in Philosophy 39 (2):86-91.
    The scholars who claim that a "black hole" appeared in the history of our philosophy are obviously violating the truth. Evidently, what they are saying is that there was no philosophy of the kind that they would call philosophy. Such an approach does not fit any theoretico-method-ological paradigm. One must study the subject, bring it under critical analysis, not declare unequivocally that there was no such thing. For this reason, I would like by way of introduction to touch (...)
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  17.  3
    Todor Pavlov (1972). On the Problem of the History and Theory of Scientific Thought. Russian Studies in Philosophy 11 (2):139-147.
    The entire history of scientific and philosophical knowledge testifies that the significant difference between idealism and materialism does not lie in the alleged fact that materialism denies and idealism recognizes the significance of reason, i.e., the utilization in cognition of abstract ideas . Democritus' atoms, with all their geometrical and other attributes, are so small that they cannot be perceived either with the help, or by means, of an apparatus of hearing or organs of touch. Democritus arrived at (...)
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  18.  7
    V. I. Kerimov (1989). A. S. Khomiakov's Philosophy of History. Russian Studies in Philosophy 28 (1):33-60.
    The name A. S. Khomiakov crops up in practically everything written on Slavophilism, especially when the discussion touches on sociophilosophical problems. But one thing here is odd. Most authors, in dealing with Khomiakov's analysis of universal history, touch barely in passing on his capital work Notes on Universal History [Zapiski o vsemirnoi istorii], although in volume it makes up almost half of his collected works. Although this text has been little studied, it is sometimes characterized very harshly. (...)
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  19.  19
    Peter Adamson (2014). Classical Philosophy: A History of Philosophy Without Any Gaps, Volume 1. OUP Oxford.
    In 43 lively chapters Peter Adamson tells the story of philosophy from its beginnings to Plato and Aristotle. Most histories jump from one famous name to another, but Adamson shows that the people and ideas in between, usually overlooked, are fascinating and significant. Based on his popular podcasts, this is serious history with a light touch.
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  20. Daniel Heller-Roazen (2009). The Inner Touch: Archaeology of a Sensation. Zone Books.
    The Inner Touch presents the archaeology of a single sense: the sense of being sentient. Aristotle was perhaps the first to define this faculty when in his treatise On the Soul he identified a sensory power, irreducible to the five senses, by which animals perceive that they are perceiving: the simple "sense," as he wrote, "that we are seeing and hearing." After him, thinkers returned, time and again, to define and redefine this curious sensation. The classical Greek and Roman (...)
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  21. Roger I. Simon (2005). The Touch of the Past: Remembrance, Learning, and Ethics. Palgrave Macmillan.
    Based on ten years of research, The Touch of the Past considers how historically traumatic events uniquely summon forgetting and remembrance. Within a specific focus on events of systemic mass violence, Roger Simon examines how testimonies of historic events influence learning as communities struggle with "difficult histories." The Touch of the Past is a serious and compelling contribution to research in education, historical consciousness, and memory/trauma studies.
     
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  22. Natalie Binczek (2007). Kontakt: Der Tastsinn in Texten der Aufklärung. Niemeyer.
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  23. Joseph Margolis (2013). Pragmatism Ascendent: A Yard of Narrative, a Touch of Prophecy. Stanford University Press.
    The point of Hegel's dissatisfaction with Kant -- Rethinking Peirce's fallibilism -- Pragmatism's future : a touch of prophecy.
     
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  24. John Augustine Smith, Charles Kennedy Burt, William Chapman & Robert Chambers (1853). Prelections on Some of the More Important Subjects Connected with Moral & Physical Science in Opposition to Phrenology, Materialism, Atheism, and the Principles Advanced by the Author of the Vestiges of Creation, and Deducing the True Criterion of Moral Propriety From the Instinctive Ruling of the Moral Sense. D. Appleton & Co. And Stanford & Swords.
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  25.  45
    William Lane Craig (2009). 'Noli Me Tangere': Why John Meier Won't Touch the Risen Lord. Heythrop Journal 50 (1):91-97.
    John Meier distinguishes ‘the real Jesus’ from ‘the historical Jesus’. Meier claims that whatever happened to the real Jesus after his death, his resurrection cannot belong to the historical Jesus because that event is in principle not open to the observation of any observer. But why think that the resurrection is not observable in this way? Meier finds justification in Gerald O'Collins' view that although the resurrection of Jesus is a real event, it is not an event in space and (...)
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  26.  58
    Rebecca Steiner Goldner (2011). Touch and Flesh in Aristotle's de Anima. Epoché: A Journal for the History of Philosophy 15 (2):435-446.
    In this paper, I argue for the sense of touch as primary in Aristotle’s account of sensation. Touch, as the identifying and inaugurating distinction of sensate beings, is both of utmost importance to Aristotle as well as highly aporetic on his explanation. The issue of touch and the problematic of flesh, in particular, bring us to Merleau-Ponty’s account of flesh as the chiasmic fold and overlap of subject and object, of self and other, and to an incipient (...)
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  27. Anna Hartmann Cavalcanti (2013). Nietzsche, a memória E a história; reflexões sobre a segunda consideração extemporânea. Philósophos - Revista de Filosofia 17 (2):77-105.
    As of 1869, and throughout the entire period during which he wrote the essay “On the Uses and Disadvantages of History for Life”, published in 1874, Nietzsche was a classical philology professor at the University of Basel. During this period, he reflected critically on theoretical and methodological questions in his field, emphasizing that if the study of Antiquity is to be linked to the analysis and critique of the sources, it loses, through this, contact with its own time, becoming (...)
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  28.  20
    M. Raz (2014). Deprived of Touch: How Maternal and Sensory Deprivation Theory Converged in Shaping Early Debates Over Autism. History of the Human Sciences 27 (2):75-96.
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  29.  31
    Shadi Bartsch (2006). The Mirror of the Self: Sexuality, Self-Knowledge, and the Gaze in the Early Roman Empire. University of Chicago Press.
    People in the ancient world thought of vision as both an ethical tool and a tactile sense, akin to touch. Gazing upon someone—or oneself—was treated as a path to philosophical self-knowledge, but the question of tactility introduced an erotic element as well. In The Mirror of the Self , Shadi Bartsch asserts that these links among vision, sexuality, and self-knowledge are key to the classical understanding of the self. Weaving together literary theory, philosophy, and social history, Bartsch traces (...)
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  30.  16
    Klaus Gahl (1999). Über Die Einheit des Menschen Aus Ärztlicher Sicht. Ethik in der Medizin 11 (1):2-11.
    Definition of the problem: Discussions of “holistic” medical practice confine themselves to the treatment of so-called “psychosomatic disorders”. This paper traces ways in which the patient's personal unity may become apparent to medical practitioners during three critical steps of everyday practice: physical examination, “medical history” (anamnesis) and treatment. Physical examination touches on the patient's “Leiblichkeit” (his “organ” of bodily self-awareness of being a person). Objectifying of the “Leiblichkeit” may constitute an infringement upon the patient's personal unity and is only (...)
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  31.  38
    Stefan Hopmann (1999). The Curriculum as a Standard of Public Education. Studies in Philosophy and Education 18 (1):89-105.
    This contribution first searches for historical and empirical evidence for whether and how curricula act or acted as a measure of public education. The problem is explicated on account of a short history of curriculum work and distinguished in a analytical, a political, programmatical and practical discourse of curriculum work. Curriculum work always underlies premises of planning, learning and effects. Three models are finally developed and brought in touch with the different discourses. Curriculum work proves to be an (...)
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  32.  33
    Sara Shute (1981). Molyneux's Question: Vision, Touch, and the Philosophy of Perception. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Philosophy 19 (2):255-257.
  33.  1
    Margaret Olin (1989). Validation by Touch in Kandinsky's Early Abstract Art. Critical Inquiry 16 (1):144-172.
    Some recent artists and critics have taken it upon themselves to demystify the notion of stylistic unity. Their task has included the historical reconception of a few “modernist” artists along “postmodern” lines, usually as precursors of current semiotic strategies.11 These artists may have used a set of incompatible styles to expose the artificiality of competing stylistic conventions, or even to challenge the myth that celebrates the authenticity of artistic expressiveness. Pablo Picasso and Marcel Duchamp, otherwise very different artists, have both (...)
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  34.  7
    Michael Cournoyea (2010). Steven Shapin. The Scientific Life: A Moral History of a Late Modern Vocation. Spontaneous Generations 4 (1):273-275.
    In The Scientific Life, Steven Shapin argues that people and their virtues matter in late modern science. While scientists struggle to remain objective and impersonal, it is the personal, familiar, and charismatic—the traits once swept aside as vices by the scientifically virtuous—that have come to embody the “truth-speakers” of late modernity. With an enormous and sometimes daunting wealth of primary sources (from technical commentaries to his own sociological fieldwork), Steven Shapin breathes life back into these quotidian virtues. The Scientific Life (...)
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  35. Reuven Brenner & Gabrielle A. Brenner (1990). Gambling and Speculation: A Theory, a History, and a Future of Some Human Decisions. Cambridge University Press.
    Gambling and Speculation takes the long, historic perspective of its controversial subject. The book offers not only a better understanding of the recent "gambling craze," but also a fundamental inquiry into human nature and the structure of societies. The Brenners argue that the negative image of gamblers and of speculators stems from prejudice, whose roots are in the distant, forgotten past. Legal scholars have frequently confused gambling with speculation and the anti-gambling laws were, at times, erroneously interpreted as implying the (...)
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  36. Laura Berchielli (2002). Color, Space, and Figure in Locke: An Interpretation of the Molyneux Problem. Journal of the History of Philosophy 40 (1):47-65.
    Laura Berchielli - Color, Space and Figure in Locke: An Interpretation of the Molyneux Problem - Journal of the History of Philosophy 40:1 Journal of the History of Philosophy 40.1 47-65 Color, Space, and Figure in Locke: An Interpretation of the Molyneux Problem Laura Berchielli THIS IS HOW LOCKE, in the second edition of his Essay Concerning Human Understanding , introduces a question that had been suggested to him in a letter from William Molyneux: . . . I (...)
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  37.  26
    Catalina González (2009). New Essays on David Hume. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Philosophy 47 (3):pp. 473-474.
    Organized by the Italian Research Group on the British Enlightenment, this collection provides insight into the many different aspects of David Hume's philosophy. The book comprises a total of twenty-one articles that take diverse approaches to Hume's epistemology, morals, politics, history, and religion, and is divided into four sections: "Of the understanding," "Of morals and criticism," "Of history, politics and religion," and "Hume novelties." Due to limitations of space, all the articles cannot be addressed here; I will instead (...)
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  38.  4
    Tara Abraham (2002). Discoveries in the Human Brain: Neuroscience Prehistory, Brain Structure, and Function. [REVIEW] Isis: A Journal of the History of Science 93:290-291.
    This book examines the historical development of studies of the brain and behavior from the early work of Aristotle and Galen up to the late twentieth century. Modern neuroscience, a multidisciplinary endeavor, emerged only recently as a unified field . This book does not treat the disciplinary history of neuroscience per se but, rather, the history of attempts to understand the nervous system and its relationship to behavior from a constellation of disciplines all related to what we now (...)
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  39.  7
    James Cracraft (2004). Implicit Morality. History and Theory 43 (4):31-42.
    Most historians today have abandoned the aspiration to a kind of scientific objectivity in their work—pace their postmodernist critics. Yet we cling nonetheless, with a touch perhaps of hypocrisy, to the closely related standard of strict impartiality, or moral neutrality, in all that we do. This article argues that the latter is as obsolete, now, as the former—if only because of the distinctive though largely implicit moral character of almost all published history, all but the most technically specialized. (...)
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  40. Maria Rosa Antognazza (2015). The Benefit to Philosophy of the Study of its History. British Journal for the History of Philosophy 23 (1):161-184.
    This paper advances the view that the history of philosophy is both a kind of history and a kind of philosophy. Through a discussion of some examples from epistemology, metaphysics, and the historiography of philosophy, it explores the benefit to philosophy of a deep and broad engagement with its history. It comes to the conclusion that doing history of philosophy is a way to think outside the box of the current philosophical orthodoxies. Somewhat paradoxically, far from (...)
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  41.  19
    Francis Fukuyama (1992). The End of History and the Last Man. Free Press ;.
    Ever since its first publication in 1992, The End of History and the Last Man has provoked controversy and debate. Francis Fukuyama's prescient analysis of religious fundamentalism, politics, scientific progress, ethical codes, and war is as essential for a world fighting fundamentalist terrorists as it was for the end of the Cold War. Now updated with a new afterword, The End of History and the Last Man is a modern classic.
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  42. Ericka Tucker (2013). The Subject of History: Historical Subjectivity and Historical Science. Journal of the Philosophy of History 7 (2):205-229.
    In this paper, I show how the phenomenological and hermeneutic traditions and method converge on their treatment of the historical subject. Thinkers from both traditions claim that subjectivity is shaped by a historical worldview. Each tradition provides an account of how these worldviews are shaped, and thus how essentially historical subjective experience is molded. I argue that both traditions, although offering helpful ways of understanding the way history shapes subjectivity, go too far in their epistemic claims for the superiority (...)
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  43.  40
    Daniel Nolan (2016). The Possibilities of History. Journal of the Philosophy of History 10 (3):441-456.
    _ Source: _Volume 10, Issue 3, pp 441 - 456 Several kinds of historical alternatives are distinguished. Different kinds of historical alternatives are valuable to the practice of history for different reasons. Important uses for historical alternatives include representing different sides of historical disputes; distributing chances of different outcomes over alternatives; and offering explanations of why various alternatives did _not_ in fact happen. Consideration of counterfactuals about what would have happened had things been different in particular ways plays particularly (...)
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  44.  30
    Michael Beaney (2016). Historiography, Philosophy of History and the Historical Turn in Analytic Philosophy. Journal of the Philosophy of History 10 (2):211-234.
    _ Source: _Volume 10, Issue 2, pp 211 - 234 This article has three main interconnected aims. First, I illustrate the historiographical conceptions of three early analytic philosophers: Frege, Russell and Wittgenstein. Second, I consider some of the historiographical debates that have been generated by the recent historical turn in analytic philosophy, looking at the work of Scott Soames and Hans-Johann Glock, in particular. Third, I discuss Arthur Danto’s _Analytic Philosophy of History_, published 50 years ago, and argue for a (...)
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  45.  46
    Gary Hatfield (2005). The History of Philosophy as Philosophy. In Tom Sorell & G. A. J. Rogers (eds.), Analytic Philosophy and History of Philosophy. Oxford University Press 82-128.
    The chapter begins with an initial survey of ups and downs of contextualist history of philosophy during the twentieth century in Britain and America, which finds that historically serious history of philosophy has been on the rise. It then considers ways in which the study of past philosophy has been used and is used in philosophy, and makes a case for the philosophical value and necessity of a contextually oriented approach. It examines some uses of past texts and (...)
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  46.  17
    Marianne Sommer (2008). History in the Gene: Negotiations Between Molecular and Organismal Anthropology. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 41 (3):473 - 528.
    In the advertising discourse of human genetic database projects, of genetic ancestry tracing companies, and in popular books on anthropological genetics, what I refer to as the anthropological gene and genome appear as documents of human history, by far surpassing the written record and oral history in scope and accuracy as archives of our past. How did macromolecules become "documents of human evolutionary history"? Historically, molecular anthropology, a term introduced by Emile Zuckerkandl in 1962 to characterize the (...)
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  47. Serge Grigoriev (2012). Dewey: A Pragmatist View of History. Journal of the Philosophy of History 6 (2):173-194.
    Despite the centrality of the idea of history to Dewey's overall philosophical outlook, his brief treatment of philosophical issues in history has never attracted much attention, partly because of the dearth of the available material. Nonetheless, as argued in this essay, what we do have provides for the outlines of a comprehensive pragmatist view of history distinguished by an emphasis on methodological pluralism and a principled opposition to thinking of historical knowledge in correspondence terms. The key conceptions (...)
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  48.  19
    Joeri Witteveen (forthcoming). Suppressing Synonymy with a Homonym: The Emergence of the Nomenclatural Type Concept in Nineteenth Century Natural History. Journal of the History of Biology.
    ‘Type’ in biology is a polysemous term. In a landmark article, Paul Farber (Journal of the History of Biology 9(1): 93–119, 1976) argued that this deceptively plain term had acquired three different meanings in early nineteenth century natural history alone. ‘Type’ was used in relation to three distinct type concepts, each of them associated with a different set of practices. Important as Farber’s analysis has been for the historiography of natural history, his account conceals an important dimension (...)
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  49. Aaron D. Cobb (2011). History and Scientific Practice in the Construction of an Adequate Philosophy of Science: Revisiting a Whewell/Mill Debate. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 42 (1):85-93.
    William Whewell raised a series of objections concerning John Stuart Mill’s philosophy of science which suggested that Mill’s views were not properly informed by the history of science or by adequate reflection on scientific practices. The aim of this paper is to revisit and evaluate this incisive Whewellian criticism of Mill’s views by assessing Mill’s account of Michael Faraday’s discovery of electrical induction. The historical evidence demonstrates that Mill’s reconstruction is an inadequate reconstruction of this historical episode and the (...)
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  50. Paul Redding (2013). The Necessity of History for Philosophy – Even Analytic Philosophy. Journal of the Philosophy of History 7 (3):299-325.
    Analytic philosophers are often said to be indifferent or even hostile to the history of philosophy – that is, not to the idea of history of philosophy as such, but regarded as a species of the genus philosophy rather than the genus history. Here it is argued that such an attitude is actually inconsistent with approaches within the philosophies of mind that are typical within analytic philosophy. It is suggested that the common “argument rather than pedigree” claim (...)
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