Search results for 'Tractatus' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Hao Tang (2011). Transcendental Idealism in Wittgenstein's Tractatus. Philosophical Quarterly 61 (244):598-607.score: 24.0
    Wittgenstein's Tractatus contains an insubstantial form of transcendental idealism. It is insubstantial because it rejects the substantial a priori. Yet despite this, the Tractatus still contains two fundamental transcendental idealist insights, (a) the identity of form between thought and reality, and (b) the transcendental unity of apperception. I argue for (a) by connecting general themes in the Tractatus and in Kant, and for (b) by giving a detailed interpretation of Tractatus 5.6ff., where Wittgenstein talks about solipsism (...)
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  2. Nikolay Milkov, The Method of Wittgenstein’s Tractatus: Towards a New Interpretation.score: 24.0
    This paper introduces a novel interpretation of Wittgenstein’s Tractatus, a work widely held to be one of the most intricate in the philosophical canon. What’s original to this interpretation is that it reads the Tractatus as advancing a new logical symbolism that enables one to “recognize the formal properties [the logic] of propositions by mere inspection of propositions themselves” (6.122). When viewed in this way, we discover that the Tractatus is a vehicle for elucidating our language. Unlike (...)
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  3. José L. Zalabardo (2010). The Tractatus on Logical Consequence. European Journal of Philosophy 18 (3):425-442.score: 24.0
    I discuss the account of logical consequence advanced in Wittgenstein's Tractatus. I argue that the role that elementary propositions are meant to play in this account can be used to explain two remarkable features that Wittgenstein ascribes to them: that they are logically independent from one another and that their components refer to simple objects. I end with a proposal as to how to understand Wittgenstein's claim that all propositions can be analysed as truth functions of elementary propositions.
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  4. Max Rosenkrantz (2009). The Tractatus Theory of Descriptions. Theoria 75 (4):252-271.score: 24.0
    In this article I construe Russell's definite description notation as a fragment of an "ideal language"– a language in which, as Russell puts it in the "Logical Atomism" lectures, "the words in a proposition correspond one by one with the components of the corresponding fact." Russell's notation – containing as it does variables, quantifiers and the identity sign – commits him to an ontology that is lavish indeed. It thus conflicts with the spirit of the theory of descriptions, which is (...)
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  5. Colin Johnston (2007). Symbols in Wittgenstein's Tractatus. European Journal of Philosophy 15 (3):367-394.score: 24.0
    This paper is concerned with the status of a symbol in Wittgenstein’s Tractatus. It is claimed in the first section that a Tractarian symbol, whilst essentially a syntactic entity to be distinguished from the mark or sound that is its sign, bears its semantic significance only inessentially. In the second and third sections I pursue this point of exegesis through the Tractarian discussions of nonsense and the context principle respectively. The final section of the paper places the forgoing work (...)
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  6. Philip Hugly & Charles Sayward (1990). Tractatus 6.2–6.22. Philosophical Investigations 13 (2):126-136.score: 24.0
    It is argued that Wittgenstein’s remarks 6.2-6.22 Tractatus fare well when one focuses on non-quantificational arithmetic, but they are problematic when one moves to quantificational arithmetic.
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  7. Kai Wehmeier (2009). On Ramsey's 'Silly Delusion' Regarding Tractatus 5.53. In Giuseppe Primiero & Shahid Rahman (eds.), Acts of Knowledge - History, Philosophy and Logic. College Publications.score: 24.0
    We investigate a variant of the variable convention proposed at Tractatus 5.53ff for the purpose of eliminating the identity sign from logical notation. The variant in question is what Hintikka has called the strongly exclusive interpretation of the variables, and turns out to be what Ramsey initially (and erroneously) took to be Wittgenstein's intended method. We provide a tableau calculus for this identity-free logic, together with soundness and completeness proofs, as well as a proof of mutual interpretability with first-order (...)
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  8. Hong LI & Donghui HAN (2007). What is "the Ineffable" Exactly? An Extensive Reading of Wittgenstein's Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus. Frontiers of Philosophy in China 2 (3):402 - 411.score: 24.0
    "The ineffable" in Wittgenstein's Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus is an essential term that has various interpretations. It could be divided into two types, namely, positive and negative, or real and fake. The negative or fake type can be clarified by logical analysis, while the positive or real type can be understood only through philosophical critique. Both the positive and negative types consist of infinity or absoluteness, but the infinity is subject to distinctions in meaning and logic. "" «» , (...)
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  9. Felipe Ledesma (2007). The Ontological Argument in the Tractatus. Metaphysica 8 (2):179-201.score: 24.0
    The intention of this article is to show that the Tractatus deals with the problem of the relation between reality, possibility, and necessity as traditionally considered in the ontological argument, that is, in relation to the idea of limit, and that in Section 5.5521, we find an especially clarifying formulation of this question; the formulation itself, however, is not at all clear, so that a lengthy commentary of it is justified.
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  10. Luigi Campi (2011). Yet Another 'Lost' Chapter of Wyclif's Summa de Ente Notes on Some Puzzling References to Tractatus 13 1. Vivarium 49 (4):353-367.score: 24.0
    Abstract This paper deals with three references found in John Wyclif's unpublished De scientia Dei to a certain Tractatus 13 , whose title relates to the position it holds in the first book of Wyclif's Summa de ente . They are puzzling references, since the first book of the Summa is made up barely of seven tracts. In this paper I argue that the three references are actually linking devices to the final section of the De ente praedicamentali (ch. (...)
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  11. Geza Kallay (2012). Nonsense and the Ineffable: Re-Reading the Ethical Standpoint in Wittgenstein's Tractatus. Nordic Wittgenstein Review 1 (1):103-130.score: 24.0
    The paper examines the ethical standpoint of the Tractatus as it has been reconstructed by Cora Diamond (“the austere view”) and gives an account of some of the criticism this reconstruction has received in the work of P. M. S. Hacker and Meredith Williams (“the standard view”). The second half of the paper tries to argue that the austere and the standard views rather complement each other if we recognize “two I ’-s” in the Tractatus and if it (...)
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  12. Wouter F. Kalf (2014). The Tractatus Theologico-Politicus and the Received View of Spinoza on Democracy. Res Publica 20 (3):263-279.score: 24.0
    On many interpretations of Spinoza’s political philosophy, democracy emerges as his ideal type of government. But a type of government can be ideal and yet it can be unwise to implement it if certain background conditions obtain. For example, a dominion’s people can be too ‘wretched by the conditions of slavery’ to rule themselves. This begs the following question. Do Spinoza’s arguments for democracy entail that all political bodies should be democracies at all times (the received view), or do they (...)
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  13. Jose L. Zalabardo (2012). Reference, Simplicity and Necessary Existence in the Tractatus. In , Wittgenstein's Early Philosophy. Oxford University Press. 119-150.score: 24.0
    Many interpreters of the Tractatus accept that the book endorses an argument for simples based on the reflection that, since complexes exist only contingently, if names referred to complexes the propositions in which they figure would lack sense if their referents went out of existence. More specifically, most interpreters read 2.0211-2.0212 as putting forward this argument. My main goal in this paper is to attack this reading and to put forward an alternative. I argue that there is no good (...)
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  14. Horacio Luján Martínez (2010). Alcance Y pertinencia de las lecturas éticas Del tractatus de Wittgenstein. Ideas Y Valores 59 (142):111-130.score: 24.0
    Si bien reconocemos el valor de las interpretaciones éticas del Tractatus Logicophilosophicus, creemos que muchas de estas sobredimensionan el lugar y el valor de la ética en la estructura del libro. Se analizan tales lecturas para exponer sus méritos y sus fallas, y abordar lo que llamamos "complem..
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  15. Bento Prado Neto (2013). Nota sobre infinito atual e forma lógica no Tractatus. Discurso 38:197-214.score: 24.0
    Parece haver quase um consenso, entre os comentadores, em torno da tese segundo a qual o “primeiro Wittgenstein” nada veria de problemático na ideia de um infinito atual, ao contrário do que claramente ocorre com o “segundo Wittgenstein”. O que eu gostaria de fazer aqui não é tentar reverter esse veredicto, mas sugerir que o exame das provas que o sustentam merece ser refeito. Para tanto, começarei por tentar mostrar como a letra dos aforismos 5.526 e 5.5262 parece levantar uma (...)
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  16. Dawn M. Phillips (2007). Complete Analysis and Clarificatory Analysis in Wittgenstein's Tractatus. In Michael Beaney (ed.), The Analytic Turn: Analysis in Early Analytic Philosophy and Phenomenology. Routledge. 164.score: 24.0
    I examine the relationship between complete analysis and clarificatory analysis and explain why Wittgenstein thought he required both in his account of how to solve the problems of philosophy. I first describe Wittgenstein’s view of how philosophical confusions arise, by explaining how it is possible to misunderstand the logic of everyday language. I argue that any method of logical analysis in the Tractatus will inevitably be circular, but explain why this does not threaten the prospect of solving philosophical problems. (...)
     
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  17. Ian Proops (2001). Logical Syntax in the Tractatus. In Richard Gaskin (ed.), Grammar in Early Twentieth-Century Philosophy. Routledge. 163.score: 21.0
    An essay on Wittgenstein's conception of nonsense and its relation to his idea that "logic must take care of itself". I explain how Wittgenstein's theory of symbolism is supposed to resolve Russell's paradox, and I offer an alternative to Cora Diamond's influential account of Wittgenstein's diagnosis of the error in the so-called "natural view" of nonsense.
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  18. Daniele Mezzadri (2013). Language and Logic in Wittgenstein's Tractatus. Nordic Wittgenstein Review 2 (1):57-80.score: 21.0
    Name der Zeitschrift: Nordic Wittgenstein Review Jahrgang: 2 Heft: 1 Seiten: 57-80.
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  19. Alberto Voltolini (2002). Possible Objects and Possible States of Affairs in Wittgenstein's Tractatus. In P. Frascolla (ed.), Tractatus logico-philosophicus: Sources, Themes, Perspectives. Università degli studi della Basilicata. 129-153.score: 21.0
    In one of its latest papers Timothy Williamson has drawn a distinction between two readings of the phrase "possible F", where "F" is a predicate variable: the predicative and the attributive. In what follows, on the one hand I will hold that the first reading naturally applies to the phrase "possible object", thereby supporting a moderata conception of possibilia as entities that possibly exist. Moreover, I will maintain that one such conception provides the best possible account of Tractarian objects. On (...)
     
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  20. Harm-Jan van Dam (2013). Second Thoughts? Ordinum Pietas and the Tractatus de Jure Magistratuum. Grotiana 34 (1):120-137.score: 21.0
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  21. Marcos Silva (2013). Resenha ao tractatus logico-philosophicus. Philósophos - Revista de Filosofia 17 (2):263-288.score: 21.0
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  22. Chris Bezzel (ed.) (2005). Sagen Und Zeigen: Wittgensteins "Tractatus", Sprache Und Kunst. Parerga.score: 21.0
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  23. Angel D'Ors† (2013). Logic in Salamanca in the Fifteenth CenturyThe Tractatus Suppositionum Terminorum by Master Franquera. Vivarium 51 (1-4):427-463.score: 21.0
  24. Ian Proops (2002). The Tractatus on Inference and Entailment. In Erich Reck (ed.), From Frege to Wittgenstein: Essays on Early Analytic Philosophy, 283–307. Oxford University Press.score: 18.0
    In the Tractatus Wittgenstein criticizes Frege and Russell's view that laws of inference (Schlussgesetze) "justify" logical inferences. What lies behind this criticism, I argue, is an attack on Frege and Russell's conceptions of logical entailment. In passing, I examine Russell's dispute with Bradley on the question whether all relations are "internal".
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  25. James Conant & Cora Diamond (2004). On Reading the Tractatus Resolutely: Reply to Meredith Williams and Peter Sullivan. In Max Kölbel & Bernhard Weiss (eds.), Wittgenstein's lasting significance. Routledge.score: 18.0
    Wittgenstein gives voice to an aspiration that is central to his later philosophy, well before he becomes later Wittgenstein, when he writes in §4.112 of the Tractatus that philosophy is not a matter of putting forward a doctrine or a theory, but consists rather in the practice of an activity – an activity he goes on to characterize as one of elucidation or clarification – an activity which he says does not result in philosophische Sätze, in propositions of philosophy, (...)
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  26. Edmund Dain (2006). Contextualism and Nonsense in Wittgenstein's Tractatus. South African Journal of Philosophy 25 (2):91-101.score: 18.0
    Central to a new, or 'resolute', reading of Wittgenstein's Tractatus Logico- Philosophicus is the idea that Wittgenstein held there an 'austere' view of nonsense: the view, that is, that nonsense is only ever a matter of our failure to give words a meaning, and so that there are no logically distinct kinds of nonsense. Resolute readers tend not only to ascribe such a view to Wittgenstein, but also to subscribe to it themselves; and it is also a feature of (...)
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  27. Cora Diamond (2005). Logical Syntax in Wittgenstein's Tractatus. Philosophical Quarterly 55 (218):78 - 89.score: 18.0
    P.M.S. Hacker has argued that there are numerous misconceptions in James Conant's account of Wittgenstein's views and of those of Carnap. I discuss only Hacker's treatment of Conant on logical syntax in the _Tractatus. I try to show that passages in the _Tractatus which Hacker takes to count strongly against Conant's view do no such thing, and that he himself has not explained how he can account for a significant passage which certainly appears to support Conant's reading.
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  28. Leo K. C. Cheung (2008). The Disenchantment of Nonsense: Understanding Wittgenstein's Tractatus. Philosophical Investigations 31 (3):197–226.score: 18.0
    This paper aims to argue against the resolute reading, and offer a correct way of reading Wittgenstein'sTractatus. According to the resolute reading, nonsense can neither say nor show anything. The Tractatus does not advance any theory of meaning, nor does it adopt the notion of using signs in contravention of logical syntax. Its sentences, except a few constituting the frame, are all nonsensical. Its aim is merely to liberate nonsense utterers from nonsense. I argue that these points are either (...)
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  29. Oskari Kuusela, Tractatus' Failure.score: 18.0
    In this paper I discuss the role of the nonsensical ‘statements’ of Wittgenstein’s Tractatus and the aims of the book, a topic which has in recent years been the subject of, at times heated, controversy among Wittgenstein’s readers.1 In this debate the so-called ineffability interpretation argues that the role of nonsense in the Tractatus is to make us grasp ineffable truths which ‘strictly speaking’ cannot be said or thought2. By contrast, the interpretation known as the resolute reading emphasises (...)
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  30. Pete Mandik (2007). Picturing, Showing, and Solipsism in Wittgenstein's Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus. Analysis and Metaphysics 6 (1).score: 18.0
    Of all the enigmatic remarks running through Wittgensteinís Tractatus, none are a greater source of puzzlement to this reader than the endorsement of solipsism in 5.6-5.641. Wittgenstein writes ìI am my worldî, but, even though ìwhat solipsism means, is quite correct...it cannot be said, but it shows itselfî (5.63; 5.62). More intriguing still, he writes.
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  31. Danièle Moyal-Sharrock (2007). The Good Sense of Nonsense: A Reading of Wittgenstein's Tractatus as Nonself-Repudiating. Philosophy 82 (1):147-177.score: 18.0
    This paper aims to return Wittgenstein's Tractatus to its original stature by showing that it is not the self-repudiating work commentators take it to be, but the consistent masterpiece its author believed it was at the time he wrote it. The Tractatus has been considered self-repudiating for two reasons: it refers to its own propositions as ‘nonsensical’, and it makes what Peter Hacker calls ‘paradoxical ineffability claims’ – that is, its remarks are themselves instances of what (...)
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  32. Peter M. Sullivan (2002). On Trying to Be Resolute: A Response to Kremer on the Tractatus. European Journal of Philosophy 10 (1):43–78.score: 18.0
    A way of reading the Tractatus has been proposed which, according to its advocates, is importantly novel and essentially distinct from anything to be found in the work of such previously influential students of the book as Anscombe, Stenius, Hacker or Pears. The point of difference is differently described, but the currently most used description seems to be Goldfarb’s term ‘resolution’ – hence one speaks of ‘the (or a) resolute reading’. I’ll shortly ask what resolution is. For now, (...)
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  33. Anthony Palmer (2011). Propositions, Properties and Relations: Wittgenstein's “Notes on Logic” and the Tractatus. Philosophical Investigations 34 (1):77-93.score: 18.0
    Frege famously argued that truth is not a property or relation. In the “Notes on Logic” Wittgenstein emphasised the bi-polarity of propositions which he called their sense. He argued that “propositions by virtue of sense cannot have predicates or relations.” This led to his fundamental thought that the logical constants do not represent predicates or relations. The idea, however, has wider ramifications than that. It is not just that propositions cannot have relations to other propositions but also that they cannot (...)
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  34. Daniele Mezzadri (2010). Language and Logic in Wittgenstein's Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus. Dissertation, University of Stirlingscore: 18.0
    This thesis discusses some central aspects of Wittgenstein's conception of language and logic in his Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus and brings them into relation with the philosophies of Frege and Russell. The main contention is that a fruitful way of understanding the Tractatus is to see it as responding to tensions in Frege's conception of logic and Russell's theory of judgement. In the thesis the philosophy of the Tractatus is presented as developing from these two strands of criticism and (...)
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  35. James Conant, Why Worry About the Tractatus?score: 18.0
    Why worry about Wittgenstein’s Tractatus? Did not Wittgenstein himself come to think it was largely a mistaken work? Is not Wittgenstein’s important work his later work? And does not his later work consist in a rejection of his earlier views? So does not the interest of the Tractatus mostly lie in its capacity to furnish a particularly vivid exemplar of the sort of philosophy that the mature Wittgenstein was most concerned to reject? So is it not true that (...)
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  36. Christopher Campbell (2014). Categorial Indeterminacy, Generality and Logical Form in Wittgenstein's Tractatus. European Journal of Philosophy 22 (1):138-158.score: 18.0
    Many commentators have attempted to say, more clearly than Wittgenstein did in his Tractatus logico-philosophicus, what sort of things the ‘simple objects’ spoken of in that book are. A minority approach, but in my view the correct one, is to reject all such attempts as misplaced. The Tractarian notion of an object is categorially indeterminate: in contrast with both Frege's and Russell's practice, it is not the logician's task to give a specific categorial account of the internal structure of (...)
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  37. Yitzhak Y. Melamed (2013). “Spinoza’s Respublica Divina:” in Otfried Höffe (Ed.), Baruch de Spinozas Tractatus Theologico-Politicus (Berlin: Akademie Verlag (Klassiker Aulegen), Forthcoming). In Otfried Höffe (ed.), Baruch de Spinozas Tractatus theologico-politicus. Akademie Verlag (Klassiker Aulegen). 177-192.score: 18.0
    Chapters 17 and 18 of the TTP constitute a textual unit in which Spinoza submits the case of the ancient Hebrew state to close examination. This is not the work of a historian, at least not in any sense that we, twenty-first century readers, would recognize as such. Many of Spinoza’s claims in these chapters are highly speculative, and seem to be poorly backed by historical evidence. Other claims are broad-brush, ahistorical generalizations: for example, in a marginal note, Spinoza refers (...)
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  38. Peter M. Sullivan (2005). Identity Theories of Truth and the Tractatus. Philosophical Investigations 28 (1):43–62.score: 18.0
    The paper is concerned with the idea that the world is the totality of facts, not of things – with what is involved in thinking of the world in that way, and why one might do so. It approaches this issue through a comparison between Wittgenstein’s Tractatus and the identity theory of truth proposed by Hornsby and McDowell.The paper’s positive conclusion is that there is a genuine affinity between these two. A negative contention is that the modern identity (...)
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  39. Marie McGinn (1999). Between Metaphysics and Nonsense: Elucidation in Wittgenstein's Tractatus. Philosophical Quarterly 50 (197):491-513.score: 18.0
    There are currently two readings of Tractatus, the metaphysical and the therapeutic. I argue that neither of these is satisfactory. I develop a third reading, the elucidatory reading. This shares the therapeutic interpretation’s emphasis on the idea that Wittgenstein’s remarks are intended to work on the reader, but instead of seeing these remarks as directed (problematically) at revealing their own nonsensical status, I take the remarks to be aimed at bringing a certain order to the reader’s perception of language. (...)
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  40. Peter Carruthers (1990). The Metaphysics of the Tractatus. Cambridge University Press.score: 18.0
    In this clear and original study of the Tractatus Peter Carruthers has two principal aims. He seeks to make sense of Wittgenstein's metaphysical doctrines, showing how powerful arguments may be deployed in their support. He also aims to locate the crux of the conflict between Wittgenstein's early and late philosophies. This is shown to arise from his earlier commitment to the objectivity of logic and logical relations, which is the true target of attack of his later discussion of rule-following. (...)
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  41. Phil Hutchinson & Rupert Read (2006). An Elucidatory Interpretation of Wittgenstein's Tractatus: A Critique of Daniel D. Hutto's and Marie McGinn's Reading of Tractatus 6.54. International Journal of Philosophical Studies 14 (1):1 – 29.score: 18.0
    Much has been written on the relative merits of different readings of Wittgenstein's Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus. The recent renewal of the debate has almost exclusively been concerned with variants of the ineffabilist (metaphysical) reading of TL-P - notable such readings have been advanced by Elizabeth Anscombe, P. M. S. Hacker and H. O. Mounce - and the recently advanced variants of therapeutic (resolute) readings - notable advocates of which are James Conant, Cora Diamond, Juliet Floyd and Michael Kremer. During this (...)
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  42. Oskari Kuusela (2012). Carnap and the Tractatus' Philosophy of Logic. Journal for the History of Analytical Philosophy 1 (3):1-25.score: 18.0
    This article discusses the relation between the early Wittgenstein’s and Carnap’s philosophies of logic, arguing that Carnap’s position in The Logical Syntax of Language is in certain respects much closer to the Tractatus than has been recognized. In Carnapian terms, the Tractatus’ goal is to introduce, by means of quasi-syntactical sentences, syntactical principles and concepts to be used in philosophical clarification in the formal mode. A distinction between the material and formal mode is therefore already part of the (...)
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  43. Raul Corazzon, The Ontology of Wittgenstein's Tractatus.score: 18.0
    "The Tractatus comprises four parts, which correspond to stages of its rocky development: the theory of logic (1912-14), the picture theory (1914), the discussion of science and mathematics (1915-17), and the discussion of the mystical (1916-17). The structure of the book is as follows.
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  44. Leo K. C. Cheung (2004). Showing, Analysis and the Truth-Functionality of Logical Necessity in Wittgenstein's Tractatus. Synthese 139 (1):81 - 105.score: 18.0
    This paper aims to explain how the Tractatus attempts to unify logic by deriving the truth-functionality of logical necessity from the thesis that a proposition shows its sense. I first interpret the Tractarian notion of showing as the displaying of what is intrinsic to an expression (or a symbol). Then I argue that, according to the Tractatus, the thesis that a proposition shows its sense implies the determinacy of sense, the possibility of the complete elimination of non-primitive symbols, (...)
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  45. Peter M. Sullivan (2004). ‘The General Propositional Form is a Variable’ (Tractatus 4.53). Mind 113 (449):43-56.score: 18.0
    Wittgenstein presents in the Tractatus a variable purporting to capture the general form of proposition. One understanding of what Wittgenstein is doing there, an understanding in line with the ‘new’ reading of his work championed by Diamond, Conant and others, sees it as a deflationary or even an implosive move—a move by which a concept sometimes put by philosophers to distinctively metaphysical use is replaced, in a perspicuous notation, by an innocent device of generalization, thereby dispersing the clouds (...)
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  46. Hans Johann Glock (2006). Truth in the Tractatus. Synthese 148 (2):345 - 368.score: 18.0
    My paper takes issue both with the standard view that the Tractatus contains a correspondence theory and with recent suggestions that it features a deflationary or semantic theory. Standard correspondence interpretations are mistaken, because they treat the isomorphism between a sentence and what it depicts as a sufficient condition of truth rather than of sense. The semantic/deflationary interpretation ignores passages that suggest some kind of correspondence theory. The official theory of truth in the Tractatus is an obtainment theory (...)
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  47. Benedictus de Spinoza (1989). Tractatus Theologico-Politicus: (Gebhardt Edition, 1925). E.J. Brill.score: 18.0
    INTRODUCTION BRAD S. GREGORY Until now those interested in Spinoza have lacked an adequate English translation of the Tractatus Theologico-Politicus. ...
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  48. Pasquale Frascolla (1997). The Tractatus System of Arithmetic. Synthese 112 (3):353-378.score: 18.0
    The philosophy of arithmetic of Wittgenstein's Tractatus is outlined and the central role played in it by the general notion of operation is pointed out. Following which, the language, the axioms and the rules of a formal theory of operations, extracted from the Tractatus, are presented and a theorem of interpretability of the equational fragment of Peano's Arithmetic into such a formal theory is proven.
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  49. Pasquale Frascolla (2006). Understanding Wittgenstein's Tractatus. Routledge.score: 18.0
    Understanding Wittgenstein's Tractatus is essential reading for anyone wishing to further their insight into one of the most influential works of twentieth ...
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  50. Denis McManus (2006/2010). The Enchantment of Words: Wittgenstein's Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus. Oxford University Press.score: 18.0
    The Enchantment of Words is a study of Wittgenstein's early masterpiece, the Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus. Recent years have seen a great revival of interest in the Tractatus. McManus's study of the work offers novel readings of all its major themes and sheds light on issues in metaphysics, ethics and the philosophies of mind, language, and logic.
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