Search results for 'Tracy Shepherd' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Georgina M. Jackson, Tracy Shepherd, Sven C. Mueller, Masid Husain & Stephen R. Jackson (2006). Dorsal Simultanagnosia: An Impairment of Visual Processing or Visual Awareness? Cortex 42 (5):740-749.score: 240.0
     
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  2. Joshua Shepherd & James Justus (forthcoming). X-Phi and Carnapian Explication. Erkenntnis:1-22.score: 30.0
    The rise of experimental philosophy (x-phi) has placed metaphilosophical questions, particularly those concerning concepts, at the center of philosophical attention. X-phi offers empirically rigorous methods for identifying conceptual content, but what exactly it contributes towards evaluating conceptual content remains unclear. We show how x-phi complements Rudolf Carnap’s underappreciated methodology for concept determination, explication. This clarifies and extends x-phi’s positive philosophical import, and also exhibits explication’s broad appeal. But there is a potential problem: Carnap’s account of explication was limited to empirical (...)
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  3. Joshua Shepherd (forthcoming). Conscious Control Over Action. Mind and Language.score: 30.0
    The extensive involvement of nonconscious processes in human behaviour has led some to suggest that consciousness is much less important for the control of action than we might think. In this paper I push against this trend, developing an understanding of conscious control that is sensitive to our best models of overt (that is, bodily) action control. Further, I assess the cogency of various zombie challenges – challenges that seek to demote the importance of conscious control for human agency. I (...)
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  4. Joshua Shepherd (2014). Causalism and Intentional Omission. American Philosophical Quarterly 51:15-26.score: 30.0
    It is natural to think that at root, agents are beings that act. Agents do more than this, however – agents omit to act. Sometimes agents do so intentionally. How should we understand intentional omission? Recent accounts of intentional omission have given causation a central theoretical role. The move is well-motivated. If some form of causalism about intentional omission can successfully exploit similarities between action and omission, it might inherit the broad support causalism about intentional action enjoys. In this paper (...)
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  5. Joshua Shepherd (2014). The Contours of Control. Philosophical Studies 170 (3):395-411.score: 30.0
    Necessarily, if S lacks the ability to exercise (some degree of) control, S is not an agent. If S is not an agent, S cannot act intentionally, responsibly, or rationally, nor can S possess or exercise free will. In spite of the obvious importance of control, however, no general account of control exists. In this paper I reflect on the nature of control itself. I develop accounts of control’s exercise and control’s possession that illuminate what it is for degrees of (...)
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  6. Joshua Shepherd & Michael Bishop (forthcoming). The Case for Naturalized Epistemology. In Stefan Tolksdorf & Dirk Koppleberg (eds.), Erkenntnistheorie: Wie und Wozu? Mentis Publishers.score: 30.0
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  7. Joshua Shepherd (2013). The Apparent Illusion of Conscious Deciding. Philosophical Explorations 16 (1):18 - 30.score: 30.0
    Recent work in cognitive science suggests that conscious thought plays a much less central role in the production of human behavior than most think. Partially on the basis of this work, Peter Carruthers has advanced the claim that humans never consciously decide to act. This claim is of independent interest for action theory, and its potential truth poses a problem for theories of free will and autonomy, which often take our capacity to consciously decide to be of central importance. In (...)
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  8. Joshua Shepherd (forthcoming). Consciousness, Free Will, and Moral Responsibility: Taking the Folk Seriously. Philosophical Psychology:1-18.score: 30.0
    In this paper I offer evidence that folk views of free will and moral responsibility accord a central place to consciousness. In sections 2 and 3 I contrast action production via conscious states and processes with action in concordance with an agent’s long-standing and endorsed motivations, values, and character traits. Results indicate that conscious action production is considered much more important for free will than is concordance with motivations, values, and character traits. In section 4 I contrast the absence or (...)
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  9. Randolph Clarke, Joshua Shepherd, John Stigall, Robyn Repko Waller & Chris Zarpentine (forthcoming). Causation, Norms, and Omissions: A Study of Causal Judgments. Philosophical Psychology:1-15.score: 30.0
    Many philosophical theories of causation are egalitarian, rejecting a distinction between causes and mere causal conditions. We sought to determine the extent to which people's causal judgments discriminate, selecting as causes counternormal events—those that violate norms of some kind—while rejecting non-violators. We found significant selectivity of this sort. Moreover, priming that encouraged more egalitarian judgments had little effect on subjects. We also found that omissions are as likely as actions to be judged as causes, and that counternormative selectivity appears to (...)
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  10. Joshua Shepherd (2013). Why Block Can't Stand the HOT. Journal of Consciousness Studies 20 (3-4):183-195.score: 30.0
    Ned Block has recently pressed a new criticism of the higher-order thought (HOT) theory of consciousness. HOT proponents have responded in turn. The exchange affords a chance to find some clarity concerning the essential commitments of HOT, as well as a chance to find clarity on the issues that divide Block and HOT proponents. In this paper I discuss the recent exchange, and I draw some lessons. First, I side with HOT proponents in arguing that new criticism presents no new (...)
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  11. Joshua Shepherd (2012). Action, Mindreading and Embodied Social Cognition. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 11 (4):507-518.score: 30.0
    One of the central insights of the embodied cognition (EC) movement is that cognition is closely tied to action. In this paper, I formulate an EC-inspired hypothesis concerning social cognition. In this domain, most think that our capacity to understand and interact with one another is best explained by appeal to some form of mindreading. I argue that prominent accounts of mindreading likely contain a significant lacuna. Evidence indicates that what I call an agent’s actional processes and states—her goals, needs, (...)
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  12. Joshua Shepherd (2012). Free Will and Consciousness: Experimental Studies. Consciousness and Cognition 21 (2):915-927.score: 30.0
    What are the folk-conceptual connections between free will and consciousness? In this paper I present results which indicate that consciousness plays central roles in folk conceptions of free will. When conscious states cause behavior, people tend to judge that the agent acted freely. And when unconscious states cause behavior, people tend to judge that the agent did not act freely. Further, these studies contribute to recent experimental work on folk philosophical affiliation, which analyzes folk responses to determine whether folk views (...)
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  13. Joshua Shepherd (forthcoming). Scientific Challenges to Free Will and Moral Responsibility. Philosophy Compass.score: 30.0
    Here I review work from three lines of research in cognitive science often taken to threaten free will and moral responsibility. This work concerns conscious deciding, the experience of acting, and the role of largely unnoticed situational influences on behavior. Whether this work in fact threatens free will and moral responsibility depends on how we ought to interpret it, and depends as well on the nature of free and responsible behavior. I discuss different ways this work has been interpreted, and (...)
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  14. Joshua Shepherd (forthcoming). Conscious Action/Zombie Action. Noûs.score: 30.0
    I argue that the neural realizers of experiences of trying (that is, experiences of directing effort towards the satisfaction of an intention) are not distinct from the neural realizers of actual trying (that is, actual effort directed towards the satisfaction of an intention). I then ask how experiences of trying might relate to the perceptual experiences one has while acting. First, I assess recent zombie action arguments regarding conscious visual experience, and I argue that contrary to what some have claimed, (...)
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  15. Alfred Mele & Joshua Shepherd (2013). Situationism and Agency. Journal of Practical Ethics 1 (1):62-83.score: 30.0
    Research in psychology indicates that situations powerfully impact human behavior. Often, it seems, features of situations drive our behavior even when we remain unaware of these features or their influence. One response to this research is pessimism about human agency: human agents have little conscious control over their own behavior, and little insight into why they do what they do. In this paper we review classic and more recent studies indicating “the power of the situation,” and argue for a more (...)
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  16. Joshua Shepherd (2012). Action, Attitude, and the Knobe Effect: Another Asymmetry. Review of Philosophy and Psychology 3 (2):171-185.score: 30.0
    A majority of people regard the harmful side-effects of an agent’s behavior as much more intentional than an agent’s helpful side-effects. In this paper, I present evidence for a related asymmetry. When a side-effect action is an instance of harming , folk ascriptions are significantly impacted by the relative badness of either an agent’s main goal or her side-effect action, but not her attitude. Yet when a side-effect action is an instance of helping , folk ascriptions are sensitive to an (...)
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  17. Joshua Shepherd (2014). Deciding as Intentional Action: Control Over Decisions. Australasian Journal of Philosophy:1-17.score: 30.0
    Common-sense folk psychology and mainstream philosophy of action agree about decisions: these are under an agent's direct control, and are thus intentional actions for which agents can be held responsible. I begin this paper by presenting a problem for this view. In short, since the content of the motivational attitudes that drive deliberation and decision remains open-ended until the moment of decision, it is unclear how agents can be thought to exercise control over what they decide at the moment of (...)
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  18. Thomas F. Tracy (2000). Divine Action and Quantum Theory. Zygon 35 (4):891-900.score: 30.0
  19. J. D. Shepherd (2012). A Human Right Not to Be Punished? Punishment as Derogation of Rights. Criminal Law and Philosophy 6 (1):31-45.score: 30.0
    In this essay, I apply international human rights theory to the domestic discussion of criminalization. The essay takes as its starting point the “right not to be punished” that Douglas Husak posited in his recent book Overcriminalization . By reviewing international human rights norms, I take up Husak’s challenge to imbue this right with further normative content. This process reveals additional relationships between the criminal law and human rights theory, and I discuss one analogy: the derogation by states of an (...)
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  20. H. L. Tracy (1941). An Intellectual Factor in Aesthetic Pleasure. Philosophical Review 50 (5):498-508.score: 30.0
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  21. Thomas F. Tracy (1992). Victimization and the Problem of Evil. Faith and Philosophy 9 (3):301-319.score: 30.0
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  22. Thomas F. Tracy (2013). Divine Purpose and Evolutionary Processes. Zygon 48 (2):454-465.score: 30.0
    When Darwin's theory of natural selection threatened to put Paley's Designer out of a job, one response was to reemploy God as the author of the evolutionary process itself. This idea requires an account of how God might be understood to act in biological history. I approach this question in two stages: first, by considering God's action as creator of the world as a whole, and second, by exploring the idea of particular divine action in the course of evolution. As (...)
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  23. Robert J. Shepherd (2007). Perpetual Unease or Being at Ease? -- Derrida, Daoism, and the 'Metaphysics of Presence'. Philosophy East and West 57 (2):227-243.score: 30.0
    : Interesting work has been done on the striking similarities between the key arguments of the late Jacques Derrida and Daoism. While named otherwise, such Derridean signposts as the metaphysics of presence, the duality of language, and logocentrism are found in Daoist views of the relationship between reality, speech, writing, and knowledge. However, where the limits of language lead Derrida is different from where they take the authors of the Zhuangzi and the Daodejing, in particular regarding the question of action (...)
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  24. Joshua Shepherd, Intentional Control And Consciousness.score: 30.0
    The power to exercise control is a crucial feature of agency. Necessarily, if S cannot exercise some degree of control over anything - any state of affairs, event, process, object, or whatever - S is not an agent. If S is not an agent, S cannot act intentionally, responsibly, or rationally, nor can S possess or exercise free will. In my dissertation I reflect on the nature of control, and on the roles consciousness plays in its exercise. I first consider (...)
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  25. Lois L. Shepherd (2009). If That Ever Happens to Me: Making Life and Death Decisions After Terri Schiavo. University of North Carolina Press.score: 30.0
    Disorders of consciousness and the permanent vegetative state -- Legal and political wrangling over Terri's life -- In context--law and ethics -- Terri's wishes -- The limits of evidence -- The implications of surrogacy -- Qualities of life -- Feeding -- The preservation of life -- Respect and care : an alternative framework.
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  26. Joshua Shepherd (2014). Minimizing Harm Via Psychological Intervention: Response to Glannon. Journal of Medical Ethics 40:662-663.score: 30.0
    In a recent discussion, Walter Glannon discusses a number of ways we might try to minimize harm to patients who experience intraoperative awareness. In this response I direct attention to a possibility that deserves further attention. It might be that a kind of psychological intervention – namely, informing patients of the possibility of intraoperative awareness and of what to expect in such a case – would constitute a unique way to respect patient autonomy, as well as minimize the harm that (...)
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  27. Stephen V. Tracy (1986). Darkness From Light: The Beacon Fire in the Agamemnon. Classical Quarterly 36 (01):257-.score: 30.0
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  28. Paul Sparks & Richard Shepherd (2002). The Role of Moral Judgments Within Expectancy-Value-Based Attitude-Behavior Models. Ethics and Behavior 12 (4):299 – 321.score: 30.0
    Rational choice models are characterized by the image of the self-interested Homo economicus. The role of moral concerns, which may involve a concern for others' welfare in people's judgments and choices, questions the descriptive validity of such models. Increasing evidence of a role for perceived moral obligation within the expectancy-value-based theory of reasoned action and the theory of planned behavior indicates the importance of moral-normative influences in social behavior. In 2 studies, the influence of moral judgments on attitudes toward food (...)
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  29. Lois Shepherd & Margaret Foster Riley (2012). In Plain Sight: A Solution to a Fundamental Challenge in Human Research. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 40 (4):970-989.score: 30.0
    The physician-researcher conflict of interest has thus far eluded satisfactory solution. Most attempts to deal with it focus on improving informed consent. But those attempts are not successful and may even make things worse. Research subjects are already voluntarily undertaking the risks of research — we should not ask them to go it alone — to undergo medical “treatment” without medical “care.” The only effective solution is that in much clinical research, each research subject should have a doctor independent from (...)
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  30. Thomas Tracy (2003). Review of Nicholas Saunders, Divine Action and Modern Science. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2003 (10).score: 30.0
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  31. Thomas F. Tracy (2006). Theologies of Divine Action. In Philip Clayton & Zachory Simpson (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Religion and Science. Oxford University Press. 597.score: 30.0
    Accession Number: ATLA0001712259; Hosting Book Page Citation: p 596-611.; Language(s): English; General Note: Bibliography: p 610-611.; Issued by ATLA: 20130825; Publication Type: Essay.
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  32. John Tsalikis, Bruce Seaton & Philip L. Shepherd (2001). Relativism in Ethical Research: A Proposed Model and Mode of Inquiry. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 32 (3):231 - 246.score: 30.0
    While some of the great thinkers (Socrates, Kant) have argued for an absolutist view of ethical behavior, over the past 250 years the relativist view has become ascendant. Following the contingency framework of Ferrell and Gresham (1985) and the issue contingent model of Jones (1991), a model for ethical research is proposed. The key components include the moral agent/transgressor, the issue type and its intensity, and the nature of the victim. In addition, a statistical methodology, namely conjoint analysis, is introduced (...)
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  33. John Tsalikis, Bruce Seaton & Philip Shepherd (2008). Relative Importance Measurement of the Moral Intensity Dimensions. Journal of Business Ethics 80 (3):613 - 626.score: 30.0
    The relative importance of the Jones’ [Jones, T. M.: 1991, Academy of Management Review 16(2), 366–395] six components of moral intensity was measured using a conjoint experimental design. The most important components influencing ethical perceptions were: probability of effect, magnitude of consequences, and temporal immediacy. Contrary to previous research, overall social consensus was not an important factor. However, consumers exhibit distinctly different patterns in ethical evaluation, and for approximately 15% of respondents social consensus was the most important dimension.
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  34. Aline H. Kalbian & Lois Shepherd (2003). Narrative Portrayals of Genes and Human Flourishing. American Journal of Bioethics 3 (4):15 – 21.score: 30.0
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  35. Carly Ruderman, C. Tracy, Cécile Bensimon, Mark Bernstein, Laura Hawryluck, Randi Zlotnik Shaul & Ross Upshur (2006). On Pandemics and the Duty to Care: Whose Duty? Who Cares? [REVIEW] BMC Medical Ethics 7 (1):1-6.score: 30.0
    Background As a number of commentators have noted, SARS exposed the vulnerabilities of our health care systems and governance structures. Health care professionals (HCPs) and hospital systems that bore the brunt of the SARS outbreak continue to struggle with the aftermath of the crisis. Indeed, HCPs – both in clinical care and in public health – were severely tested by SARS. Unprecedented demands were placed on their skills and expertise, and their personal commitment to their profession was severely tried. Many (...)
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  36. Azim F. Shariff, Jessica L. Tracy, Joey T. Cheng & Joseph Henrich (2010). Further Thoughts on the Evolution of Pride's Two Facets: A Response to Clark. Emotion Review 2 (4):399-400.score: 30.0
    In Clark’s thoughtful analysis of the evolution of the two facets of pride, he suggests that the concurrent existence of hubristic and authentic pride in humans represents a “persistence problem,” wherein the vestigial trait (hubristic pride) continues to exist alongside the derived trait (authentic pride). In our view, evidence for the two facets does not pose a persistence problem; rather, hubristic and authentic pride both likely evolved as higher-order cognitive emotions that solve uniquely human—but distinct— evolutionary problems. Instead of being (...)
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  37. John J. Shepherd (1974). Panpsychism and Parsimony. Process Studies 4 (1):3-10.score: 30.0
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  38. Jonathan Tracy (2010). Fallentia Sidera: The Failure of Astronomical Escapism in Lucan. American Journal of Philology 131 (4):635-661.score: 30.0
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  39. David Tracy (1979). Theological Pluralism and Analogy. Thought 54 (1):24-36.score: 30.0
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  40. H. R. Shepherd (2003). Big Shot: Passion, Politics, and the Struggle for an AIDS Vaccine (Review). Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 46 (4):605-608.score: 30.0
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  41. L. L. Shepherd, K. Read & D. T. Chen (2012). Children Enrolled in Parents' Research: A Uniquely Vulnerable Group in Need of Oversight and Protection. Irb 35 (3):1-8.score: 30.0
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  42. David Tracy (1978). A Theological Response to "Kingdom and Community". Zygon 13 (2):131-135.score: 30.0
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  43. Thomas F. Tracy (1992). God and Creation in Christian Theology. Faith and Philosophy 9 (1):120-124.score: 30.0
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  44. Thomas F. Tracy (1988). Reason, Relativism, and God. Faith and Philosophy 5 (4):459-463.score: 30.0
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  45. David Tracy (1988). Theology and the Hermeneutical Turn. Proceedings of the American Catholic Philosophical Association 62:46-57.score: 30.0
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  46. Mark Weitz, Neil Drummond, Dorothy Pringle, Lorraine E. Ferris, Judith Globerman, Philip Hébert, C. Shawn Tracy & Carole Cohen (2003). In Whose Interest? Current Issues in Communicating Personal Health Information: A Canadian Perspective. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 31 (2):292-301.score: 30.0
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  47. Nancy J. Crigger, Laura Courter, Kristen Hayes & K. Shepherd (2009). Public Perceptions of Health Care Professionals' Participation in Pharmaceutical Marketing. Nursing Ethics 16 (5):647-658.score: 30.0
    Trust in the nurse—patient relationship is maintained not by how professionals perceive their actions but rather by how the public perceives them. However, little is known about the public's view of nurses and other health care professionals who participate in pharmaceutical marketing. Our study describes public perceptions of health care providers' role in pharmaceutical marketing and compares their responses with those of a random sample of licensed family nurse practitioners. The family nurse practitioners perceived their participation in marketing activities as (...)
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  48. Hadyn D. Ellis & John W. Shepherd (1974). Recognition of Abstract and Concrete Words Presented in Left and Right Visual Fields. Journal of Experimental Psychology 103 (5):1035.score: 30.0
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  49. Frederick Tracy (1931). Book Review:The Meaning of the Moral Life. Warren Nelson Nevius; Fundamentals of Ethics. Wilbur Marshall Urban. [REVIEW] Ethics 41 (2):242-.score: 30.0
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  50. W. Carter Johnson, Brett Werner, Glenn R. Guntenspergen, Richard A. Voldseth, Bruce Millett, David E. Naugle, Mirela Tulbure, Rosemary Wh Carroll, John Tracy & Craig Olawsky (2010). Prairie Wetland Complexes as Landscape Functional Units in a Changing Climate. BioScience 60 (2):128-140.score: 30.0
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