Search results for 'Tracy Shepherd' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Georgina M. Jackson, Tracy Shepherd, Sven C. Mueller, Masid Husain & Stephen R. Jackson (2006). Dorsal Simultanagnosia: An Impairment of Visual Processing or Visual Awareness? Cortex 42 (5):740-749.
  2. Mary Shepherd & Jennifer Mcrobert (2000). Philosophical Works of Lady Mary Shepherd. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
     
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  3. Samuel Bower Sinclair & Frederick Tracy (1909). Introductory Educational Psychology, by S.B. Sinclair and F. Tracy.
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  4.  4
    David Tracy (1978). Metaphor and Religion: The Test Case of Christian Texts. Critical Inquiry 5 (1):91-106.
    The Christian religion shares with all major religions a vision of reality informed by a specific cluster of metaphors. The Christian religion also shares with its parent religion, Judaism, and with the other major Western religion, Islam, the peculiarity that it is a religion of the book. The latter statement demands further elaboration. To speak of Western religions as religions of the book does not mean that they are only religions of a text; indeed, specific historical persons and events are (...)
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  5.  46
    Joshua Shepherd & Neil Levy (forthcoming). Consciousness and Morality. In Uriah Kriegel (ed.), Oxford Handbook of the Philosophy of Consciousness. Oxford University Press
    It is well known that the nature of consciousness is elusive, and that attempts to understand it generate problems in metaphysics, philosophy of mind, psychology, and neuroscience. Less appreciated are the important – even if still elusive – connections between consciousness and issues in ethics. In this chapter we consider three such connections. First, we consider the relevance of consciousness for questions surrounding an entity’s moral status. Second, we consider the relevance of consciousness for questions surrounding moral responsibility for action. (...)
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  6.  60
    Joshua Shepherd (forthcoming). The Moral Insignificance of Self-Consciousness. European Journal of Philosophy.
    In this paper I examine the claim that self-consciousness is highly morally significant, such that the fact that an entity is self-conscious generates strong moral reasons against harming or killing that entity. This claim is apparently very intuitive, but I argue it is false. I consider two ways to defend this claim: one indirect, the other direct. The best-known arguments relevant to self-consciousness’s significance take the indirect route. I examine them, and argue that (a) in various ways they depend on (...)
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  7. Joshua Shepherd (2015). Conscious Control Over Action. Mind and Language 30 (3):320-344.
    The extensive involvement of nonconscious processes in human behaviour has led some to suggest that consciousness is much less important for the control of action than we might think. In this article I push against this trend, developing an understanding of conscious control that is sensitive to our best models of overt action control. Further, I assess the cogency of various zombie challenges—challenges that seek to demote the importance of conscious control for human agency. I argue that though nonconscious contributions (...)
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  8.  20
    Myrto Mylopoulos & Joshua Shepherd (forthcoming). Agentive Phenomenology. In Uriah Kriegel (ed.), Oxford Handbook of the Philosophy of Consciousness. Oxford University Press
    In this chapter we reflect on questions about the nature and sources of agentive phenomenology – that is, the set of those experience-types associated with exercises of agency, and paradigmatically with intentional actions. Our discussion begins with pioneering work in psychology and neuroscience that dates to the early 80s (section 1). As we will see, much of the current work on agentive phenomenology in both psychology and philosophy draws motivation from this work, and the questions it raises. After discussing empirical (...)
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  9.  72
    Joshua Shepherd (2016). Moral Conflict in the Minimally Conscious State. In Walter Sinnott-Armstrong (ed.), Finding Consciousness: The Neuroscience, Ethics, and Law of Severe Brain Damage. Oxford University Press 160-179.
  10. Joshua Shepherd (2014). The Contours of Control. Philosophical Studies 170 (3):395-411.
    Necessarily, if S lacks the ability to exercise control, S is not an agent. If S is not an agent, S cannot act intentionally, responsibly, or rationally, nor can S possess or exercise free will. In spite of the obvious importance of control, however, no general account of control exists. In this paper I reflect on the nature of control itself. I develop accounts of control ’s exercise and control ’s possession that illuminate what it is for degrees of control (...)
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  11. Joshua Shepherd & James Justus (2015). X-Phi and Carnapian Explication. Erkenntnis 80 (2):381-402.
    The rise of experimental philosophy has placed metaphilosophical questions, particularly those concerning concepts, at the center of philosophical attention. X-phi offers empirically rigorous methods for identifying conceptual content, but what exactly it contributes towards evaluating conceptual content remains unclear. We show how x-phi complements Rudolf Carnap’s underappreciated methodology for concept determination, explication. This clarifies and extends x-phi’s positive philosophical import, and also exhibits explication’s broad appeal. But there is a potential problem: Carnap’s account of explication was limited to empirical and (...)
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  12. Joshua Shepherd (2016). Conscious Action/Zombie Action. Noûs 50 (2):419-444.
    I argue that the neural realizers of experiences of trying are not distinct from the neural realizers of actual trying . I then ask how experiences of trying might relate to the perceptual experiences one has while acting. First, I assess recent zombie action arguments regarding conscious visual experience, and I argue that contrary to what some have claimed, conscious visual experience plays a causal role for action control in some circumstances. Second, I propose a multimodal account of the experience (...)
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  13. Joshua Shepherd (2015). Scientific Challenges to Free Will and Moral Responsibility. Philosophy Compass 10 (3):197-207.
    Here, I review work from three lines of research in cognitive science often taken to threaten free will and moral responsibility. This work concerns conscious deciding, the experience of acting, and the role of largely unnoticed situational influences on behavior. Whether this work in fact threatens free will and moral responsibility depends on how we ought to interpret it, and depends as well on the nature of free and responsible behavior. I discuss different ways this work has been interpreted and (...)
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  14.  11
    Joshua Shepherd (forthcoming). The Folk Psychological Roots of Free Will. In David Rose (ed.), Experimental Metaphysics. Bloomsbury
    First, what are the psychological roots of our concept of free will? Second, how might progress on the first question contribute to progress regarding normative debates about the proper concept of free will? In sections two and three I address the first question. Section two discusses recent work in the experimental philosophy of free will, and motivates the study I report in section three. Section four reflects on the second question in light of the reported results. To preview, the results (...)
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  15. Joshua Shepherd (2015). Consciousness, Free Will, and Moral Responsibility: Taking the Folk Seriously. Philosophical Psychology 28 (7):929-946.
    In this paper, I offer evidence that folk views of free will and moral responsibility accord a central place to consciousness. In sections 2 and 3, I contrast action production via conscious states and processes with action in concordance with an agent's long-standing and endorsed motivations, values, and character traits. Results indicate that conscious action production is considered much more important for free will than is concordance with motivations, values, and character traits. In section 4, I contrast the absence of (...)
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  16. Joshua Shepherd (2015). Deciding as Intentional Action: Control Over Decisions. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 93 (2):335-351.
    Common-sense folk psychology and mainstream philosophy of action agree about decisions: these are under an agent's direct control, and are thus intentional actions for which agents can be held responsible. I begin this paper by presenting a problem for this view. In short, since the content of the motivational attitudes that drive deliberation and decision remains open-ended until the moment of decision, it is unclear how agents can be thought to exercise control over what they decide at the moment of (...)
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  17. Joshua Shepherd (2013). The Apparent Illusion of Conscious Deciding. Philosophical Explorations 16 (1):18 - 30.
    Recent work in cognitive science suggests that conscious thought plays a much less central role in the production of human behavior than most think. Partially on the basis of this work, Peter Carruthers has advanced the claim that humans never consciously decide to act. This claim is of independent interest for action theory, and its potential truth poses a problem for theories of free will and autonomy, which often take our capacity to consciously decide to be of central importance. In (...)
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  18. Randolph Clarke, Joshua Shepherd, John Stigall, Robyn Repko Waller & Chris Zarpentine (2015). Causation, Norms, and Omissions: A Study of Causal Judgments. Philosophical Psychology 28 (2):279-293.
    Many philosophical theories of causation are egalitarian, rejecting a distinction between causes and mere causal conditions. We sought to determine the extent to which people's causal judgments discriminate, selecting as causes counternormal events—those that violate norms of some kind—while rejecting non-violators. We found significant selectivity of this sort. Moreover, priming that encouraged more egalitarian judgments had little effect on subjects. We also found that omissions are as likely as actions to be judged as causes, and that counternormative selectivity appears to (...)
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  19.  8
    Joshua Shepherd (forthcoming). Neuroscientific Threats to Free Will. In Meghan Griffith, Kevin Timpe & Neil Levy (eds.), The Routledge Companion to Free Will. Routledge
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  20. Joshua Shepherd (2014). Causalism and Intentional Omission. American Philosophical Quarterly 51:15-26.
    It is natural to think that at root, agents are beings that act. Agents do more than this, however – agents omit to act. Sometimes agents do so intentionally. How should we understand intentional omission? Recent accounts of intentional omission have given causation a central theoretical role. The move is well-motivated. If some form of causalism about intentional omission can successfully exploit similarities between action and omission, it might inherit the broad support causalism about intentional action enjoys. In this paper (...)
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  21.  3
    Ruth Macklin & Lois Shepherd (2013). Informed Consent and Standard of Care: What Must Be Disclosed. American Journal of Bioethics 13 (12):9-13.
    The Office for Human Research Protections was correct in determining that the consent forms for the National Institutes of Health -sponsored SUPPORT study were seriously flawed. Several articles defended the consent forms and criticized the OHRP's actions. Disagreement focuses on three central issues: how risks and benefits should be described in informed consent documents; the meaning and application of the concept of “standard of care” in the context of research; and the proper role of OHRP. Examination of the consent forms (...)
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  22. Joshua Shepherd (2012). Free Will and Consciousness: Experimental Studies. Consciousness and Cognition 21 (2):915-927.
    What are the folk-conceptual connections between free will and consciousness? In this paper I present results which indicate that consciousness plays central roles in folk conceptions of free will. When conscious states cause behavior, people tend to judge that the agent acted freely. And when unconscious states cause behavior, people tend to judge that the agent did not act freely. Further, these studies contribute to recent experimental work on folk philosophical affiliation, which analyzes folk responses to determine whether folk views (...)
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  23. Joshua Shepherd & Michael Bishop (2015). Argumente für die naturaliste Erkenntnistheorie. In Stefan Tolksdorf & Dirk Koppleberg (eds.), Erkenntnistheorie: Wie und Wozu? Mentis Publishers 245-274.
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  24.  55
    Anil Gomes, Matthew Parrott & Joshua Shepherd (2016). More Dead Than Dead? Attributing Mentality to Vegetative State Patients. Philosophical Psychology 29 (1):84-95.
    In a recent paper, Gray, Knickman, and Wegner present three experiments which they take to show that people perceive patients in a persistent vegetative state to have less mentality than the dead. Following on from Gomes and Parrott, we provide evidence to show that participants' responses in the initial experiments are an artifact of the questions posed. Results from two experiments show that, once the questions have been clarified, people do not ascribe more mental capacity to the dead than to (...)
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  25. Joshua Shepherd (2013). Why Block Can't Stand the HOT. Journal of Consciousness Studies 20 (3-4):183-195.
    Ned Block has recently pressed a new criticism of the higher-order thought (HOT) theory of consciousness. HOT proponents have responded in turn. The exchange affords a chance to find some clarity concerning the essential commitments of HOT, as well as a chance to find clarity on the issues that divide Block and HOT proponents. In this paper I discuss the recent exchange, and I draw some lessons. First, I side with HOT proponents in arguing that new criticism presents no new (...)
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  26.  96
    Azim F. Shariff, Jessica L. Tracy, Joey T. Cheng & Joseph Henrich (2010). Further Thoughts on the Evolution of Pride's Two Facets: A Response to Clark. Emotion Review 2 (4):399-400.
    In Clark’s thoughtful analysis of the evolution of the two facets of pride, he suggests that the concurrent existence of hubristic and authentic pride in humans represents a “persistence problem,” wherein the vestigial trait (hubristic pride) continues to exist alongside the derived trait (authentic pride). In our view, evidence for the two facets does not pose a persistence problem; rather, hubristic and authentic pride both likely evolved as higher-order cognitive emotions that solve uniquely human—but distinct— evolutionary problems. Instead of being (...)
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  27.  4
    Melanie Shepherd (2016). Cosmological Aesthetics Through the Kantian Sublime and Nietzschean Dionysian by Erman Kaplama. Journal of Nietzsche Studies 47 (2):316-318.
    This two-chapter work brings together Heraclitus, Kant, and Nietzsche in an effort to explore transition and motion, two concepts derived from Kant’s Opus Postumum that the author argues are indications of Kant’s cosmological-aesthetic approach in his late work. At times, the book seems to want to be a work of Kant scholarship, addressing the question of the role of the Opus Postumum in the Kantian corpus. Indeed, the most sustained engagements with secondary literature occur in the sections on Kant. At (...)
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  28.  85
    Alfred Mele & Joshua Shepherd (2013). Situationism and Agency. Journal of Practical Ethics 1 (1):62-83.
    Research in psychology indicates that situations powerfully impact human behavior. Often, it seems, features of situations drive our behavior even when we remain unaware of these features or their influence. One response to this research is pessimism about human agency: human agents have little conscious control over their own behavior, and little insight into why they do what they do. In this paper we review classic and more recent studies indicating “the power of the situation,” and argue for a more (...)
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  29.  10
    Tom Foulsham, Joey T. Cheng, Jessica L. Tracy, Joseph Henrich & Alan Kingstone (2010). Gaze Allocation in a Dynamic Situation: Effects of Social Status and Speaking. Cognition 117 (3):319-331.
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  30. Daniel Carey, Stuart Rosen, Saloni Krishnan, Marcus T. Pearce, Alex Shepherd, Jennifer Aydelott & Frederic Dick (2015). Generality and Specificity in the Effects of Musical Expertise on Perception and Cognition. Cognition 137:81-105.
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  31.  3
    Joshua Shepherd (forthcoming). Kriegel on the Phenomenology of Action. Rivista Internazionale di Filosofia e Psicologia.
    I focus on Uriah Kriegel’s account of conative phenomenology. I agree with Kriegel’s argument that some conative phenomenology is primitive in that some conative phenomenal properties cannot be reduced to another kind of property (e.g., perceptual or cognitive). I disagree, however, with Kriegel’s specific characterization of the properties in question. Kriegel argues that the experience of deciding-and-then-trying is the core of conative phenomenology. I argue, however, that the experiences of trying and acting better occupy this place. Further, I suggest that (...)
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  32.  17
    Jessica L. Tracy, Azim F. Shariff & Joey T. Cheng (2010). A Naturalist's View of Pride. Emotion Review 2 (2):163-177.
    Although pride has been central to philosophical and religious discussions of emotion for thousands of years, it has largely been neglected by psychologists. However, in the past decade a growing body of psychological research on pride has emerged; new theory and findings suggest that pride is a psychologically important and evolutionarily adaptive emotion. In this article we review this accumulated body of research and argue for a naturalist account of pride, which presumes that pride emerged by way of natural selection. (...)
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  33.  10
    Carly Ruderman, C. Tracy, Cécile Bensimon, Mark Bernstein, Laura Hawryluck, Randi Zlotnik Shaul & Ross Upshur (2006). On Pandemics and the Duty to Care: Whose Duty? Who Cares? [REVIEW] BMC Medical Ethics 7 (1):1-6.
    Background As a number of commentators have noted, SARS exposed the vulnerabilities of our health care systems and governance structures. Health care professionals (HCPs) and hospital systems that bore the brunt of the SARS outbreak continue to struggle with the aftermath of the crisis. Indeed, HCPs – both in clinical care and in public health – were severely tested by SARS. Unprecedented demands were placed on their skills and expertise, and their personal commitment to their profession was severely tried. Many (...)
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  34.  10
    John Tsalikis, Bruce Seaton & Philip L. Shepherd (2001). Relativism in Ethical Research: A Proposed Model and Mode of Inquiry. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 32 (3):231 - 246.
    While some of the great thinkers (Socrates, Kant) have argued for an absolutist view of ethical behavior, over the past 250 years the relativist view has become ascendant. Following the contingency framework of Ferrell and Gresham (1985) and the issue contingent model of Jones (1991), a model for ethical research is proposed. The key components include the moral agent/transgressor, the issue type and its intensity, and the nature of the victim. In addition, a statistical methodology, namely conjoint analysis, is introduced (...)
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  35.  39
    Thomas F. Tracy (2006). Theologies of Divine Action. In Philip Clayton & Zachory Simpson (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Religion and Science. Oxford University Press 597.
    Accession Number: ATLA0001712259; Hosting Book Page Citation: p 596-611.; Language(s): English; General Note: Bibliography: p 610-611.; Issued by ATLA: 20130825; Publication Type: Essay.
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  36. Lois Shepherd (2014). The Hair Stylist, the Corn Merchant, and the Doctor: Ambiguously Altruistic. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 42 (4):509-517.
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  37.  45
    Joshua Shepherd (2014). Minimizing Harm Via Psychological Intervention: Response to Glannon. Journal of Medical Ethics 40 (10):662-663.
    In a recent discussion, Walter Glannon discusses a number of ways we might try to minimize harm to patients who experience intraoperative awareness. In this response I direct attention to a possibility that deserves further attention. It might be that a kind of psychological intervention – namely, informing patients of the possibility of intraoperative awareness and of what to expect in such a case – would constitute a unique way to respect patient autonomy, as well as minimize the harm that (...)
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  38.  8
    John Jacob Kaag & Aaron Pratt Shepherd (2015). The Possibility of Religious Insight. The Pluralist 10 (3):274-291.
    Josiah Royce’s philosophical interest in religion can be traced to his earliest days, when hymn singing and reading the Bible were constant practices in the fervently evangelical household of Josiah, Sr., and Sarah Royce in Grass Valley, California.1 Royce’s mother, Sarah, in particular, was a profound influence. She burned with the Holy Spirit, sparked by the fire-and-brimstone revivalism of the Second Great Awakening in New England, where she grew up. Educated at Phipps Union Female Seminary in Albion, New York, Mrs. (...)
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  39.  85
    Joshua Shepherd (2012). Action, Mindreading and Embodied Social Cognition. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 11 (4):507-518.
    One of the central insights of the embodied cognition (EC) movement is that cognition is closely tied to action. In this paper, I formulate an EC-inspired hypothesis concerning social cognition. In this domain, most think that our capacity to understand and interact with one another is best explained by appeal to some form of mindreading. I argue that prominent accounts of mindreading likely contain a significant lacuna. Evidence indicates that what I call an agent’s actional processes and states—her goals, needs, (...)
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  40.  2
    Lois Shepherd (2014). The Hair Stylist, the Corn Merchant, and the Doctor: Ambiguously Altruistic. Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 42 (4):509-517.
    The medical profession has a tradition of presenting itself as exceptionally altruistic. This article challenges the idea that physicians are, or should be, more altruistic than other professionals or other people, and goes so far as to posit that even a professional aspiration of altruism can have negative consequences.
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  41. Jessica L. Tracy & Richard W. Robins (2004). Putting the Self Into Self-Conscious Emotions: A Theoretical Model. Psychological Inquiry 15 (2):103-125.
  42.  14
    Lois Shepherd & Margaret Foster Riley (2012). In Plain Sight: A Solution to a Fundamental Challenge in Human Research. Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 40 (4):970-989.
    The physician-researcher conflict of interest has thus far eluded satisfactory solution. Most attempts to deal with it focus on improving informed consent. But those attempts are not successful and may even make things worse. Research subjects are already voluntarily undertaking the risks of research — we should not ask them to go it alone — to undergo medical “treatment” without medical “care.” The only effective solution is that in much clinical research, each research subject should have a doctor independent from (...)
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  43.  18
    Reginald Shepherd (2004). Thirteen Ways of Looking at a Coat. Semiotics:158-175.
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  44.  11
    Jessica L. Tracy & Daniel Randles (2011). Four Models of Basic Emotions: A Review of Ekman and Cordaro, Izard, Levenson, and Panksepp and Watt. [REVIEW] Emotion Review 3 (4):397-405.
    In this special section, Ekman and Cordaro (2011); Izard (2011); Levenson (2011); and Panksepp and Watt (2011) have each outlined the latest instantiation of each lead author’s theoretical model of basic emotions. We identify four themes emerging from these models, and discuss areas of agreement and disagreement. We then briefly evaluate the models’ usefulness by examining how they would account for an emotion that has received considerable empirical attention but does not fit clearly within or outside of the basic emotion (...)
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  45.  99
    Robert J. Shepherd (2007). Perpetual Unease or Being at Ease? -- Derrida, Daoism, and the 'Metaphysics of Presence'. Philosophy East and West 57 (2):227-243.
    : Interesting work has been done on the striking similarities between the key arguments of the late Jacques Derrida and Daoism. While named otherwise, such Derridean signposts as the metaphysics of presence, the duality of language, and logocentrism are found in Daoist views of the relationship between reality, speech, writing, and knowledge. However, where the limits of language lead Derrida is different from where they take the authors of the Zhuangzi and the Daodejing, in particular regarding the question of action (...)
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  46.  1
    Carly Ruderman, C. Shawn Tracy, Cécile M. Bensimon, Mark Bernstein, Laura Hawryluck, Randi Z. Shaul & Ross E. G. Upshur (2006). On Pandemics and the Duty to Care: Whose Duty? Who Cares? BMC Medical Ethics 7 (1):5.
    BackgroundAs a number of commentators have noted, SARS exposed the vulnerabilities of our health care systems and governance structures. Health care professionals and hospital systems that bore the brunt of the SARS outbreak continue to struggle with the aftermath of the crisis. Indeed, HCPs – both in clinical care and in public health – were severely tested by SARS. Unprecedented demands were placed on their skills and expertise, and their personal commitment to their profession was severely tried. Many were exposed (...)
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  47.  19
    John Tsalikis, Bruce Seaton & Philip Shepherd (2008). Relative Importance Measurement of the Moral Intensity Dimensions. Journal of Business Ethics 80 (3):613 - 626.
    The relative importance of the Jones’ [Jones, T. M.: 1991, Academy of Management Review 16(2), 366–395] six components of moral intensity was measured using a conjoint experimental design. The most important components influencing ethical perceptions were: probability of effect, magnitude of consequences, and temporal immediacy. Contrary to previous research, overall social consensus was not an important factor. However, consumers exhibit distinctly different patterns in ethical evaluation, and for approximately 15% of respondents social consensus was the most important dimension.
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  48. Andrew G. Livingstone, Lee Shepherd, Russell Spears & Antony S. R. Manstead (2016). “Fury, Us”: Anger as a Basis for New Group Self-Categories. Cognition and Emotion 30 (1):183-192.
  49.  82
    M. Shepherd (1971). Mental Health and Medical Care: Four Cultures and a Single Theme. Diogenes 19 (74):15-30.
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  50.  15
    Jason X. Nie, Li Wang, C. Shawn Tracy, Rahim Moineddin & Ross Eg Upshur (2008). Health Care Service Utilization Among the Elderly: Findings From the Study to Understand the Chronic Condition Experience of the Elderly and the Disabled (SUCCEED Project). Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 14 (6):1044-1049.
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