Search results for 'Trade-offs' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  50
    A. Magdalena Hurtado, Carol A. Lambourne, Kim R. Hill & Karen Kessler (2006). The Public Health Implications of Maternal Care Trade-Offs. Human Nature 17 (2):129-154.
    The socioeconomic and ethnic characteristics of parents are some of the most important correlates of adverse health outcomes in childhood. However, the relationships between ethnic, economic, and behavioral factors and the health outcomes responsible for this pervasive finding have not been specified in child health epidemiology. The general objective of this paper is to propose a theoretical approach to the study of maternal behaviors and child health in diverse ethnic and socioeconomic environments. The specific aims are: (a) to describe a (...)
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  2.  45
    John Matthewson (2011). Trade-Offs in Model-Building: A More Target-Oriented Approach. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science 42 (2):324-333.
    In his 1966 paper "The Strategy of model-building in Population Biology", Richard Levins argues that no single model in population biology can be maximally realistic, precise and general at the same time. This is because these desirable model properties trade-off against one another. Recently, philosophers have developed Levins' claims, arguing that trade-offs between these desiderata are generated by practical limitations on scientists, or due to formal aspects of models and how they represent the world. However this project is not (...)
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  3.  64
    Axel Gelfert (2013). Strategies of Model-Building in Condensed Matter Physics: Trade-Offs as a Demarcation Criterion Between Physics and Biology? Synthese 190 (2):253-272.
    This paper contrasts and compares strategies of model-building in condensed matter physics and biology, with respect to their alleged unequal susceptibility to trade-offs between different theoretical desiderata. It challenges the view, often expressed in the philosophical literature on trade-offs in population biology, that the existence of systematic trade-offs is a feature that is specific to biological models, since unlike physics, biology studies evolved systems that exhibit considerable natural variability. By contrast, I argue that the development of ever (...)
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  4.  12
    Réjean Plamondon & Adel M. Alimi (1997). Speed/Accuracy Trade-Offs in Target-Directed Movements. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20 (2):279-303.
    This target article presents a critical survey of the scientific literature dealing with the speed/accuracy trade-offs in rapid-aimed movements. It highlights the numerous mathematical and theoretical interpretations that have been proposed in recent decades. Although the variety of points of view reflects the richness of the field and the high degree of interest that such basic phenomena attract in the understanding of human movements, it calls into question the ability of many models to explain the basic observations consistently reported (...)
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  5.  35
    Adina Preda (2011). Rights Enforcement, Trade-Offs, and Pluralism. Res Publica 17 (3):227-243.
    This paper asks whether (human) rights enforcement is permissible given that it may entail infringing on the rights of innocent bystanders. I consider two strategies that adopt a rights-sensitive consequentialist framework and offer a positive answer to this question, namely Amartya Sen’s and Hillel Steiner’s. Against Sen, I argue that trade-offs between rights are problematic since they contradict the purpose of rights, which is to provide a pluralist solution to disagreement about values, i.e. to allow agents to act in (...)
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  6.  13
    Christian P. Janssen, Duncan P. Brumby, John Dowell, Nick Chater & Andrew Howes (2011). Identifying Optimum Performance Trade-Offs Using a Cognitively Bounded Rational Analysis Model of Discretionary Task Interleaving. Topics in Cognitive Science 3 (1):123-139.
    We report the results of a dual-task study in which participants performed a tracking and typing task under various experimental conditions. An objective payoff function was used to provide explicit feedback on how participants should trade off performance between the tasks. Results show that participants’ dual-task interleaving strategy was sensitive to changes in the difficulty of the tracking task and resulted in differences in overall task performance. To test the hypothesis that people select strategies that maximize payoff, a Cognitively Bounded (...)
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  7.  12
    Richard L. Lewis, Michael Shvartsman & Satinder Singh (2013). The Adaptive Nature of Eye Movements in Linguistic Tasks: How Payoff and Architecture Shape Speed‐Accuracy Trade‐Offs. Topics in Cognitive Science 5 (3):581-610.
    We explore the idea that eye-movement strategies in reading are precisely adapted to the joint constraints of task structure, task payoff, and processing architecture. We present a model of saccadic control that separates a parametric control policy space from a parametric machine architecture, the latter based on a small set of assumptions derived from research on eye movements in reading (Engbert, Nuthmann, Richter, & Kliegl, 2005; Reichle, Warren, & McConnell, 2009). The eye-control model is embedded in a decision architecture (a (...)
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  8.  1
    Angela N. Kaczmarczyk & Artyom Kopp (2011). Germline Stem Cell Maintenance as a Proximate Mechanism of Life‐History Trade‐Offs? Bioessays 33 (1):5-12.
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  9.  13
    Sahotra Sarkar (2013). Multiple Criteria and Trade-Offs in Environmental Ethics. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 10 (4):533-537.
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  10.  0
    Carlos A. Bana E. Costa & Philippe Vincke (1995). Measuring Credibility of Compensatory Preference Statements When Trade-Offs Are Interval Determined. Theory and Decision 39 (2):127-155.
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  11.  8
    David Waynforth (2001). Mate Choice Trade-Offs and Women's Preference for Physically Attractive Men. Human Nature 12 (3):207-219.
    Researchers studying human sexuality have repeatedly concluded that men place more emphasis on the physical attractiveness of potential mates than women do, particularly in long-term sexual relationships. Evolutionary theorists have suggested that this is the case because male mate value (the total value of the characteristics that an individual possesses in terms of the potential contribution to his or her mate’s reproductive success) is better predicted by social status and economic resources, whereas women’s mate value hinges on signals conveyed by (...)
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  12.  9
    A. Magdalena Hurtado, Kim Hill, Ines Hurtado & Hillard Kaplan (1992). Trade-Offs Between Female Food Acquisition and Child Care Among Hiwi and Ache Foragers. Human Nature 3 (3):185-216.
    Even though female food acquisition is an area of considerable interest in hunter-gatherer research, the ecological determinants of women’s economic decisions in these populations are still poorly understood. The literature on female foraging behavior indicates that there is considerable variation within and across foraging societies in the amount of time that women spend foraging and in the amount and types of food that they acquire. It is possible that this heterogeneity reflects variation in the trade-offs between time spent in (...)
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  13.  0
    Paul Seli, James Allan Cheyne & Daniel Smilek (2012). Attention Failures Versus Misplaced Diligence: Separating Attention Lapses From Speed–Accuracy Trade-Offs. Consciousness and Cognition 21 (1):277-291.
    In two studies of a GO–NOGO task assessing sustained attention, we examined the effects of altering speed–accuracy trade-offs through instructions and auditory alerts distributed throughout the task. Instructions emphasizing accuracy reduced errors and changed the distribution of GO trial RTs. Additionally, correlations between errors and increasing RTs produced a U-function; excessively fast and slow RTs accounted for much of the variance of errors. Contrary to previous reports, alerts increased errors and RT variability. The results suggest that standard instructions for (...)
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  14.  23
    Steven W. Gangestad & Jeffry A. Simpson (2000). The Evolution of Human Mating: Trade-Offs and Strategic Pluralism. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (4):573-587.
    During human evolutionary history, there were “trade-offs” between expending time and energy on child-rearing and mating, so both men and women evolved conditional mating strategies guided by cues signaling the circumstances. Many short-term matings might be successful for some men; others might try to find and keep a single mate, investing their effort in rearing her offspring. Recent evidence suggests that men with features signaling genetic benefits to offspring should be preferred by women as short-term mates, but there are (...)
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  15.  5
    Jacob M. Vigil, David C. Geary & Jennifer Byrd-Craven (2006). Trade-Offs in Low-Income Women's Mate Preferences. Human Nature 17 (3):319-336.
    A sample of 460 low-income women completed a mate preference questionnaire and surveys that assessed family background, life history, conscientiousness, sexual motives, self-ratings (e.g., looks), and current circumstances (e.g., income). A cluster analysis revealed two groups of women: women who reported a strong preference for looks and money in a short-term mate and commitment in a long-term mate, and women who reported smaller differences across mating context. Group differences were found in reported educational levels, family background, sexual development, number of (...)
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  16.  14
    Michele Bocchiola & Federico Zuolo (2013). On Justice and Other Values: G.A. Cohen's Political Philosophy and the Problem of Trade-Offs. Philosophical Papers 42 (1):1 - 24.
    (2013). On Justice and Other Values: G.A. Cohen's Political Philosophy and the Problem of Trade-offs. Philosophical Papers: Vol. 42, No. 1, pp. 1-24. doi: 10.1080/05568641.2013.774721.
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  17.  7
    Kirsten M. Parris, Sarah C. McCall, Michael A. McCarthy, Ben A. Minteer, Katie Steele, Sarah Bekessy & Fabien Medvecky (2010). Assessing Ethical Trade-Offs in Ecological Field Studies. Journal of Applied Ecology 47 (1):227-234.
    Summary 1. Ecologists and conservation biologists consider many issues when designing a field study, such as the expected value of the data, the interests of the study species, the welfare of individual organisms and the cost of the project. These different issues or values often conflict; however, neither animal ethics nor environmental ethics provides practical guidance on how to assess trade-offs between them. -/- 2. We developed a decision framework for considering trade-offs between values in ecological research, drawing (...)
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  18.  7
    Reinoud J. Bootsma & Denis Mottet (1997). Dynamics of Trajectory Formation and Speed/Accuracy Trade-Offs. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20 (2):303-304.
    Though capable of reproducing experimentally observed velocity profiles, the model proposed by Plamondon & Alimi (P&A) does not provide a viable theoretical framework for the understanding of trajectory formation and speed/accuracy trade-offs. The issues of variation and stability can be better understood by considering movement as resulting from an underlying dynamic rather than from an impulse-response of the system.
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  19. Jay Odenbaugh (2003). Complex Systems, Trade-Offs, and Theoretical Population Biology: Richard Levin's "Strategy of Model Building in Population Biology" Revisited. Philosophy of Science 70 (5):1496-1507.
    Ecologist Richard Levins (1966, 1968) argues population biologists must trade-off the generality, realism and precision of their models since biological systems are complex and our limitations are severe. Elliott Sober and Steven Orzack (1993) argue that there are cases where these model properties cannot be varied independently of one another. If this is correct, then Levins` thesis that there is a necessary trade-off between generality, precision, and realism in mathematical models in biology is false. I argue that Sober and Orzack`s (...)
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  20. Jay Odenbaugh (2003). Complex Systems, Trade‐Offs, and Theoretical Population Biology: Richard Levin's “Strategy of Model Building in Population Biology” Revisited. Philosophy of Science 70 (5):1496-1507.
    Ecologist Richard Levins argues population biologists must trade‐off the generality, realism, and precision of their models since biological systems are complex and our limitations are severe. Steven Orzack and Elliott Sober argue that there are cases where these model properties cannot be varied independently of one another. If this is correct, then Levins's thesis that there is a necessary trade‐off between generality, precision, and realism in mathematical models in biology is false. I argue that Orzack and Sober's arguments fail since (...)
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  21.  46
    Anne Peters (2007). Testosterone and Carotenoids: An Integrated View of Trade‐Offs Between Immunity and Sexual Signalling. Bioessays 29 (5):427-430.
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  22.  5
    Willem P. De Jong & Gerard P. Van Galen (1997). Are Speed/Accuracy Trade-Offs Caused by Neuromotor Noise, or Not? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20 (2):306-307.
    Notwithstanding its overwhelming descriptive power for existing data, it is not clear whether the kinematic theory of Plamondon & Alimi could generate new insights into biomechanical constraints and psychological processes underlying the way organisms trade off speed for accuracy. The kinematic model should elaborate on the role of neuromotor noise and on biomechanical strategies for reducing endpoint variability related to such noise.
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  23.  15
    Jeremy Waldron (2010). Torture, Terror, and Trade-Offs: Philosophy for the White House. OUP Oxford.
    This volume collects Jeremy Waldron's challenging and influential work on the moral, political and legal issues surrounding the response to terrorism since 9/11. The volume will be essential reading for all those engaged with contemporary politics and security law, and the continuing struggle for an ethical response to terrorism.
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  24.  4
    Karin Isler (2011). Energetic Trade‐Offs Between Brain Size and Offspring Production: Marsupials Confirm a General Mammalian Pattern. Bioessays 33 (3):173-179.
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  25.  13
    R. Edward Freeman (2010). Managing for Stakeholders: Trade-Offs or Value Creation. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 96 (1):7 - 9.
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  26.  2
    Jill D. Waring, Jessica D. Payne, Daniel L. Schacter & Elizabeth A. Kensinger (2010). Impact of Individual Differences Upon Emotion-Induced Memory Trade-Offs. Cognition and Emotion 24 (1):150-167.
  27.  41
    Roberto Fumagalli (2011). On the Neural Enrichment of Economic Models: Tractability, Trade-Offs and Multiple Levels of Description. Biology and Philosophy 26 (5):617-635.
    In the recent literature at the interface between economics, biology and neuroscience, several authors argue that by adopting an interdisciplinary approach to the analysis of decision making, economists will be able to construct predictively and explanatorily superior models. However, most economists remain quite reluctant to import biological or neural insights into their account of choice behaviour. In this paper, I reconstruct and critique one of the main arguments by means of which economists attempt to vindicate their conservative position. Furthermore, I (...)
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  28. Steven Lukes (1997). Comparing the Incomparable: Trade-Offs and Sacrifices. In Ruth Chang (ed.), Incommensurability, Incomparability and Practical Reason. Harvard University Press 184--195.
     
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  29.  4
    Ori Lev (2008). Assessing the Importance of Maintaining Soldiers' Moral Responsibility—Possible Trade-Offs. American Journal of Bioethics 8 (2):44 – 45.
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  30.  1
    Peter Kemper, Ha T. Tu, James D. Reschovsky & Elizabeth Schaefer (2002). Insurance Product Design and Its Effects: Trade-Offs Along the Managed Care Continuum. Inquiry 39 (2):101-117.
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  31.  36
    Claudia Card (2011). Waldron , Jeremy . Torture, Terror, and Trade-Offs: Philosophy for the White House . New York: Oxford University Press, 2010. Pp. Viii+357. $37.50 (Cloth). [REVIEW] Ethics 121 (4):832-836.
  32.  1
    Carlos Montemayor (2015). Trade-Offs Between the Accuracy and Integrity of Autobiographical Narrative in Memory Reconsolidation. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 38.
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  33.  50
    Peter Godfrey-smith (2009). Knowledge, Trade-Offs, and Tracking Truth. [REVIEW] Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 79 (1):231-239.
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  34.  31
    Vincent K. Y. Ho (2011). Medicine, Methodology, and Values Trade-Offs in Clinical Science and Practice. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 54 (2):243-255.
    In recent years, society has come to recognize that the work performed by scientists, like that of journalists and politicians, may be influenced by the interests they serve. As a result, scientists' research is increasingly contested as a source of reliable knowledge. Such has been the case in issues concerning the climate debate, for example, where research results are at times perceived to comfortably fit in with the viewpoints of interested parties outside science. In medicine, governmental as well as commercial (...)
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  35.  26
    R. Edward Freeman (2010). Managing for Stakeholders: Trade-Offs or Value Creation. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 96 (S1):7-9.
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  36.  4
    Sara E. Johnson & John Bock (2004). Trade-Offs in Skillacquisition and Time Allocation Among Juvenile Chacma Baboons. Human Nature 15 (1):45-62.
    We hypothesize that juvenile baboons are less efficient foragers than adult baboons owing to their small size, lower level of knowledge and skill, and/or lesser ability to maintain access to resources. We predict that as resources are more difficult to extract, juvenile baboons will demonstrate lower efficiency than adults will because of their lower levels of experience. In addition, we hypothesize that juvenile baboons will be more likely to allocate foraging time to easier-to-extract resources owing to their greater efficiency in (...)
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  37.  2
    Ednaldo Araquem da Silva (1987). Wage-Profit Trade-Offs in Brazil: An Input/Output Analysis, 1970-1975. Science and Society 51 (3):347-354.
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  38.  13
    Mariano Rodr´Iguez, Toward Using Bio-Ontologies in the Semantic Web: Trade-Offs Between Ontology Languages.
    Ontology languages for the Semantic Web have their strengths and weaknesses, in particular in the light of deploying them for biological and medical information systems. We survey and compare the Description Logics-based OWL languages, and the DL-Lite and DLR families of languages. Language choices that an ontology developer has to make are, among others, expressivity with n-ary relations (where n > 2) and more role properties versus ontology usage for data-intensive tasks. Guidelines are suggested to facilitate choosing the language best (...)
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  39.  14
    Lane Beckes & Jeffry A. Simpson (2009). Attachment, Reproduction, and Life History Trade-Offs: A Broader View of Human Mating. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 32 (1):23-24.
    In this commentary, we attempt to broaden thinking and dialogue about how our ancestral past might have affected attachment and reproductive strategies. We highlight the theoretical benefits of formulating specific predictions of how different sources of stress might impact attachment and reproductive strategies differently, and we integrate some of these ideas with another recent evolutionary model of human mating.
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  40.  3
    Kenneth R. Koedinger, Martha W. Alibali & Mitchell J. Nathan (2008). Trade‐Offs Between Grounded and Abstract Representations: Evidence From Algebra Problem Solving. Cognitive Science 32 (2):366-397.
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  41.  1
    David E. Sherwood (1997). Speed/Accuracy Trade-Offs in Rapid Simultaneous and Sequential Actions: Evidence for Carryover Effects. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20 (2):320-320.
    The idea of a neuromuscular synergy involving independent amplitude commands to the agonist and antagonist musculature is quite an appealing part of Plamondon's theory. One question that might be raised relates to the relative independence of the two commands. Evidence is presented that suggests that the two commands might be related in sequential or simultaneous rapid aiming movements.
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  42.  2
    Duncan P. Brumby, Anna L. Cox, Jonathan Back & Sandy Jj Gould (2013). Recovering From an Interruption: Investigating Speed− Accuracy Trade-Offs in Task Resumption Behavior. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied 19 (2):95.
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  43.  11
    Aaron Sloman, The ``Semantics'' of Evolution: Trajectories and Trade-Offs in Design Space and Niche Space.
    This paper attempts to characterise a unifying overview of the practice of software engineers, AI designers, developers of evolutionary forms of computation, designers of adaptive systems, etc. The topic overlaps with theoretical biology, developmental psychology and perhaps some aspects of social theory. Just as much of theoretical computer science follows the lead of engineering intuitions and tries to formalise them, there are also some important emerging high level cross disciplinary ideas about natural information processing architectures and evolutionary mechanisms and that (...)
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  44.  10
    Volker H. Schmidt (1994). Some Equity-Efficiency Trade-Offs in the Provision of Scarce Goods: The Case of Lifesaving Medical Resources. Journal of Political Philosophy 2 (1):44–66.
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  45.  9
    Steven W. Gangestad & Jeffry A. Simpson (2000). Trade-Offs, the Allocation of Reproductive Effort, and the Evolutionary Psychology of Human Mating. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (4):624-636.
    This response reinforces several major themes in our target article: (a) the importance of sex-specific, within-sex variation in mating tactics; (b) the relevance of optimality thinking to understanding that variation; (c) the significance of special design for reconstructing evolutionary history; (d) the replicated findings that women's mating preferences vary across their menstrual cycle in ways revealing special design; and (e) the importance of applying market phenomena to understand the complex dynamics of mating. We also elaborate on three points: (1) Men (...)
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  46.  8
    George Sher (1984). Right Violations and Injustices: Can We Always Avoid Trade-Offs? Ethics 94 (2):212-224.
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  47.  1
    Carlos A. Bana E. Costa & Philippe Vincke (1995). Measuring Credibility of Compensatory Preference Statements When Trade-Offs Are Interval Determined. Theory and Decision 39 (2):127-155.
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  48.  1
    Wei Wei (2012). Complexity Management of Vehicle Wiring Harnesses: An Optimized Model to Analyse Trade-Offs Between Product and Manufacturing Costs. Complexity 1:1-2012.
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  49.  2
    Dominic Wilkinson (2009). Trade-Offs in Suffering and Wellbeing: The Utilitarian Argument for Primate Stroke Research. American Journal of Bioethics 9 (5):19-21.
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  50.  1
    George E. Stelmach & Jerry R. Thomas (1997). What's Different in Speed/Accuracy Trade-Offs in Young and Elderly Subjects. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20 (2):321-321.
    We question whether Plamondon & Alimi's model is useful in accounting for the nonsymmetrical and multiple-peaked velocity profiles observed in young and elderly subjects for ballistic aiming tasks. For these subjects, both data and observation suggest that a central representation initiates the movement in an appropriate direction but that multiple adjustments are made, both early and late, to achieve spatial accuracy.
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