Search results for 'Trade-offs' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  66
    A. Magdalena Hurtado, Carol A. Lambourne, Kim R. Hill & Karen Kessler (2006). The Public Health Implications of Maternal Care Trade-Offs. Human Nature 17 (2):129-154.
    The socioeconomic and ethnic characteristics of parents are some of the most important correlates of adverse health outcomes in childhood. However, the relationships between ethnic, economic, and behavioral factors and the health outcomes responsible for this pervasive finding have not been specified in child health epidemiology. The general objective of this paper is to propose a theoretical approach to the study of maternal behaviors and child health in diverse ethnic and socioeconomic environments. The specific aims are: (a) to describe a (...)
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  2.  50
    John Matthewson (2011). Trade-Offs in Model-Building: A More Target-Oriented Approach. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science 42 (2):324-333.
    In his 1966 paper "The Strategy of model-building in Population Biology", Richard Levins argues that no single model in population biology can be maximally realistic, precise and general at the same time. This is because these desirable model properties trade-off against one another. Recently, philosophers have developed Levins' claims, arguing that trade-offs between these desiderata are generated by practical limitations on scientists, or due to formal aspects of models and how they represent the world. However this project is not (...)
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  3.  75
    Axel Gelfert (2013). Strategies of Model-Building in Condensed Matter Physics: Trade-Offs as a Demarcation Criterion Between Physics and Biology? Synthese 190 (2):253-272.
    This paper contrasts and compares strategies of model-building in condensed matter physics and biology, with respect to their alleged unequal susceptibility to trade-offs between different theoretical desiderata. It challenges the view, often expressed in the philosophical literature on trade-offs in population biology, that the existence of systematic trade-offs is a feature that is specific to biological models, since unlike physics, biology studies evolved systems that exhibit considerable natural variability. By contrast, I argue that the development of ever (...)
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  4.  38
    Adina Preda (2011). Rights Enforcement, Trade-Offs, and Pluralism. Res Publica 17 (3):227-243.
    This paper asks whether (human) rights enforcement is permissible given that it may entail infringing on the rights of innocent bystanders. I consider two strategies that adopt a rights-sensitive consequentialist framework and offer a positive answer to this question, namely Amartya Sen’s and Hillel Steiner’s. Against Sen, I argue that trade-offs between rights are problematic since they contradict the purpose of rights, which is to provide a pluralist solution to disagreement about values, i.e. to allow agents to act in (...)
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  5.  1
    Alan Page Fiske & Philip E. Tetlock (1997). Taboo Trade-Offs: Reactions to Transactions That Transgress the Spheres of Justice. Political Psychology 18 (2):255-297.
    Taboo trade-offs violate deeply held normative intuitions about the integrity, even sanctity, of certain relationships and the moral-political values underlying those relationships. For instance, if asked to estimate the monetary worth of one's children, of one's loyalty to one's country, or of acts of friendship, people find the questions more than merely confusing or cognitively intractable: they find such questions themselves morally offensive. This article draws on Fiske's relational theory and Tetlock's value pluralism model: to identify the conditions under (...)
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  6.  19
    Réjean Plamondon & Adel M. Alimi (1997). Speed/Accuracy Trade-Offs in Target-Directed Movements. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20 (2):279-303.
    This target article presents a critical survey of the scientific literature dealing with the speed/accuracy trade-offs in rapid-aimed movements. It highlights the numerous mathematical and theoretical interpretations that have been proposed in recent decades. Although the variety of points of view reflects the richness of the field and the high degree of interest that such basic phenomena attract in the understanding of human movements, it calls into question the ability of many models to explain the basic observations consistently reported (...)
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  7.  20
    Michele Bocchiola & Federico Zuolo (2013). On Justice and Other Values: G.A. Cohen's Political Philosophy and the Problem of Trade-Offs. Philosophical Papers 42 (1):1 - 24.
    (2013). On Justice and Other Values: G.A. Cohen's Political Philosophy and the Problem of Trade-offs. Philosophical Papers: Vol. 42, No. 1, pp. 1-24. doi: 10.1080/05568641.2013.774721.
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  8.  31
    Christian P. Janssen, Duncan P. Brumby, John Dowell, Nick Chater & Andrew Howes (2011). Identifying Optimum Performance Trade-Offs Using a Cognitively Bounded Rational Analysis Model of Discretionary Task Interleaving. Topics in Cognitive Science 3 (1):123-139.
    We report the results of a dual-task study in which participants performed a tracking and typing task under various experimental conditions. An objective payoff function was used to provide explicit feedback on how participants should trade off performance between the tasks. Results show that participants’ dual-task interleaving strategy was sensitive to changes in the difficulty of the tracking task and resulted in differences in overall task performance. To test the hypothesis that people select strategies that maximize payoff, a Cognitively Bounded (...)
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  9.  1
    Angela N. Kaczmarczyk & Artyom Kopp (2011). Germline Stem Cell Maintenance as a Proximate Mechanism of Life‐History Trade‐Offs? Bioessays 33 (1):5-12.
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  10.  6
    Carlos A. Bana E. Costa & Philippe Vincke (1995). Measuring Credibility of Compensatory Preference Statements When Trade-Offs Are Interval Determined. Theory and Decision 39 (2):127-155.
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  11.  16
    Sahotra Sarkar (2013). Multiple Criteria and Trade-Offs in Environmental Ethics. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 10 (4):533-537.
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  12.  32
    Richard L. Lewis, Michael Shvartsman & Satinder Singh (2013). The Adaptive Nature of Eye Movements in Linguistic Tasks: How Payoff and Architecture Shape Speed‐Accuracy Trade‐Offs. Topics in Cognitive Science 5 (3):581-610.
    We explore the idea that eye-movement strategies in reading are precisely adapted to the joint constraints of task structure, task payoff, and processing architecture. We present a model of saccadic control that separates a parametric control policy space from a parametric machine architecture, the latter based on a small set of assumptions derived from research on eye movements in reading (Engbert, Nuthmann, Richter, & Kliegl, 2005; Reichle, Warren, & McConnell, 2009). The eye-control model is embedded in a decision architecture (a (...)
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  13.  14
    A. Magdalena Hurtado, Kim Hill, Ines Hurtado & Hillard Kaplan (1992). Trade-Offs Between Female Food Acquisition and Child Care Among Hiwi and Ache Foragers. Human Nature 3 (3):185-216.
    Even though female food acquisition is an area of considerable interest in hunter-gatherer research, the ecological determinants of women’s economic decisions in these populations are still poorly understood. The literature on female foraging behavior indicates that there is considerable variation within and across foraging societies in the amount of time that women spend foraging and in the amount and types of food that they acquire. It is possible that this heterogeneity reflects variation in the trade-offs between time spent in (...)
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  14.  66
    Steven W. Gangestad & Jeffry A. Simpson (2000). The Evolution of Human Mating: Trade-Offs and Strategic Pluralism. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (4):573-587.
    During human evolutionary history, there were “trade-offs” between expending time and energy on child-rearing and mating, so both men and women evolved conditional mating strategies guided by cues signaling the circumstances. Many short-term matings might be successful for some men; others might try to find and keep a single mate, investing their effort in rearing her offspring. Recent evidence suggests that men with features signaling genetic benefits to offspring should be preferred by women as short-term mates, but there are (...)
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  15.  3
    Paul Seli, James Allan Cheyne & Daniel Smilek (2012). Attention Failures Versus Misplaced Diligence: Separating Attention Lapses From Speed–Accuracy Trade-Offs. Consciousness and Cognition 21 (1):277-291.
    In two studies of a GO–NOGO task assessing sustained attention, we examined the effects of altering speed–accuracy trade-offs through instructions and auditory alerts distributed throughout the task. Instructions emphasizing accuracy reduced errors and changed the distribution of GO trial RTs. Additionally, correlations between errors and increasing RTs produced a U-function; excessively fast and slow RTs accounted for much of the variance of errors. Contrary to previous reports, alerts increased errors and RT variability. The results suggest that standard instructions for (...)
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  16.  18
    Jacob M. Vigil, David C. Geary & Jennifer Byrd-Craven (2006). Trade-Offs in Low-Income Women's Mate Preferences. Human Nature 17 (3):319-336.
    A sample of 460 low-income women completed a mate preference questionnaire and surveys that assessed family background, life history, conscientiousness, sexual motives, self-ratings (e.g., looks), and current circumstances (e.g., income). A cluster analysis revealed two groups of women: women who reported a strong preference for looks and money in a short-term mate and commitment in a long-term mate, and women who reported smaller differences across mating context. Group differences were found in reported educational levels, family background, sexual development, number of (...)
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  17.  8
    Kirsten M. Parris, Sarah C. McCall, Michael A. McCarthy, Ben A. Minteer, Katie Steele, Sarah Bekessy & Fabien Medvecky (2010). Assessing Ethical Trade-Offs in Ecological Field Studies. Journal of Applied Ecology 47 (1):227-234.
    Summary 1. Ecologists and conservation biologists consider many issues when designing a field study, such as the expected value of the data, the interests of the study species, the welfare of individual organisms and the cost of the project. These different issues or values often conflict; however, neither animal ethics nor environmental ethics provides practical guidance on how to assess trade-offs between them. -/- 2. We developed a decision framework for considering trade-offs between values in ecological research, drawing (...)
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  18.  7
    Reinoud J. Bootsma & Denis Mottet (1997). Dynamics of Trajectory Formation and Speed/Accuracy Trade-Offs. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20 (2):303-304.
    Though capable of reproducing experimentally observed velocity profiles, the model proposed by Plamondon & Alimi (P&A) does not provide a viable theoretical framework for the understanding of trajectory formation and speed/accuracy trade-offs. The issues of variation and stability can be better understood by considering movement as resulting from an underlying dynamic rather than from an impulse-response of the system.
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  19.  11
    Steven Daskal (2016). Original Position Models, Trade-Offs and Continuity. Utilitas 28 (3):254-287.
    John Harsanyi has offered an argument grounded in Bayesian decision theory that purports to show that John Rawls's original position analysis leads directly to utilitarian conclusions. After explaining why a prominent Rawlsian line of response to Harsanyi's argument fails, I argue that a seemingly innocuous Bayesian rationality assumption, the continuity axiom, is at the heart of a fundamental disagreement between Harsanyi and Rawls. The most natural way for a Rawlsian to respond to Harsanyi's line of analysis, I argue, is to (...)
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  20.  9
    David Waynforth (2001). Mate Choice Trade-Offs and Women's Preference for Physically Attractive Men. Human Nature 12 (3):207-219.
    Researchers studying human sexuality have repeatedly concluded that men place more emphasis on the physical attractiveness of potential mates than women do, particularly in long-term sexual relationships. Evolutionary theorists have suggested that this is the case because male mate value (the total value of the characteristics that an individual possesses in terms of the potential contribution to his or her mate’s reproductive success) is better predicted by social status and economic resources, whereas women’s mate value hinges on signals conveyed by (...)
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  21. Matej Hoffmann & Vincent C. Müller (forthcoming). Simple or Complex Bodies? Trade-Offs in Exploiting Body Morphology for Control. In Gordana Dodig-Crnkovic & Raffaela Giovagnoli (eds.), Representation of Reality: Humans, Animals and Machines. Springer
    Engineers fine-tune the design of robot bodies for control purposes, however, a methodology or set of tools is largely absent, and optimization of morphology (shape, material properties of robot bodies, etc.) is lagging behind the development of controllers. This has become even more prominent with the advent of compliant, deformable or ”soft” bodies. These carry substantial potential regarding their exploitation for control—sometimes referred to as ”morphological computation”. In this article, we briefly review different notions of computation by physical systems and (...)
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  22. Jay Odenbaugh (2003). Complex Systems, Trade‐Offs, and Theoretical Population Biology: Richard Levin's “Strategy of Model Building in Population Biology” Revisited. Philosophy of Science 70 (5):1496-1507.
    Ecologist Richard Levins argues population biologists must trade‐off the generality, realism, and precision of their models since biological systems are complex and our limitations are severe. Steven Orzack and Elliott Sober argue that there are cases where these model properties cannot be varied independently of one another. If this is correct, then Levins's thesis that there is a necessary trade‐off between generality, precision, and realism in mathematical models in biology is false. I argue that Orzack and Sober's arguments fail since (...)
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  23. Jay Odenbaugh (2003). Complex Systems, Trade-Offs, and Theoretical Population Biology: Richard Levin's "Strategy of Model Building in Population Biology" Revisited. Philosophy of Science 70 (5):1496-1507.
    Ecologist Richard Levins (1966, 1968) argues population biologists must trade-off the generality, realism and precision of their models since biological systems are complex and our limitations are severe. Elliott Sober and Steven Orzack (1993) argue that there are cases where these model properties cannot be varied independently of one another. If this is correct, then Levins` thesis that there is a necessary trade-off between generality, precision, and realism in mathematical models in biology is false. I argue that Sober and Orzack`s (...)
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  24.  84
    Matej Hoffmann & Vincent C. Müller (2014). Trade-Offs in Exploiting Body Morphology for Control: From Simple Bodies and Model-Based Control to Complex Ones with Model-Free Distributed Control Schemes. In Helmut Hauser, Rudolf M. Füchslin & Rolf Pfeifer (eds.), Opinions and Outlooks on Morphological Computation. E-Book 185-194.
    Tailoring the design of robot bodies for control purposes is implicitly performed by engineers, however, a methodology or set of tools is largely absent and optimization of morphology (shape, material properties of robot bodies, etc.) is lag- ging behind the development of controllers. This has become even more prominent with the advent of compliant, deformable or "soft" bodies. These carry substantial potential regarding their exploitation for control – sometimes referred to as "mor- phological computation" in the sense of offloading computation (...)
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  25. Anne Peters (2007). Testosterone and Carotenoids: An Integrated View of Trade‐Offs Between Immunity and Sexual Signalling. Bioessays 29 (5):427-430.
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  26.  1
    Lynn Fendler (2016). Ethical Implications of Validity-Vs.-Reliability Trade-Offs in Educational Research. Ethics and Education 11 (2):214-229.
    In educational research that calls itself empirical, the relationship between validity and reliability is that of trade-off: the stronger the bases for validity, the weaker the bases for reliability. Validity and reliability are widely regarded as basic criteria for evaluating research; however, there are ethical implications of the trade-off between the two. The paper traces a brief history of the concepts, and then describes four ethical issues associated with the validity–reliability trade-off in educational research: bootstrapping, stereotyping, dehumanization, and determinism. The (...)
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  27.  6
    Willem P. De Jong & Gerard P. Van Galen (1997). Are Speed/Accuracy Trade-Offs Caused by Neuromotor Noise, or Not? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20 (2):306-307.
    Notwithstanding its overwhelming descriptive power for existing data, it is not clear whether the kinematic theory of Plamondon & Alimi could generate new insights into biomechanical constraints and psychological processes underlying the way organisms trade off speed for accuracy. The kinematic model should elaborate on the role of neuromotor noise and on biomechanical strategies for reducing endpoint variability related to such noise.
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  28.  23
    Jeremy Waldron (2010). Torture, Terror, and Trade-Offs: Philosophy for the White House. OUP Oxford.
    This volume collects Jeremy Waldron's challenging and influential work on the moral, political and legal issues surrounding the response to terrorism since 9/11. The volume will be essential reading for all those engaged with contemporary politics and security law, and the continuing struggle for an ethical response to terrorism.
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  29.  7
    Jill D. Waring, Jessica D. Payne, Daniel L. Schacter & Elizabeth A. Kensinger (2010). Impact of Individual Differences Upon Emotion-Induced Memory Trade-Offs. Cognition and Emotion 24 (1):150-167.
  30.  19
    R. Edward Freeman (2010). Managing for Stakeholders: Trade-Offs or Value Creation. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 96 (1):7 - 9.
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  31.  46
    Roberto Fumagalli (2011). On the Neural Enrichment of Economic Models: Tractability, Trade-Offs and Multiple Levels of Description. Biology and Philosophy 26 (5):617-635.
    In the recent literature at the interface between economics, biology and neuroscience, several authors argue that by adopting an interdisciplinary approach to the analysis of decision making, economists will be able to construct predictively and explanatorily superior models. However, most economists remain quite reluctant to import biological or neural insights into their account of choice behaviour. In this paper, I reconstruct and critique one of the main arguments by means of which economists attempt to vindicate their conservative position. Furthermore, I (...)
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  32.  5
    Karin Isler (2011). Energetic Trade‐Offs Between Brain Size and Offspring Production: Marsupials Confirm a General Mammalian Pattern. Bioessays 33 (3):173-179.
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  33.  33
    Carlos Montemayor (2015). Trade-Offs Between the Accuracy and Integrity of Autobiographical Narrative in Memory Reconsolidation. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 38.
    Lane et al. propose an integrative model for the reconsolidation of traces in their timely and impressive article. This commentary draws attention to tradeoffs between accuracy and self-narrative integrity in the model. The tradeoffs concern the sense of agency in memory and its role in both implicit and explicit memory reconsolidation, rather than balances concerning degrees of emotional arousal.
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  34. Steven Lukes (1997). Comparing the Incomparable: Trade-Offs and Sacrifices. In Ruth Chang (ed.), Incommensurability, Incomparability and Practical Reason. Harvard University Press 184--195.
     
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  35. Jeremy Waldron (2012). Torture, Terror, and Trade-Offs: Philosophy for the White House. Oxford University Press Uk.
    Jeremy Waldron has been a challenging and influential voice in the moral, political and legal debates surrounding the response to terrorism since 9/11. His contributions have spanned the major controversies of the War on Terror - including the morality and legality of torture, whether security can be 'balanced' with liberty, and the relationship between public safety and individual rights. He has also tackled underlying questions essential to understanding the practical debates - including what terrorism is, and what a right to (...)
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  36.  35
    Vincent K. Y. Ho (2011). Medicine, Methodology, and Values Trade-Offs in Clinical Science and Practice. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 54 (2):243-255.
    In recent years, society has come to recognize that the work performed by scientists, like that of journalists and politicians, may be influenced by the interests they serve. As a result, scientists' research is increasingly contested as a source of reliable knowledge. Such has been the case in issues concerning the climate debate, for example, where research results are at times perceived to comfortably fit in with the viewpoints of interested parties outside science. In medicine, governmental as well as commercial (...)
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  37.  11
    Merriam Haffar & Cory Searcy (forthcoming). Classification of Trade-Offs Encountered in the Practice of Corporate Sustainability. Journal of Business Ethics.
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  38. Jay Odenbaugh (2003). Complex Systems, Trade-Offs and Mathematical Modeling: A Response to Sober and Orzack. Philosophy of Science 70 (5):1496-1507.
     
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  39. Claudia González-Vallejo (2002). Making Trade-Offs: A Probabilistic and Context-Sensitive Model of Choice Behavior. Psychological Review 109 (1):137-155.
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  40.  5
    Sara E. Johnson & John Bock (2004). Trade-Offs in Skillacquisition and Time Allocation Among Juvenile Chacma Baboons. Human Nature 15 (1):45-62.
    We hypothesize that juvenile baboons are less efficient foragers than adult baboons owing to their small size, lower level of knowledge and skill, and/or lesser ability to maintain access to resources. We predict that as resources are more difficult to extract, juvenile baboons will demonstrate lower efficiency than adults will because of their lower levels of experience. In addition, we hypothesize that juvenile baboons will be more likely to allocate foraging time to easier-to-extract resources owing to their greater efficiency in (...)
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  41.  1
    Eduard Brandstätter, Gerd Gigerenzer & Ralph Hertwig (2006). The Priority Heuristic: Making Choices Without Trade-Offs. Psychological Review 113 (2):409-432.
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  42.  1
    Hayward J. Godwin, Erik D. Reichle & Tamaryn Menneer (2016). Modeling Lag‐2 Revisits to Understand Trade‐Offs in Mixed Control of Fixation Termination During Visual Search. Cognitive Science 40 (6).
    An important question about eye-movement behavior is when the decision is made to terminate a fixation and program the following saccade. Different approaches have found converging evidence in favor of a mixed-control account, in which there is some overlap between processing information at fixation and planning the following saccade. We examined one interesting instance of mixed control in visual search: lag-2 revisits, during which observers fixate a stimulus, move to a different stimulus, and then revisit the first stimulus on the (...)
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  43.  6
    Michael G. Luchs & Minu Kumar (forthcoming). “Yes, but This Other One Looks Better/Works Better”: How Do Consumers Respond to Trade-Offs Between Sustainability and Other Valued Attributes? Journal of Business Ethics.
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  44.  58
    Peter Godfrey-smith (2009). Knowledge, Trade-Offs, and Tracking Truth. [REVIEW] Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 79 (1):231-239.
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  45.  3
    Kenneth R. Koedinger, Martha W. Alibali & Mitchell J. Nathan (2008). Trade‐Offs Between Grounded and Abstract Representations: Evidence From Algebra Problem Solving. Cognitive Science 32 (2):366-397.
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  46.  4
    Ori Lev (2008). Assessing the Importance of Maintaining Soldiers' Moral Responsibility—Possible Trade-Offs. American Journal of Bioethics 8 (2):44 – 45.
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  47.  36
    Claudia Card (2011). Waldron , Jeremy . Torture, Terror, and Trade-Offs: Philosophy for the White House . New York: Oxford University Press, 2010. Pp. Viii+357. $37.50 (Cloth). [REVIEW] Ethics 121 (4):832-836.
  48.  33
    R. Edward Freeman (2010). Managing for Stakeholders: Trade-Offs or Value Creation. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 96 (S1):7-9.
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  49. Kenneth Koedinger, Martha Alibali & Mitchell Nathan (2008). Trade-Offs Between Grounded and Abstract Representations: Evidence From Algebra Problem Solving. Cognitive Science: A Multidisciplinary Journal 32 (2):366-397.
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  50.  3
    Dale Dorsey (2015). Trade-Offs, Transitivity, and Temkin. Journal of Moral Philosophy 12 (3):331-342.
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