Search results for 'Traditional farming' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Rajiv K. Sinha (1997). Embarking on the Second Green Revolution for Sustainable Agriculture in India: A Judicious Mix of Traditional Wisdom and Modern Knowledge in Ecological Farming. [REVIEW] Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 10 (2):183-197.score: 192.0
    The Green Revolution in India which was heralded in the 1960‘s was a mixed blessing. Ambitious use of agro-chemicals boosted food production but also destroyed the agricultural ecosystem. Of late Indian farmers and agricultural scientists have realized this and are anxious to find alternatives – perhaps a non-chemical agriculture – and have even revived their age-old traditional techniques of natural farming. Scientists are working to find economically cheaper and ecologically safer alternatives to agro-chemicals. Blue-Green Algae Biofertilizers, Earthworm (...)
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  2. Sameer K. Alhamidi, Mats Gustafsson, Hans Larsson & Per Hillbur (2003). The Cultural Background of the Sustainability of the Traditional Farming System in the Ghouta the Oasis of Damascus, Syria. Agriculture and Human Values 20 (3):231-240.score: 174.0
    This paper discusses thepractical impact of a non-materialistic cultureon sustainable farm management.Two elements are discussed: first, how deeplyrooted religion is in this culture; second,the feasibility of using both human knowledgeand experience, so-called tradition and divineguidance in management. Finally, theimplications of the fusion of these twoelements are drawn. The outcome is thecapability of man to integrate ethical valuesinto decisions and actions. This integration,when applied by skilled farmers, leads to amanagement of natural resources in analtruistic fashion and not merely to economicends. Moreover, (...)
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  3. Promila Sharma & Sucheta Singh (2008). Domestification of Medicinal Plants and Eco-Friendly Traditional Farming in Kumaon Hills: An Overview. In Kuruvila Pandikattu (ed.), Dancing to Diversity: Science-Religion Dialogue in India. Serials Publications. 135.score: 150.0
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  4. A. Arunachalam & K. Arunachalam (eds.) (2010). Natural Resources Management in North-East India: Linking Ecology, Economics & Ethics. Dvs Publishers.score: 90.0
    section 1. Natural resources management -- section 2. Biodiversity and ecosystems -- section 3. Traditional farming and its management -- section 4. Conservation and sustainable development.
     
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  5. Birgit Boogaard, Bettina Bock, Simon Oosting, Johannes Wiskerke & Akke van der Zijpp (2011). Social Acceptance of Dairy Farming: The Ambivalence Between the Two Faces of Modernity. [REVIEW] Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 24 (3):259-282.score: 66.0
    Society’s relationship with modern animal farming is an ambivalent one: on the one hand there is rising criticism about modern animal farming; on the other hand people appreciate certain aspects of it, such as increased food safety and low food prices. This ambivalence reflects the two faces of modernity: the negative (exploitation of nature and loss of traditions) and the positive (progress, convenience, and efficiency). This article draws on a national survey carried out in the Netherlands that aimed (...)
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  6. Peggy F. Barlett, Linda Lobao & Katherine Meyer (1999). Diversity in Attitudes Toward Farming and Patterns of Work Among Farm Women: A Regional Comparison. [REVIEW] Agriculture and Human Values 16 (4):343-354.score: 58.0
    Attention to diversity in women's attitudes toward farming and in women's patterns of farm work activity expands our understanding of the linkage between agrarian structure, regional history, and the behavior and values of individual farm women. We combine several disciplinary and methodological approaches to reveal patterns in work and values in a Southern case and then verify the existence of similar patterns in the Midwest. Two divergent conceptions of women's relationship to farm and marital partnership were found in a (...)
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  7. Christine Leeb (2011). The Concept of Animal Welfare at the Interface Between Producers and Scientists: The Example of Organic Pig Farming. Acta Biotheoretica 59 (2):173-183.score: 54.0
    In organic farming animal welfare is one important aspect included in the internationally agreed organic principles of health, ecology, fairness and care (IFOAM 2006), reflecting expectation of consumers and farmers. The definition of organic animal welfare includes—besides traditional terms of animal welfare—‘regeneration’ and ‘naturalness’. Organic animal welfare assessment needs to reflect this and use complex parameters, include natural behaviour and a systemic view. Furthermore, various parties with seemingly conflicting interests are involved, causing ethical dilemmas, such as the use (...)
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  8. K. Boogaard Birgit, B. Bock Bettina, J. Oosting Simon, S. C. Wiskerke Johannes & J. der Zijpp Akkvane (forthcoming). Social Acceptance of Dairy Farming: The Ambivalence Between the Two Faces of Modernity. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics.score: 54.0
    Society’s relationship with modern animal farming is an ambivalent one: on the one hand there is rising criticism about modern animal farming; on the other hand people appreciate certain aspects of it, such as increased food safety and low food prices. This ambivalence reflects the two faces of modernity: the negative (exploitation of nature and loss of traditions) and the positive (progress, convenience, and efficiency). This article draws on a national survey carried out in the Netherlands that aimed (...)
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  9. Judith Carney (1991). Indigenous Soil and Water Management in Senegambian Rice Farming Systems. Agriculture and Human Values 8 (1-2):37-48.score: 54.0
    Considerable attention has focussed on the potential of indigenous agricultural knowledge for sustainable development. Drawing upon fieldwork on the soil and water management principles of rice farming systems in Senegambia, this paper examines the potential of the traditional system for a sustainable food security strategy. Problems with pumpirrigation are reviewed as well as previous efforts in swamp rice development. It is argued that sustainability depends on more than ecological factors and in particular, requires sensitivity to socio-economic parameters such (...)
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  10. Stephen R. L. Clark (1999). Decent Conduct Toward Animals: A Traditional Approach. Teorema 18 (3):61-83.score: 54.0
    The Bishop of Questoriana has recently asked for a pontifical document ‘furnishing a doctrinal foundation of love and respect for life existing on the earth’. Mainstream moralists have urged, since the Axial Era, that it is human life that most demands love and respect. We realize and perfect our own humanity by recognizing humanity in every other, of whatever creed or race. Realizing that biological species are not natural kinds, more recent moralists have hoped to found moral decency either on (...)
     
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  11. K. Tybirk, H. F. Alrøe & P. Frederiksen (2004). Nature Quality in Organic Farming: A Conceptual Analysis of Considerations and Criteria in a European Context. [REVIEW] Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 17 (3):249-274.score: 54.0
    Nature quality in relation to farming is a complex field. It involves different traditions and interests, different views of what nature is, and different ways of valuing nature. Furthermore there is a general lack of empirical data on many aspects of nature quality in the farmed landscape. In this paper we discuss nature quality from the perspective of organic farming, which has its own values and goals in relation to nature – the Ecologist View of Nature. This is (...)
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  12. Jesper Rasmussen, Vibeke Langer & Hugo Fjelsted Alrøe (2006). Bias in Peer Review of Organic Farming Grant Applications. Agriculture and Human Values 23 (2):181-188.score: 54.0
    Peer reviews of 84 organic farming grant applications from Sweden were analyzed to determine whether the reviewers’ affiliation to one of two types of agriculture (i.e., organic and conventional) influenced their reviews. Fifteen reviewers were divided into three groups: (1) scientists with experience in organic farming research; (2) scientists with no experience in organic farming research; and (3) users of organic farming research. The two groups of scientists assessed the societal relevance and scientific quality of the (...)
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  13. James R. Veteto (2008). The History and Survival of Traditional Heirloom Vegetable Varieties in the Southern Appalachian Mountains of Western North Carolina. Agriculture and Human Values 25 (1):121-134.score: 54.0
    Southern Appalachia is unique among agroecological regions of the American South because of the diverse environmental conditions caused by its mountain ecology, the geographic and commercial isolation of the region, and the relative cultural autonomy of the people that live there. Those three criteria, combined with a rich agricultural history and the continuance of the homegardening tradition, make southern Appalachia an area of relatively high crop biodiversity in America. This study investigated the history and survival of traditional heirloom vegetable (...)
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  14. David A. Cleveland, Fred Bowannie Jr, Donald F. Eriacho, Andrew Laahty & Eric Perramond (1995). Zuni Farming and United States Government Policy: The Politics of Biological and Cultural Diversity in Agriculture. [REVIEW] Agriculture and Human Values 12 (3):2-18.score: 54.0
    Indigenous Zuni farming, including cultural values, ecological and biological diversity, and land distribution and tenure, appears to have been quite productive and sustainable for at least 2000 before United States influence began in the later half of the 18th century. United States Government Indian agriculture policy has been based on assimilation of Indians and taking of their resources, and continues in more subtle ways today. At Zuni this policy has resulted in the degradation and loss of natural resources for (...)
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  15. Sheron L. Randolph & Rickie Sanders (1992). Female Farmers in the Rwandan Farming System: A Study of the Ruhengeri Prefecture. [REVIEW] Agriculture and Human Values 9 (1):59-66.score: 54.0
    The purpose of this paper has been to focus on two aspects of development—agricultural production in the small central African country of Rwanda, and the role of 1890 Land-Grant institutions in international development. While a discussion of female farmers in the Ruhengeri Prefecture of Rwanda represents the primary focus of this paper, the second focus is the means by which this and other such research is possible. The findings from the Rwandan study are in keeping with those found in other (...)
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  16. Arindam Samaddar & Prabir Kumar Das (2008). Changes in Transition: Technology Adoption and Rice Farming in Two Indian Villages. [REVIEW] Agriculture and Human Values 25 (4):541-553.score: 54.0
    The economic impacts of the Green Revolution have been studied widely, but not its social-cultural effects on different farming communities. The adoption of high yielding varieties (HYVs) of rice changed the nature of rice farming in the two West Bengal villages of Padulara and Naigachi. The villages present an interesting contrast of socio-economic and cultural change due to the differences in the level of adoption of agricultural technologies. This study documents the social and cultural impacts of agricultural technology (...)
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  17. Daniel Martin Varisco (1991). The Future of Terrace Farming in Yemen: A Development Dilemma. [REVIEW] Agriculture and Human Values 8 (1-2):166-172.score: 54.0
    The country of Yemen, on the southwestern corner of the Arabian Peninsula, is one of the most extensively terraced areas in the world. There is a well-documented tradition of both dryland and irrigated farming over the past three millennia and much of the indigenous agricultural knowledge survives. Development efforts over the past two decades in the north of Yemen have focused on expansion of tubewell irrigation at the expense of the major land use on dryland terraces and traditional (...)
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  18. Jason Shaw Parker (2013). Integrating Culture and Community Into Environmental Policy: Community Tradition and Farm Size in Conservation Decision Making. [REVIEW] Agriculture and Human Values 30 (2):159-178.score: 52.0
    Community research by anthropologists and sociologists details the effects that centralization of decision making has on local communities. As governance and regulation move toward global scales, conservation policy has devolved to the local levels, creating tensions in resource management and protection. Centralization without local participation can place communities at risk by eroding the environmental knowledge and decision making capacity of local people. Environmental problems such as water quality impairments require perception, interpretation, and ability to act locally. Through a presentation of (...)
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  19. Ryunosuke Kikuchi (2012). Captive Bears in Human–Animal Welfare Conflict: A Case Study of Bile Extraction on Asia's Bear Farms. [REVIEW] Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 25 (1):55-77.score: 46.0
    Bear bile has long been used in the Asian traditional pharmacopoeia. Bear farming first started in China ~30 years ago in terms of reducing the number of poached bears and ensuring the supply of bear bile. Approximately 13,000 bears are today captivated on Asia’s bear farms: their teeth are broken and the claws are also pulled out for the sake of human safety; the bears are imprisoned in squeeze cages for years; and a catheter is daily inserted into (...)
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  20. M. B. M. Bracke, K. H. De Greef & H. Hopster (2005). Qualitative Stakeholder Analysis for the Development of Sustainable Monitoring Systems for Farm Animal Welfare. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 18 (1):27-56.score: 44.0
    Continued concern for animal welfare may be alleviated when welfare would be monitored on farms. Monitoring can be characterized as an information system where various stakeholders periodically exchange relevant information. Stakeholders include producers, consumers, retailers, the government, scientists, and others. Valuating animal welfare in the animal-product market chain is regarded as a key challenge to further improve the welfare of farm animals and information on the welfare of animals must, therefore, be assessed objectively, for instance, through monitoring. Interviews with Dutch (...)
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  21. Andrew Nash (1997). Wine-Farming, Heresy Trials and The'whole Personality': The Emergence of the Stellenbosch Philosophical Tradition, 1916-40. [REVIEW] South African Journal of Philosophy 16 (2):55-65.score: 40.0
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  22. Margaret Alston & Kerri Whittenbury (2013). Does Climatic Crisis in Australia's Food Bowl Create a Basis for Change in Agricultural Gender Relations? Agriculture and Human Values 30 (1):115-128.score: 38.0
    An ongoing crisis in Australian agriculture resulting from climate crises including drought, decreasing irrigation water, more recent catastrophic flooding, and an uncertain policy environment is reshaping gender relations in the intimate sphere of the farm family. Drawing on research conducted in the Murray-Darling Basin area of Australia we ask the question: Does extreme hardship/climate crises change highly inequitable gender relations in agriculture? As farm income declines, Australian farm women are more likely to be working off farm for critical family income (...)
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  23. G. O. Anoliefo, O. S. Isikhuemhen & N. R. Ochije (2003). Environmental Implications of the Erosion of Cultural Taboo Practices in Awka-South Local Government Area of Anambra State, Nigeria: 1. Forests, Trees, and Water Resource Preservation. [REVIEW] Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 16 (3):281-296.score: 36.0
    Cultural taboos and their sanctionshave helped to check abuse of the environmentat least among the local people. The disregardfor these traditional checks and balancesespecially among Christians has adverselyaffected their enforcement at this time. Theenvironment and culture preservation inAwka-South were investigated. The faithfulobservance of the traditional laws in the studyarea was attributed to the fact that Awka-Southarea had remained occupied by the same peoplefor centuries. The study showed that thepreserved forests and their shrines in Nibotown have largely remained intact. (...)
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  24. Bert Theunissen (2008). Breeding Without Mendelism: Theory and Practice of Dairy Cattle Breeding in the Netherlands 1900-1950. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 41 (4):637 - 676.score: 36.0
    In the 1940s and 1950s, Dutch scientists became increasingly critical of the practices of commercial dairy cattle breeders. Milk yields had hardly increased for decades, and the scientists believed this to be due to the fact that breeders still judged the hereditary potential of their animals on the basis of outward characteristics. An objective verdict on the qualities of breeding stock could only be obtained by progeny testing, the scientists contended: the best animals were those that produced the most productive (...)
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  25. Alfred Wolf (1987). Saving the Small Farm: Agriculture in Roman Literature. [REVIEW] Agriculture and Human Values 4 (2-3):65-75.score: 36.0
    Roman agriculture suffered traumatic changes during the 2nd century B.C. The traditional farmers who tilled their few acres and served family, gods and community were being squeezed out by large estate owners using slaves for investment farming. Politicians, scholars and poets tried to revive the ancestoral rustic life.In 133 B.C. the Gracchi legislated land reform to relieve the distress of the farmer soldiers who had won the empire. Although their efforts led to political confrontation that deteriorated into civil (...)
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  26. Rafael Caballero (2009). Stakeholder Interactions in Castile-La Mancha, Spain's Cereal-Sheep System. Agriculture and Human Values 26 (3):219-231.score: 36.0
    Large tracts of European rural land, mostly in the less favored areas (LFA), are devoted to low-inputs and large scale grazing systems (LSGS) with potential environmental and social functions. Although these LSGS may provide harbor for a good part of European nature values, their continuity is facing contrasting threats of intensification and abandonment. These areas, however, may be characterized by particular grazing structures and social dynamics of change that should be unveiled prior to attempts to devise rural development strategies or (...)
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  27. Mark Moritz (2010). Crop–Livestock Interactions in Agricultural and Pastoral Systems in West Africa. Agriculture and Human Values 27 (2):119-128.score: 36.0
    Driven by population pressures on natural resources, peri-urban pastoralists in the Far North Province of Cameroon have recently intensified livestock production in their traditional pastoral system by feeding their cattle cottonseed cakes and other agricultural byproducts to cope with the disappearance of rangelands typically available through the dry season. Although the crop–livestock interactions in this altered intensive pastoral system seem similar to alterations recently named in mixed-farming systems in West Africa, they are distinctly different and would require a (...)
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  28. Abe Goldman (1991). Tradition and Change in Postharvest Pest Management in Kenya. Agriculture and Human Values 8 (1-2):99-113.score: 34.0
    The hazard of postharvest pest losses is ubiquitous in peasant farming systems; as a result, farmers invariably have some response to the threat of these losses. Responses to postharvest pests may be more extensive than to field pests, even when, by statistical measures, the usual levels of losses are comparable. In studies of pest management practices in three contrasting areas in Kenya, it was found that farmers virtually always rely on an array of techniques and strategies, usually including both (...)
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  29. Emily Brady (2006). The Aesthetics of Agricultural Landscapes and the Relationship Between Humans and Nature. Ethics, Place and Environment 9 (1):1 – 19.score: 30.0
    The continuum between nature and artefact is occupied by objects and environments that embody a relationship between natural processes and human activity. In this paper, I explore the relationship that emerges through human interaction with the land in the generation and aesthetic appreciation of industrial farming in contrast to more traditional agricultural practices. I consider the concept of a dialectical relationship and develop it in order to characterise the distinctive synthesising activity of humans and nature which underlies cultivated (...)
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  30. Stuart Rachels, Essays by Stuart Rachels.score: 30.0
    Over the last fifty years, traditional farming has been replaced by industrial farming. Unlike traditional farming, industrial farming is abhorrently cruel to animals, environmentally destructive, awful for rural America, and wretched for human health. In this essay, I document those facts, explain why the industrial system has become dominant, and argue that we should boycott industrially produced meat. Also, I argue that we should not even kill animals humanely for food, given our uncertainty about (...)
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  31. Jeffrey Burkhardt (1988). Crisis, Argument, and Agriculture. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 1 (2):123-138.score: 30.0
    Scholarly critics such as Wendell Berry, as well as the popular media, frequently refer to problems associated with agriculture as the agricultural crisis or the farm crisis. Despite the identification of a problem or problems as symptomatic of this crisis, scant attention is paid to why the situation is a social crisis as opposed to a problem, tragedy, trend, or simple change in the structure of agriculture. This paper analyzes the use of social crisis as applied to the state of (...)
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  32. Carolin Demuth (2013). Handling Power-Asymmetry in Interactions with Infants: A Comparative Socio-Cultural Perspective. Interaction Studies 14 (2):212-239.score: 30.0
    Interaction between adults and infants by nature constitutes a strong powerasymmetry relationship. Based on the assumption that communicative practices with infants are inseparably intertwined with broader cultural ideologies of good child care, this paper will contrast how parents in two distinct socio-cultural communities deal with power asymmetry in interactions with 3-months old infants. The study consists of a microanalysis of videotaped free play mother-infant interactions from 20 middle class families in Muenster, Germany and 20 traditional farming Nso families (...)
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  33. Cristian Timmermann, Henk van den Belt & Michiel Korthals (eds.) (2010). Climate-Ready GM Crops, Intellectual Property and Global Justice. Wageningen Academic Publishers.score: 30.0
    So-called climate-ready GM crops can be of great help in adapting to a changing climate. Climate change, caused in great part by anthropogenic greenhouse gases released in the atmosphere since the industrial revolution by the developed world, is felt much stronger in the developing world, causing unexpected droughts and floods that will cause large harvest loss, leading to more hunger and malnutrition, rising death tolls and disease vulnerability. The current intellectual property regime (IPR) strikes an unfair balance between profit oriented (...)
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  34. John O. Browder (1995). Redemptive Communities: Indigenous Knowledge, Colonist Farming Systems, and Conservation of Tropical Forests. [REVIEW] Agriculture and Human Values 12 (1):17-30.score: 30.0
    This essay critically examines the emerging view among some ethnologists that replicable models of sustainable management of tropical forests may be found within the knowledge systems of contemporary indigenous peoples. As idealized epistemological types, several characteristics distinguishing “indigenous” from “modern” knowledge systems are described. Two culturally distinctive land use systems in Latin America are compared, one developed by an indigenous group, the Huastec Maya, and the other characteristic of colonist farms in Rondonia, Brazil. While each of these systems reflects a (...)
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  35. Sam L. J. Page & Helán E. Page (1991). Western Hegemony Over African Agriculture in Southern Rhodesia and its Continuing Threat to Food Security in Independent Zimbabwe. Agriculture and Human Values 8 (4):3-18.score: 30.0
    Zimbabwe's communal farmers are now less food secure than they were two generations ago. The roots of this decline lie not only in the confinement of Africans to marginal land but also in the historic forced replacement of their sustainable, indigenous farming system with one whose productivity now relies on the use of large amounts of expensive chemical inputs. Environmentally-friendly, traditional farming practices such as pyro-culture, minimum tillage, mixed cropping, and bush fallowing were completely wiped out and (...)
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  36. J. Sousa Silva (1988). The Contradictions of the Biorevolution for the Development of Agriculture in the Third World: Biotechnology and Capitalist Interest. [REVIEW] Agriculture and Human Values 5 (3):61-70.score: 30.0
    All biotechnology-related promises are based upon its technological potential; yet, many of these promises assure the solution for chronic socio-economic problems in the Third World through a new technological revolution in agriculture. The forecasting is that such a revolution will start delivering its most profound impact early in the 21st century. However, 11 years before the year 2000, a critical analysis of its promises against its current trends indicates that the future use and impact of biotechnology in the Third World (...)
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  37. Soniia David (1997). Household Economy and Traditional Agroforestry Systems in Western Kenya. Agriculture and Human Values 14 (2):169-179.score: 26.0
    In the cash budgets of farm householdsin western Kenya, off-farm occupations and cropsaccount for the most important sources of income. Treeand livestock products are of secondary importance incash terms, although farmers attach great importanceto trees as a source of income because of the variousnon-monetary functions they supply. The findingspresented in this paper suggest that two variables,the domestic development cycle of households andwealth, are likely to affect the adoption pattern ofcertain introduced agroforestry technologies,depending on farmers' strategies to produce treeproducts and milk (...)
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  38. Evelyn B. Pluhar (2010). Meat and Morality: Alternatives to Factory Farming. [REVIEW] Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 23 (5):455-468.score: 24.0
    Scientists have shown that the practice of factory farming is an increasingly urgent danger to human health, the environment, and nonhuman animal welfare. For all these reasons, moral agents must consider alternatives. Vegetarian food production, humane food animal farming, and in-vitro meat production are all explored from a variety of ethical perspectives, especially utilitarian and rights-based viewpoints, all in the light of current U.S. and European initiatives in the public and private sectors. It is concluded that vegetarianism and (...)
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  39. Jonny Anomaly (2014). What's Wrong with Factory Farming? Public Health Ethics 7:phu001.score: 24.0
    Factory farming continues to grow around the world as a low cost way of producing animal products for human consumption. But many of the practices associated with intensive animal farming have been criticized by public health professionals and animal welfare advocates. The aim of this essay is to raise three independent moral concerns with factory farming, and to explain why these practices flourish despite the cruelty inflicted on animals and the public health risks imposed on people. I (...)
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  40. Matthew C. Halteman (2011). Varieties of Harm to Animals in Industrial Farming. Journal of Animal Ethics 1 (2):122-131.score: 24.0
    Skeptics of the moral case against industrial farming often assert that harm to animals in industrial systems is limited to isolated instances of abuse that do not reflect standard practice and thus do not merit criticism of the industry at large. I argue that even if skeptics are correct that abuse is the exception rather than the rule, they must still answer for two additional varieties of serious harm to animals that are pervasive in industrial systems: procedural harm and (...)
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  41. Wilfrid Hodges (2009). Traditional Logic, Modern Logic and Natural Language. Journal of Philosophical Logic 38 (6):589 - 606.score: 24.0
    In a recent paper Johan van Benthem reviews earlier work done by himself and colleagues on ‘natural logic’. His paper makes a number of challenging comments on the relationships between traditional logic, modern logic and natural logic. I respond to his challenge, by drawing what I think are the most significant lines dividing traditional logic from modern. The leading difference is in the way logic is expected to be used for checking arguments. For traditionals the checking is local, (...)
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  42. Keqian Xu (2009). 儒家思想与中国传统文化的价值优先观(Confucianism and the Value Priority in Traditional Chinese Culture). 孔子研究 Confucius Studies 2009 (2):22-27.score: 24.0
    Confucianism has a deep influence on the opinion of value priority in traditional Chinese culture, which consider the value of morality prior to that of utility; the value of moral merit prior to that of intelligent; the value of group prior to that of individuals; the value of peace and safety prior to that of freedom and liberty; the value of harmony prior to that of conflict. This kind of value priority has performed very important and positive functions in (...)
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  43. Ramona Cristina Ilea (2009). Intensive Livestock Farming: Global Trends, Increased Environmental Concerns, and Ethical Solutions. [REVIEW] Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 22 (2):153-167.score: 24.0
    By 2050, global livestock production is expected to double—growing faster than any other agricultural sub-sector—with most of this increase taking place in the developing world. As the United Nation’s four-hundred-page report, Livestock’s Long Shadow: Environmental Issues and Options , documents, livestock production is now one of three most significant contributors to environmental problems, leading to increased greenhouse gas emissions, land degradation, water pollution, and increased health problems. The paper draws on the UN report as well as a flurry of other (...)
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  44. Nancy M. Williams (2008). Affected Ignorance and Animal Suffering: Why Our Failure to Debate Factory Farming Puts Us at Moral Risk. [REVIEW] Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 21 (4):371-384.score: 24.0
    It is widely recognized that our social and moral environments influence our actions and belief formations. We are never fully immune to the effects of cultural membership. What is not clear, however, is whether these influences excuse average moral agents who fail to scrutinize conventional norms. In this paper, I argue that the lack of extensive public debate about factory farming and, its corollary, extreme animal suffering, is probably due, in part, to affected ignorance. Although a complex phenomenon because (...)
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  45. Marta G. Rivera-Ferre (2009). Can Export-Oriented Aquaculture in Developing Countries Be Sustainable and Promote Sustainable Development? The Shrimp Case. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 22 (4):301-321.score: 24.0
    Industrial shrimp farming has been promoted by international development and financial institutions in coastal indebted poor countries as a way to obtain foreign exchange earnings, reimburse external debt, and promote development. The promotion of the shrimp industry is a clear example of a more general trend of support of export-oriented primary products, consisting in monocultures of commodities, as opposed to the promotion of more diverse, traditional production directed to feed the local population. In general, it is assumed that (...)
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  46. Lisa J. Carlson & Raymond Dacey (2010). Social Norms and the Traditional Deterrence Game. Synthese 176 (1):105 - 123.score: 24.0
    Bicchieri (The grammar of society: The nature and dynamics of norms, 2006, xi) presents a formal analysis of norms that answers the questions of "when, how, and to what degree" norms affect human behavior in the play of games. The purpose of this paper is to apply a variation of the Bicchieri norms analysis to generate a model of norms-based play of the traditional deterrence game (Zagare and Kilgour, Int Stud Q 37: 1-27, 1993; Morrow, Game theory for political (...)
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  47. Gerald Doppelt (2002). Can Traditional Ethical Theory Meet the Challenges of Feminism, Multiculturalism, and Environmentalism? Journal of Ethics 6 (4):383-405.score: 24.0
    This paper aims to evaluate thechallenges posed to traditional ethical theoryby the ethics of feminism, multiculturalism,and environmentalism. I argue that JamesSterba, in his Three Challenges to Ethics,provides a distorted assessment by trying toassimilate feminism, multiculturalism, andenvironmentalism into traditional utilitarian,virtue, and Kantian/Rawlsian ethics – which hethus seeks to rescue from their alleged``biases.'''' In the cases of feminism andmulticulturalism, I provide an alternativeaccount on which these new critical discourseschallenge the whole paradigm or conception ofethical inquiry embodied in the tradition.They embrace (...)
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  48. Saara Kupsala, Pekka Jokinen & Markus Vinnari (2013). Who Cares About Farmed Fish? Citizen Perceptions of the Welfare and the Mental Abilities of Fish. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 26 (1):119-135.score: 24.0
    This paper explores citizens’ views about the welfare of farmed fish and the mental abilities of fish with a large survey data sample from Finland (n = 1,890). Although studies on attitudes towards animal welfare have been increasing, fish welfare has received only limited empirical attention, despite the rapid expansion of aquaculture sector. The results show that the welfare of farmed fish is not any great concern in the Finnish society. The analysis confirms the distinct character given to farmed fish (...)
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  49. Igboin Benson (2011). Human Rights in the Perspective of Traditional Africa: A Cosmotheandric Approach. Sophia 50 (1):159-173.score: 24.0
    The notion of human rights is highly controversial and contested in modern scholarship. However, human rights have been defined as ‘the rational basis… for a justified demand.’ What constitutes demand should be understood as that which is different from favor or privilege but one's due, free from racial, religious, gender, political inclinations. But since rights are basic due to the fact that they are necessary for the enjoyment of something else, we are poised to examine it from the pre-figurative, configurative (...)
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  50. Shuguang Zhang (2010). The Renaissance of Traditional Chinese Learning. Frontiers of Philosophy in China 5 (2):237-254.score: 24.0
    Under the influence of Western learning, there was a revival in the study of “traditional Chinese learning.” It moved from the “center” to the “edge” after its ideological sanctity was eliminated in modern times. Traditional Chinese learning is still a vital force, however. Traditional Chinese culture emphasizes the productive and social “relationships” and the harmonious “whole,” as well as the Chinese efforts to control their own fate. Traditional Chinese learning revolves around the idea of “human beings,” (...)
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