Introduction: The poetic topos of the doctrine of transmigration -- Genealogy of the doctrine of transmigration -- Beyond mysticism and science : symbolism and philosophical magic -- The emergence of mystic cults and the immortal soul -- Philolaus and the question of pythagorean harmony -- The alleged critique of Pythagoras by Parmenides -- Between the earth and the sky : on the pythagorean divine -- The pythagorean bios and the doctrine of transmigration -- The path of the (...) event -- The path of remembrance or return -- The platonic rupture : writing and difference -- Plotinus : the ascent of the soul toward the one -- Plotinus as neoplatonic mystic : letter to Flaccus -- Epilogue: The fate of the doctrine of transmigration. (shrink)
Los ciclos de la naturaleza han marcado profundamente tanto la cosmovisión reflejada en los himnos védicos como el desarrollo del ritualismo brahmánico. Siguiendo un progresivo proceso de abstracción, el hombre asocia cada vez más su destino a estos ciclos cósmicos lo que conduce a la doctrina de la transmigración de las almas.
Lecture 1. Hinduism in the world and the world of Hinduism -- Lecture 2. The early cultures of India -- Lecture 3. The world of the Veda -- Lecture 4. From the Vedic tradition to classical Hinduism -- Lecture 5. Caste -- Lecture 6. Men, women, and the stages of life -- Lecture 7. The way of action -- Lecture 8. The way of wisdom -- Lecture 9. Seeing God -- Lecture 10. The way of devotion -- Lecture 11. The (...) goddess and her devotees -- Lecture 12. Hinduism in the modern period. (shrink)
In this essay, I investigate the origins of Chinese migrant transnationalism and its personal and social consequences. I propose a theoretical perspective that turns on a synthesis that I shall call “cultural functionalism,” a synthesis that attempts to reconcile functionalism and postmodernism. My argument is that Chinese transmigrants overcome (post)modern alienation through a two-way approach: first, a strong participation in and full commitment to community development and connectivity within the Chinese diaspora; and, second, a religio-cultural renaissance—both being conceived of (...) as constituting a putative “cultural contract” and “social capital” nexus. (shrink)
The intent of this study is to examine the adaptive responses of Hong Kong transmigrants and their transnational and transcultural practices in terms of their consequent behavioral and emotional patterns. Their transnational practices and relative adaptability can be explained with Robert Merton's (1957) “strain theory.” More specifically, the study aims to identify, describe, and explain the variety of behavioral patterns and modes of emotional manifestations of adaptation of Hong Kong returnees, and to identify their individual and collective strategies of adaptation (...) to help them solve their adjustment and integration problems in their adopted countries. (shrink)
The idea that we may continue to exist in a bodiless condition after our death has long played an important role in beliefs about immortality, ultimate rewards and punishments, the transmigration of souls, and the like. There has also been long and heated disagreement about whether the idea of disembodied existence even makes sense, let alone whether anybody can or does survive dissolution of his material form. It may seem doubtful that anything new could be added to the debate (...) at this late date, but I hope to show that this is not so. I will explore the problem of disembodiment from a somewhat different direction than has been tried before, one that leads to what seem to me more interesting and more definite conclusions about its unintelligibility. Furthermore, the approach I will be taking puts both the traditional mind-body problem and the competing claims of dualism and physicalism in a fresh light that can help us to understand better the nature of our embodied existence. (shrink)
This article argues that Ralph Waldo Emerson employs metempsychosis (reincarnation or the transmigration of the soul into successive bodies) as a figurative template for human consciousness. Mapping various traditions from Hinduism, Pythagoreanism, Platonism, and Neoplatonism onto the vastness of the geological and biological records, Emerson translates metaphysics for modernity: he depicts the soul's journey through the chronological sequence of history as a poetic process that culminates in a tenuous form of self-knowledge.
This essay explores the relevance of Socrates’ mythical introduction of recollection in the Meno. I argue that the passage at 81a5–e2 addresses different levels of understanding, a superficial and a deeper one, corresponding to a literal and a metaphorical reading respectively. The major themes addressed in this passage—the immortality of the soul, transmigration, rewards and punishments in the after-life, Hades, the kinship of all nature and anamnesis—have distinct meanings depending on whether we approach them with a Platonic or an (...) Orphico-Pythagorean eye. The literal understanding is appealing to Meno and is offered in reply to his challenge in order to persuade him to continue the investigation of virtue. It is, however, the deeper sense that Plato’s Socrates intends for a more philosophically attuned audience. (shrink)
"De Divinatione" 1.115 has been ascribed in the past to Posidonius, to 'a Pythagoreanizing Posidonius', or to 'the Stoics'. Its emphasis on the soul's eternity and knowledge of 'all things in Hades and on earth' precludes such sources. I point out that the passage contains clear reminiscences of the myth of transmigration and ἀνάμνησις in Meno and of a passage in the myth of Er, probably combining them with "Republic" 571-2. No philosopher or school known to us could be (...) Cicero's source for such a combination, taking, as it does, such details of the Platonic myths as literal truths. I suggest that Cicero's source for this passage was some contemporary or slightly earlier 'Pythagoreanizing Platonist', whose identity can no longer be established. (shrink)
Abstract The ancient Neoplatonic doctrine that the rational soul has one or more vehicles—bodies of a semi-material nature which it acquires during its descent through the spheres—plays a crucial part in Marsilio Ficino's philosophical system, especially in his theory of sense-perception and in his account of the afterlife. Of the soul's three vehicles, the one made of more or less rarefied air is particularly important, according to Ficino, during the soul's embodied existence, for he identifies it with the spiritus , (...) the pneumatic substance based in the brain which was believed to serve as an instrument for perception and imagination. He refers to the vehicles in his arguments against the theory of the transmigration of souls into the bodies of animals, claiming that the imaginative suffering experienced after death by souls in their aerial bodies are much more acute than the physical pain they might feel in bodies made of flesh and blood. Since the power of the imagination, for Ficino, is stronger than that of the four senses, the soul's perceptive activity is more intense after death, when it has lost its earthly body and lives instead in a body made of air. The vehicles, moreover, provided Ficino with evidence for the individual immortality of souls, a doctrine that he was attempting to demonstrate philosophically against the position of Averroes and his followers. In his view, the vehicles ensured the survival after death of two faculties which were intimately connected to personal identity: the imagination and memory. By pointing out the role of the vehicles in transporting the soul's innermost representations and memories through the universe, Ficino was able to show that the distinguishing traits of our personality are not lost with bodily death, but survive along with the vehicle that carries them. (shrink)
On the Beginnings of the Greek Doctrine of the Transmigration of Souls. In this article, I state that attendant on the acceptance of the idea of an immortalsoul is a legitimate question concerning the soul's status before the individual's birth and after its death. Whether the Greeks were the originators of the doctrine of the transmigration of souls or this was an influence from another culture is still open to debate.
A brief account of karma and transmigration is followed by an introduction to Indian ways of assessing arguments. The body of the work canvasses the systems of Nyaya Vaisesika, Buddhism, Jainism, Samkhya and Advaita Vedanta.
The interlink between myth and wisdom in Hellenic heritage is characteristically embodied in the Platonic philosophizing as regards the education and enculturation of the human psyche. As is read in the end of The Republic , the myth of Er turns out to be a philosophical rewriting of poetry to a large degree. For it engagingly reveals Plato’s moral inculcation, philosophical instruction and poetic wisdom in particular, all of which are intended to guide human conduct along the right track for (...) the bliss of the postmortem cycle, and put philosophy learning into first priority for the choice of the future life. Moreover, the transmigrate experience in the mystic overtone of “the Orphic-Pythagorean conglomerate” is discussed with a intercultural reference to the Buddhist doctrines of samsara and karma. (shrink)
The interlink between myth and wisdom in Hellenic heritage is characteristically embodied in the Platonic philosophizing as regards the education and enculturation of the human psyche. As is read in the end of The Republic, the myth of Er turns out to be a philosophical rewriting of poetry to a large degree. For it engagingly reveals Plato's moral inculcation, philosophical instruction and poetic wisdom in particular, all of which are intended to guide human conduct along the right track for the (...) bliss of the postmortem cycle, and put philosophy learning into first priority for the choice of the future life. Moreover, the transmigrate experience in the mystic overtone of "the Orphic-Pythagorean conglomerate" is discussed with a intercultural reference to the Buddhist doctrines of samsara and karma. /// 在古希腊"爱神话"与"爱智慧"彼此密切相关，犹如硬币之两面。柏拉 图在对话中经常以神话喻说达到"话语转向"的戏剧性效果。在《理想国》的结尾 处，柏拉图通过讲述厄洛斯魂游冥界的神话故事，一方面喻示因果报应式的道德训 诫，另一方面表明哲学作为"爱智之学"对选择人生道路的重要意义，从而以"言 有尽而意无穷"的方式彰显出诗性智慧的特有神韵。. (shrink)
A proposta do artigo é analisar o fenômeno peculiar da honraria santoral na comunidade messiânico-milenarista de Pau de Colher (Casa Nova, sertão da Bahia, 1934-1938). A partir de um recorte histórico-cultural e teológico, a investigação será encaminhada no sentido de esclarecer a atuação de uma liderança religiosa, popular e carismática atada a modelos de santidade gestados durante o período medieval no ocidente cristão e transmigrados para o Novo Mundo após os descobrimentos. O texto apresenta documentação inédita e estabelece uma discussão (...) - a partir de obras clássicas e outras referências garimpadas ao longo da pesquisa - em torno da manifestação de santos católicos no interior baiano na década de 30 do século XX. O movimento de Pau de Colher, através da pregação de seus líderes, instituiu um diálogo com uma tradição que remonta às origens do cristianismo; fez crer na ressurreição de personagens como São José, o Carpinteiro e Santa Maria, a Imaculada -, figuras privilegiadas em nosso estudo -; e re-atualizou um conjunto de credos e valores transmitidos pelas mãos de missionários itinerantes e de beatos errantes durante a história do Brasil, revelando um intenso hibridismo entre catolicismo popular e eclesiástico. Palavras-chave: Pau de Colher; santos; sertão; catolicismo; religiosidade popular.The aim of this paper is to analyze the peculiar phenomenon of the honor saints in the messianic-millenarian community of Pau de Colher (Casa Nova, interior of Bahia, 1934-1938). From a cultural-historical and theological approach, the research will be directed towards clarifying the role of religious, popular and charismatic leadership tied to models of holiness gestated during the medieval period in the Christian West and transmigrated to the New World after the discoveries. The paper presents unpublished documentation and provides a discussion - from classical works and other references panned throughout the research - around the manifestation of catholic saints in the Bahia´s hinterland in the 30s of the twentieth century. The movement of Pau de Colher, through the preaching of their leaders, established a dialogue with a tradition dating back to the origins of christianity; did believe in the resurrection of characters as St. Joseph the Carpenter and St. Mary, the Immaculate - privileged figures in our study -; and re-updated a set of beliefs and values transmitted by the hands of itinerant missionaries and blessed wandering during Brazil's history, revealing an intense hybridization between popular and ecclesiastical catholicism. Key words: Pau de Colher; saints; hinterland; catholicism; popular religiousness. (shrink)