Search results for 'Trust View' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Stephanie J. Bird & David E. Housman (1995). Trust and the Collection, Selection, Analysis and Interpretation of Data: A Scientist's View. Science and Engineering Ethics 1 (4):371-382.score: 138.0
    Trust is a critical component of research: trust in the work of co-workers and colleagues within the scientific community; trust in the work of research scientists by the non-research community. A wide range of factors, including internally and externally generated pressures and practical and personal limitations, affect the research process. The extent to which these factors are understood and appreciated influence the development of trust in scientific research findings.
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  2. Daniel Friedrich & Nicholas Southwood (2011). Promises and Trust. In Hanoch Sheinman (ed.), Promises and Agreement: Philosophical Essays. Oxford University Press.score: 120.0
    In this article we develop and defend what we call the “Trust View” of promissory obligation, according to which making a promise involves inviting another individual to trust one to do something. In inviting her trust, and having the invitation accepted (or at least not rejected), one incurs an obligation to her not to betray the trust that one has invited. The distinctive wrong involved in breaking a promise is a matter of violating this obligation. (...)
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  3. Desktop View, Desktop View.score: 120.0
    Zuckerberg almost always tells users that change is hard, often referring back to the early days of Facebook when it had barely any of the features people know and love today. He says sharing and a more open and connected world are had barely any of the features people know and love today. He says sharing and a more open and connected world are good, and often he says he appreciates all the feedback.
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  4. Judy Allen & Beverley Mcnamara (2011). Reconsidering the Value of Consent in Biobank Research. Bioethics 25 (3):155-166.score: 72.0
    Biobanks for long-term research pose challenges to the legal and ethical validity of consent to participate. Different models of consent have been proposed to answer some of these challenges. This paper contributes to this discussion by considering the meaning and value of consent to participants in biobanks. Empirical data from a qualitative study is used to provide a participant view of the consent process and to demonstrate that, despite limited understanding of the research, consent provides the research participants with (...)
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  5. Annamaria Carusi (2011). Trust in the Virtual/Physical Interworld. In Charles Ess & May Thorseth (eds.), Trust in Virtual Worlds: Contemporary Perspectives. Peter Lang.score: 72.0
    The borders between the physical and the virtual are ever-more porous in the daily lives of those of us who live in Internet enabled societies. An increasing number of our daily interactions and transactions take place on the Internet. Social, economic, educational, medical, scientific and other activities are all permeated by the digital in one or other kind of virtual environment. Hand in hand with the ever-increasing reach of the Internet, the digital and the virtual, go concerns about trust. (...)
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  6. Paul B. de Laat (2012). Open Source Production of Encyclopedias: Editorial Policies at the Intersection of Organizational and Epistemological Trust. Social Epistemology 26 (1):71-103.score: 66.0
    The ideas behind open source software are currently applied to the production of encyclopedias. A sample of six English text-based, neutral-point-of-view, online encyclopedias of the kind are identified: h2g2, Wikipedia, Scholarpedia, Encyclopedia of Earth, Citizendium and Knol. How do these projects deal with the problem of trusting their participants to behave as competent and loyal encyclopedists? Editorial policies for soliciting and processing content are shown to range from high discretion to low discretion; that is, from granting unlimited trust (...)
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  7. Nicholas Southwood & Daniel Friedrich (2009). Promises Beyond Assurance. Philosophical Studies 144 (2):261 - 280.score: 66.0
    Breaking a promise is generally taken to involve committing a certain kind of moral wrong, but what (if anything) explains this wrong? According to one influential theory that has been championed most recently by T.M. Scanlon, the wrong involved in breaking a promise is a matter of violating an obligation that one incurs to a promisee in virtue of giving her assurance that one will perform or refrain from performing certain acts. In this paper, we argue that the “Assurance (...)”, as we call it, is susceptible to two kinds of counterexamples. The first show that giving assurance is not sufficient for incurring the kind of obligation of fulfillment that one violates in breaking a promise. The second show that giving assurance is not necessary. Having shown that the Assurance View fails in these ways, we then very briefly sketch the outline of what we take to be a better view—a view that we claim is not only attractive in its own right and that avoids the earlier counterexamples, but that also affords us a deeper explanation of why the Assurance View seems initially plausible, yet nonetheless turns out to be ultimately inadequate. (shrink)
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  8. Onora O'Neill (2002). Autonomy and Trust in Bioethics. Cambridge University Press.score: 66.0
    Why has autonomy been a leading idea in philosophical writing on bioethics, and why has trust been marginal? In this important book, Onora O'Neill suggests that the conceptions of individual autonomy so widely relied on in bioethics are philosophically and ethically inadequate, and that they undermine rather than support relations of trust. She shows how Kant's non-individualistic view of autonomy provides a stronger basis for an approach to medicine, science and biotechnology, and does not marginalize untrustworthiness, while (...)
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  9. Edward Hinchman (2012). Can Trust Itself Ground a Reason to Believe the Trusted? Abstracta 6 (Special Issue VI):47-83.score: 66.0
    Can a reason to believe testimony derive from the addressee’s trust itself or only from reliability in the speaker that the trust perhaps causes? I aim to cast suspicion on the former view, defended by Faulkner, in favor of the latter – despite agreeing with Faulkner’s emphasis on the second-personal normativity of testimonial assurance. Beyond my narrow disagreement with Faulkner lie two broader issues. I argue that Faulkner misappropriates Bernard Williams’s genealogy of testimony when he makes use (...)
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  10. Sandro Castaldo, Katia Premazzi & Fabrizio Zerbini (2010). The Meaning(s) of Trust. A Content Analysis on the Diverse Conceptualizations of Trust in Scholarly Research on Business Relationships. Journal of Business Ethics 96 (4):657 - 668.score: 66.0
    Scholarly research largely converges on the argument that trust is of paramount importance to drive economic agents toward mutually satisfactory, fair, and ethically compliant behaviors. There is, however, little agreement on the meaning of trust, whose conceptualizations differ with respect to actors, relationships, behaviors, and contexts. At present, we know much better what trust does than what trust is. In this article, we present an extensive review and analysis of the most prominent articles on trust (...)
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  11. Philip J. Nickel (2007). Trust and Obligation-Ascription. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 10 (3):309 - 319.score: 66.0
    This paper defends the view that trust is a moral attitude, by putting forward the Obligation-Ascription Thesis: If E trusts F to do X, this implies that E ascribes an obligation to F to do X. I explicate the idea of obligation-ascription in terms of requirement and the appropriateness of blame. Then, drawing a distinction between attitude and ground, I argue that this account of the attitude of trust is compatible with the possibility of amoral trust, (...)
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  12. John Elia (2009). Transparency Rights, Technology, and Trust. Ethics and Information Technology 11 (2):145-153.score: 66.0
    Information theorists often construe new Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) as leveling mechanisms, regulating power relations at a distance by arming stakeholders with information and enhanced agency. Management theorists have claimed that transparency cultivates stakeholder trust, distinguishes a business from its competition, and attracts new clients, investors, and employees, making it key to future growth and prosperity. Synthesizing these claims, we encounter an increasingly common view: If corporations voluntarily adopted new ICTs in order to foster transparency, trust, (...)
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  13. Sara Goering (2009). Postnatal Reproductive Autonomy: Promoting Relational Autonomy and Self-Trust in New Parents. Bioethics 23 (1):9-19.score: 66.0
    New parents suddenly come face to face with myriad issues that demand careful attention but appear in a context unlikely to provide opportunities for extended or clear-headed critical reflection, whether at home with a new baby or in the neonatal intensive care unit. As such, their capacity for autonomy may be compromised. Attending to new parental autonomy as an extension of reproductive autonomy, and as a complicated phenomenon in its own right rather than simply as a matter to be balanced (...)
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  14. Josep M. Rosanas & Manuel Velilla (2003). Loyalty and Trust as the Ethical Bases of Organizations. Journal of Business Ethics 44 (1):49 - 59.score: 66.0
    The last years of the 20th Century have been somewhat contradictory with respect to values like loyalty, trust or truthfulness. On the one hand, (often implicitly, but sometimes very explicitly), self-interest narrowly defined seems to be the dominant force in the business world, both in theory and in practice. On the other hand, alliances, networks and other forms of cooperation have shown that self-interest has to be at least "enlightened".The academic literature has reflected both points of view, but (...)
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  15. Paul Faulkner (2012). The Practical Rationality of Trust. Synthese (9):1-15.score: 66.0
    Most action can be explained in Humean or teleological terms; that is, in most cases, one can explain why someone acted by reference to that person’s beliefs and desires. However, trusting and being trustworthy are actions that do not permit such explanation. The action of trusting someone to do something is a matter of expecting someone to act for certain reasons, and acting trustworthily is one of acting for these reasons. It is better to say that people act out of (...)
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  16. Herman J. Paul (2008). A Collapse of Trust: Reconceptualizing the Crisis of Historicism. Journal of the Philosophy of History 2 (1):63-82.score: 66.0
    This essay redefines the crisis of historicism as a collapse of trust. Following Friedrich Jaeger, it suggests that this crisis should be understood, not as a crisis caused by historicist methods, but as a crisis faced by the classical historicist tradition of Ranke. The "nihilism" and "moral relativism" feared by Troeltsch's generation did not primarily refer to the view that moral universals did not exist; rather, they expressed that the historical justification of bildungsbürgerliche values offered by classical historicism (...)
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  17. Klemens Kappel (2014). Believing on Trust. Synthese 191 (9):2009-2028.score: 66.0
    The aim of the paper is to propose a way in which believing on trust can ground doxastic justification and knowledge. My focus will be the notion of trust that plays the role depicted by such cases as concerned Hardwig (J Philos 82:335–49, 1985; J Philos 88:693–708, 1991) in his early papers, papers that are often referenced in recent debates in social epistemology. My primary aim is not exegetical, but since it sometimes not so clear what Hardwig’s claims (...)
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  18. Herman T. Tavani (forthcoming). Levels of Trust in the Context of Machine Ethics. Philosophy and Technology:1-16.score: 66.0
    Are trust relationships involving humans and artificial agents (AAs) possible? This controversial question has become a hotly debated topic in the emerging field of machine ethics. Employing a model of trust advanced by Buechner and Tavani (Ethics and Information Technology 13(1):39–51, 2011), I argue that the “short answer” to this question is yes. However, I also argue that a more complete and nuanced answer will require us to articulate the various levels of trust that are also possible (...)
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  19. Daryl Koehn (1998). Rethinking Feminist Ethics: Care, Trust and Empathy. Routledge.score: 54.0
    Rethinking Feminist Ethics bridges the gap between women theorists disenchanted with aspects of traditional theories that insist upon the need for some ethical principles. The book raises the question of whether the female conception of ethics based on care, trust and empathy can provide a realistic alternative to the male ethics based on duty and rule bound conception of ethics developed from Kant, Mill and Rawls. Koehn concludes that it cannot, showing how problems for respect of the individual arise (...)
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  20. Kristina Rolin (2002). Gender and Trust in Science. Hypatia 17 (4):95-118.score: 54.0
    : It is now recognized that relations of trust play an epistemic role in science. The contested issue is under what conditions trust in scientific testimony is warranted. I argue that John Hardwig's view of trustworthy scientific testimony is inadequate because it does not take into account the possibility that credibility does not reliably reflect trustworthiness, and because it does not appreciate the role communities have in guaranteeing the trustworthiness of scientific testimony.
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  21. Keith Lehrer (1997). Self-Trust: A Study of Reason, Knowledge, and Autonomy. Oxford University Press.score: 54.0
    The eminent philosopher Keith Lehrer offers an original and distinctively personal view of central aspects of the human condition, such as reason, knowledge, wisdom, autonomy, love, consensus, and consciousness. He argues that what is uniquely human is our capacity for evaluating our own mental states (such as beliefs and desires), and suggests that we have a system for such evaluation which allows the resolution of personal and interpersonal conflict. The keystone in this system is self-trust, on which reason, (...)
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  22. George G. Brenkert (1998). Trust, Morality and International Business. Business Ethics Quarterly 8 (2):293-317.score: 54.0
    This paper argues that trust is one of the crucial bases for an international business morality. To defend this claim, it identifies three prominent senses of trust in the current literature and defends one of them, viz., what I term the “Attitudinal view.” Three differentcontexts in which such trust plays a role in business relationships are then described, as well as the conditions for the specific kinds ofAttitudinal trust which appear in those contexts. Difficulties for (...)
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  23. Mariarosaria Taddeo (2011). An Information-Based Solution for the Puzzle of Testimony and Trust. Social Epistemology 24 (4):285-299.score: 54.0
    In this paper, I offer a contribution to the debate on testimony that rests on three elements: the definition of semantic information, the analysis of trust as a second?order property of first?order relations, and Floridi?s Network Theory of Account (NTA). I argue that testimony transmits semantic information and it is neither grounded on trust nor justified by it. Instead, I show that testimony is an occurrence of a first?order relation of communication affected by the second?order property of (...). I then defend the view that an epistemic agent can acquire some knowledge, on the basis of the information communicated through testimony, if and only if the agent is able to connect the transmitted information to the conceptual network of interrelation to which it belongs. I refer to Floridi?s NTA to show how such a network allows the epistemic agent to achieve knowledge on the basis of semantic information. (shrink)
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  24. Justine Pila (2009). Authorship and E-Science: Balancing Epistemological Trust and Skepticism in the Digital Environment. Social Epistemology 23 (1):1-24.score: 54.0
    In this essay I consider the role of authorship in balancing epistemological trust and skepticism in e-science. Drawing on studies of the diagnostic practices of doctors in British breast care units and the gate-keeping practices of a Californian publisher of (professional and amateur) horticultural works, I suggest that conventions of authorial designation have an important role to play in nurturing the skepticism essential for scientific rigor within the framework of epistemological trust that pragmatism and morality require. (...)
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  25. Kourken Michaelian (2012). (Social) Metacognition and (Self-)Trust. Review of Philosophy and Psychology 3 (4):481-514.score: 54.0
    What entitles you to rely on information received from others? What entitles you to rely on information retrieved from your own memory? Intuitively, you are entitled simply to trust yourself, while you should monitor others for signs of untrustworthiness. This article makes a case for inverting the intuitive view, arguing that metacognitive monitoring of oneself is fundamental to the reliability of memory, while monitoring of others does not play a significant role in ensuring the reliability of testimony.
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  26. Paul T. Gibbs (2004). Trusting in the University: The Contribution of Temporality and Trust to a Praxis of Higher Learning. Kluwer Academic Publishers.score: 54.0
    The world changes and we are encouraged to change with it, but is all change good? This book asks us to stop and consider whether the higher education we are providing, and engaging in, for ourselves and our societies is what we ought to have, or what commercial interests want us to have. In claiming that there is a place for a higher education of learning, such as the university, amongst our array of tertiary options the book attempts to explore (...)
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  27. Heidi E. Grasswick (2010). Scientific and Lay Communities: Earning Epistemic Trust Through Knowledge Sharing. Synthese 177 (3):387 - 409.score: 54.0
    Feminist philosophers of science have been prominent amongst social epistemologists who draw attention to communal aspects of knowing. As part of this work, I focus on the need to examine the relations between scientific communities and lay communities, particularly marginalized communities, for understanding the epistemic merit of scientific practices. I draw on Naomi Scheman's argument (2001) that science earns epistemic merit by rationally grounding trust across social locations. Following this view, more turns out to be relevant to epistemic (...)
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  28. Marit Helene Hem, Kristin Heggen & Knut W. Ruyter (2008). Creating Trust in an Acute Psychiatric Ward. Nursing Ethics 15 (6):777-788.score: 54.0
    The ideal of trust pervades nursing. This article uses empirical material from acute psychiatry that reveals that it is distrust rather than trust that is prevalent in this field. Our data analyses show how distrust is expressed in the therapeutic environment and in the relationship between nurse and patient. We point out how trust can nonetheless be created in an environment that is characterized by distrust. Both trust and distrust are exposed as `fragile' phenomena that can (...)
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  29. S. N. Eisenstadt (2000). Trust and Institutional Dynamics in Japan: The Construction of Generalized Particularistic Trust. Japanese Journal of Political Science 1 (1):53-72.score: 54.0
    Japan constitutes a very interesting and paradoxical case from the point of view of the place of trust in the processes of institution building and institutional dynamics. This problem has, of course, been the basic thrust of Durkheim's emphasis on the importance of precontractual elements for the fulfillment of contracts seemingly dealing with purely considerations. But this crucial insight has not been systematically followed up in the social science literature. Only lately it has been again taken up from (...)
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  30. Chun-Hsi Vivian Chen & Setyabudi Indartono (2011). Study of Commitment Antecedents: The Dynamic Point of View. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 103 (4):529-541.score: 48.0
    This study adopted a dynamic perspective in investigating the effects of employees’ perception of equity (PoE) and perception of organizational politics (POP) on their trust in organizations and the subsequent effect of such on their commitment. Data were collected from 216 employees from various industries. The positive effect of PoE and negative effect of POP on employees’ trust were confirmed in this study. It is also found that employees’ trust in organizations has a positive effect on their (...)
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  31. Simone Wong (2003). Trusting in Trust(S): TheFamily Home and Human Rights. [REVIEW] Feminist Legal Studies 11 (2):119-137.score: 46.0
    In July 2002, the U.K. Law Commission published its Discussion Paper No.287 on home-sharing. The conclusion drawn by the Law Commission was that it would not be possible to devise a statutory scheme for the resolution of family property disputes which is both workable and flexible enough to deal with the wide range of personal relationships that exist. It further took the view that, with appropriate changes to the way in which trusts principles are currently interpreted and applied by (...)
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  32. Barbara J. Thayer-Bacon (2012). Learning to Trust Our Students. Ethics and Education 7 (2):149-161.score: 42.0
    Thayer-Bacon uses this opportunity to further explore Rancière's ideas concerning equality as described in The Ignorant Schoolmaster and their connection to democracy, as he explains in Hatred of Democracy. For Rancière, intelligence and equality are synonymous terms, just as reason and will are synonymous terms. Rancière recommends the only way to really teach a student is by viewing the student as an equal. Thayer-Bacon learned to view students as equals through her experience as a Montessori teacher, and so she (...)
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  33. Carolyn Gratton (1983). Phenomenological and Traditional Views of Trust Between Clients and Therapists. Duquesne Studies in Phenomenological Psychology 4:90-104.score: 40.0
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  34. Philip J. Nickel (2009). Trust, Staking, and Expectations. Journal of the Theory of Social Behaviour 39 (3):345–362.score: 38.0
    Trust is a kind of risky reliance on another person. Social scientists have offered two basic accounts of trust: predictive expectation accounts and staking (betting) accounts. Predictive expectation accounts identify trust with a judgment that performance is likely. Staking accounts identify trust with a judgment that reliance on the person’s performance is worthwhile. I argue (1) that these two views of trust are different, (2) that the staking account is preferable to the predictive expectation account (...)
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  35. Charles M. Ess (2010). Trust and New Communication Technologies: Vicious Circles, Virtuous Circles, Possible Futures. [REVIEW] Knowledge, Technology and Policy 23 (3-4):287-305.score: 38.0
    I approach the philosophical analyses of the phenomenon of trust vis-à-vis online communication beginning with an overview from within the framework of computer-mediated communication (CMC) of concerns and paradigmatic failures of trust in the history of online communication. I turn to the more directly philosophical analyses of trust online by first offering an introductory taxonomy of diverse accounts of trust that have emerged over the past decade or so. In the face of important objections to the (...)
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  36. Massimo Durante (2010). What Is the Model of Trust for Multi-Agent Systems? Whether or Not E-Trust Applies to Autonomous Agents. Knowledge, Technology and Policy 23 (3-4):347-366.score: 38.0
    A socio-cognitive approach to trust can help us envisage a notion of networked trust for multi-agent systems (MAS) based on different interacting agents. In this framework, the issue is to evaluate whether or not a socio-cognitive analysis of trust can apply to the interactions between human and autonomous agents. Two main arguments support two alternative hypothesis; one suggests that only reliance applies to artificial agents, because predictability of agents’ digital interaction is viewed as an absolute value and (...)
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  37. Scott Y. H. Kim, Robert G. Holloway, Samuel Frank, Renee Wilson & Karl Kieburtz (2008). Trust in Early Phase Research: Therapeutic Optimism and Protective Pessimism. [REVIEW] Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 11 (4):393-401.score: 38.0
    Bioethicists have long been concerned that seriously ill patients entering early phase (‘phase I’) treatment trials are motivated by therapeutic benefit even though the likelihood of benefit is low. In spite of these concerns, consent forms for phase I studies involving seriously ill patients generally employ indeterminate benefit statements rather than unambiguous statements of unlikely benefit. This seeming mismatch between attitudes and actions suggests a need to better understand research ethics committee members’ attitudes toward communication of potential benefits and risks (...)
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  38. Anthony I. Jack & Andreas Roepstorff (2003). Why Trust the Subject? Journal of Consciousness Studies 10 (9-10):9-10.score: 36.0
    It is a great pleasure to introduce this collection of papers on the use of introspective evidence in cognitive science. Our task as guest editors has been tremendously stimulating. We have received an outstanding number of contributions, in terms of quantity and quality, from academics across a wide disciplinary span, both from younger researchers and from the most experienced scholars in the field. We therefore had to redraw the plans for this project a number of times. It quickly became clear (...)
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  39. Alisa L. Carse & Lynne Tirrell (2010). Forgiving Grave Wrongs. In Christopher Allers & Marieke Smit (eds.), Forgiveness In Perspective. Rodopi Press.score: 36.0
    We introduce what we call the Emergent Model of forgiving, which is a process-based relational model conceptualizing forgiving as moral and normative repair in the wake of grave wrongs. In cases of grave wrongs, which shatter the victim’s life, the Classical Model of transactional forgiveness falls short of illuminating how genuine forgiveness can be achieved. In a climate of persistent threat and distrust, expressions of remorse, rituals and gestures of apology, and acts of reparation are unable to secure the moral (...)
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  40. Matthew A. Benton (forthcoming). Believing on Authority. European Journal for Philosophy of Religion.score: 36.0
    Linda Zagzebski's "Epistemic Authority" (Oxford University Press, 2012) brings together issues in social epistemology with topics in moral and political philosophy as well as philosophy of religion. In this paper I criticize her discussion of self-trust and rationality, which sets up the main argument of the book; I consider how her view of authority relates to some issues of epistemic authority in testimony; and I raise some concerns about her treatment of religious epistemology and religious authority in particular.
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  41. Chris Provis (2000). Ethics, Deception and Labor Negotiation. Journal of Business Ethics 28 (2):145 - 158.score: 36.0
    There has been widespread emphasis on the importance of trust amongst parties to the employment relationship, associated with a call for increased "integrative bargaining". Trust is bound up with ethical action, but there has been some debate about the ethics of deception in bargaining. Because it is possible for cooperative bargainers to be exploited, some writers contend that deceptive behavior is ethical and established practice. There are several problems about that view. It is questionable how clear and (...)
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  42. Lubomira Radoilska (2008). Truthfulness and Business. Journal of Business Ethics 79 (1/2):21 - 28.score: 36.0
    According to a common assumption, truthfulness cannot have an intrinsic value in business. Instead, it is considered only instrumentally valuable for business, because it contributes to successful trust-building. Some authors deny truthfulness even this limited role by claiming that truth-telling is not an essential part of business, which is a sui generis practice like poker. In this article, I argue that truthfulness has indeed an intrinsic value in business and identify the conceptual confusions underlying the opposite view. My (...)
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  43. Simon Woods, Lynn E. Hagger & Pauline McCormack (2012). Therapeutic Misconception: Hope, Trust and Misconception in Paediatric Research. [REVIEW] Health Care Analysis (1):1-19.score: 36.0
    Although the therapeutic misconception (TM) has been well described over a period of approximately 20 years, there has been disagreement about its implications for informed consent to research. In this paper we review some of the history and debate over the ethical implications of TM but also bring a new perspective to those debates. Drawing upon our experience of working in the context of translational research for rare childhood diseases such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy, we consider the ethical and legal (...)
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  44. Johnny Hartz Søraker (2012). How Shall I Compare Thee? Comparing the Prudential Value of Actual Virtual Friendship. Ethics and Information Technology 14 (3):209-219.score: 36.0
    It has become commonplace to hold the view that virtual surrogates for the things that are good in life are inferior to their actual, authentic counterparts, including virtual education, virtual skill-demanding activities and virtual acts of creativity. Virtual friendship has also been argued to be inferior to traditional, embodied forms of friendship. Coupled with the view that virtual friendships threaten to replace actual ones, the conclusion is often made that we ought to concentrate our efforts on actual friendships (...)
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  45. Robert Klitzman (2011). How Local IRBs View Central IRBs in the US. BMC Medical Ethics 12 (1):13-.score: 36.0
    Background: Centralization of IRB reviews have been increasing in the US and elsewhere, but many questions about it remain. In the US, a few centralized IRBs (CIRBs) have been established, but how they do and could operate remain unclear. Methods: I contacted 60 IRBs (every fourth one in the list of the top 240 institutions by NIH funding), and interviewed leaders from 34 (response rate = 55%) and an additional 12 members and administrators. Results: These interviewees had often interacted with (...)
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  46. Claudia Mills, Friendship, Fiction, and Memoir: Trust and Betrayal in Writing From One's Own Life.score: 36.0
    I once attended a writing conference for aspiring authors of books for children, at which one speaker enraged the audience by making the pronouncement that, in his view, parents were disqualified to be authors of children's fiction. His reason: parents have to protect themselves from the reality of their children's pain and so wouldn't be able to write about childhood traumas with sufficient awareness and honesty. To this the audience, largely composed of mothers, shot back that parents are especially (...)
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  47. T. Shogenji (2004). Can We Trust Our Memories? C. I. Lewis's Coherence Argument. Synthese 142 (1):21 - 41.score: 36.0
    In this paper we examine C. I. Lewis''s view on the roleof coherence – what he calls ''''congruence'''' – in thejustification of beliefs based on memory ortestimony. Lewis has two main theses on the subject. His negativethesis states that coherence of independent items ofevidence has no impact on the probability of a conclusionunless each item has some credibility of its own. Thepositive thesis says, roughly speaking, that coherenceof independently obtained items of evidence – such asconverging memories or testimonies – (...)
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  48. Michael Jungert (2008). In Memory We Trust? Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 18:69-73.score: 36.0
    The common sense regards memory as fairly exact, reliable and trustworthy in the majority of cases. However, latest scientific findings in the fields of psychology and biology seem to object this point of view. According to them, memory appears as a highly constructive and often deceptive phenomenon. These assumptionslead to various philosophical problems. The talk will address some of them. At first the question will be raised which conclusions can be reasonably drawn from empirical findings brought by memory research. (...)
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  49. Joel Lexchin (2012). Of Money and Trust in Medical Care Redux. Mens Sana Monographs 10 (1):143.score: 36.0
    Should we be concerned about financial conflicts of interest (COI) between doctors and the pharmaceutical industry? Some people will say no as there are clearly doctors who celebrate the relationship. Others say that it does not matter to patients, but the evidence says otherwise. Financial COI is different from other types of conflicts because it is voluntary and can be refused. Finally, it is not just the large gifts that are a problem, the small ones also create a "gift relationship." (...)
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  50. Nete Schwennesen, Mette Nordahl Svendsen & Lene Koch (2010). Beyond Informed Choice: Prenatal Risk Assessment, Decision-Making and Trust. Clinical Ethics 5 (4):207-216.score: 36.0
    In 2004, prenatal risk assessment (PRA) was implemented as a routine offer in Denmark, in order to give all pregnant women an informed choice about whether to undergo prenatal testing. PRA is a non-invasive intervention performed in the first trimester of pregnancy and measures the risk of a fetus having Down's syndrome or other chromosomal disorders. The risk figure provides the basis for action, i.e. the decision about whether or not to undergo invasive fetal testing via the maternal route (amniocentesis (...)
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