Search results for 'Universality of Causation' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Christopher Gregory Weaver (2013). A Church-Fitch Proof for the Universality of Causation. Synthese 190 (14):2749-2772.
    In an attempt to improve upon Alexander Pruss’s work (The principle of sufficient reason: A reassessment, pp. 240–248, 2006), I (Weaver, Synthese 184(3):299–317, 2012) have argued that if all purely contingent events could be caused and something like a Lewisian analysis of causation is true (per, Lewis’s, Causation as influence, reprinted in: Collins, Hall and paul. Causation and counterfactuals, 2004), then all purely contingent events have causes. I dubbed the derivation of the universality of causation (...)
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    J. L. Mackie (1980). The Cement of the Universe: A Study of Causation. Clarendon Press.
    Studies causation both as a concept and as it is 'in the objects.' Offers new accounts of the logic of singular causal statements, the form of causal regularities, the detection of causal relationships, the asymmetry of cause and effect, and necessary connection, and it relates causation to functional and statistical laws and to teleology.
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  3. Max Kistler (2007). Causation and Laws of Nature. In Michael Beaney (ed.), The Analytic Turn: Analysis in Early Analytic Philosophy and Phenomenology. Routledge
    Causation is important. It is, as Hume said, the cement of the universe, and lies at the heart of our conceptual structure. Causation is one of the most fundamental tools we have for organizing our apprehension of the external world and ourselves. But philosophers' disagreement about the correct interpretation of causation is as limitless as their agreement about its importance. The history of attempts to elucidate the nature of this concept and to situate it with respect to (...)
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  4.  11
    Myles Brand (1975). Book Review:The Cement of the Universe: A Study of Causation J. L. Mackie. [REVIEW] Philosophy of Science 42 (3):335-.
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    Bernard Berofsky (1977). The Cement of the Universe: A Study of Causation. [REVIEW] Journal of Philosophy 74 (2):103-118.
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  6.  9
    Richard M. Gale (1977). "The Cement of the Universe: A Study of Causation," by J. L. Mackie. Modern Schoolman 54 (2):173-177.
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    Bengt Hansson (forthcoming). Logic of Causation, Determinism, Universal Laws, and Predictability. Logique Et Analyse.
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  8.  3
    Martin Hollis (1975). The Cement of the Universe: A Study of Causation By J. L. Mackie Clarendon Press: Oxford University Press, 1974, 329 Pp, £5.25. [REVIEW] Philosophy 50 (193):362-.
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  9. Martin Hollis (1975). MACKIE, J. L. "The Cement of the Universe: A Study of Causation". [REVIEW] Philosophy 50:362.
     
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  10. J. L. Mackie (1975). D. H. MELLOR: "The Cement of the Universe: A Study of Causation". [REVIEW] Ratio 17 (2):251.
     
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  11. William A. Wallace (1976). J. L. Mackie, "The Cement of the Universe: A Study of Causation". [REVIEW] The Thomist 40 (4):684.
     
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  12. R. S. Woolhouse (1976). MACKIE, J. L. "The Cement of the Universe: A Study of Causation". [REVIEW] Mind 85:308.
     
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  13.  0
    Beatrice H. Zedler (1987). Barry S. Kogan, Averroes and the Metaphysics of Causation. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1985. Pp. Xi, 348. $39.50 (Cloth); $14.95 (Paper). [REVIEW] Speculum 62 (2):434-436.
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  14. Stephen Mumford & Rani Lill Anjum (2010). A Powerful Theory of Causation. In Anna Marmodoro (ed.), The Metaphysics of Powers: Their Grounding and Their Manifestations. Routledge 143--159.
    Hume thought that if you believed in powers, you believed in necessary connections in nature. He was then able to argue that there were none such because anything could follow anything else. But Hume wrong-footed his opponents. A power does not necessitate its manifestations: rather, it disposes towards them in a way that is less than necessary but more than purely contingent. -/- In this paper a dispositional theory of causation is offered. Causes dispose towards their effects and often (...)
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  15.  23
    Alexander Rueger (2006). Connection and Influence: A Process Theory of Causation. [REVIEW] Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 37 (1):77 - 97.
    A combination of process and counterfactual theories of causation is proposed with the aim of preserving the strengths of each of the approaches while avoiding their shortcomings. The basis for the combination, or hybrid, view is the need, common to both accounts, of imposing a stability requirement on the causal relation.
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  16. Rachel Robbins, Elinor Mckone, Dirk Kerzel, Bret K. Hayes, Katrina Foster, Naomi Gadd, Deborah Kelemen, Wilfried Kunde, Andrea Kiesel & Joachim Hoffmann (2003). Number 1 Regular Articles Phillip Wolff (University of Memphis) Direct Causation in the Linguistic Coding and Individuation of Causal Events, 1–48 Rebecca Treiman, Brett Kessler (Washington University) and Suzanne. [REVIEW] Cognition 88:333-334.
     
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  17.  9
    Joseph F. Rychlak (1998). Is There an Unrecognized Teleology in Hume's Analysis of Causation? Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology 18 (1):52-60.
    D. Hume's analysis of causation is critically analyzed in light of certain assumptions that he made regarding the classical Aristotelian causes. Using his widely cited analysis of billiard balls colliding and moving about as an example of how efficient causation is supposedly learned, the argument is made that Hume has overlooked the functioning of final causation in this learning. Thus, in order to understand how a learner might reason back from the presumed "effect" to the "cause" in (...)
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  18.  5
    D. Hausman (2008). Price Huw, Corry Richard (Eds.), Causation, Physics, and the Constitution of Reality: Russell's Republic Revisited. Oxford University Press (2007), Pp. 403+Ix, $35, 978-0-19-927819-. [REVIEW] Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 39 (1):231-233.
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  19.  5
    Hausman Daniel M. (2007). Price Huw, Corry Richard (Eds.), Causation, Physics, and the Constitution of Reality: Russell's Republic Revisited. Oxford University Press (2007), Pp. 403+IX, $35, 978-0-19-927819-. [REVIEW] Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B.
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  20.  50
    Nuel Belnap (2005). A Theory of Causation: Causae Causantes (Originating Causes) as Inus Conditions in Branching Space-Times. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 56 (2):221-253.
    permits a sound and rigorously definable notion of ‘originating cause’ or causa causans—a type of transition event—of an outcome event. Mackie has famously suggested that causes form a family of ‘inus’ conditions, where an inus condition is ‘an insufficient but non-redundant part of an unnecessary but sufficient condition’. In this essay the needed concepts of BST theory are developed in detail, and it is then proved that the causae causantes of a given outcome event have exactly the structure of a (...)
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  21.  68
    Stephen Barker (2003). Counterfactual Analyses of Causation: The Problem of Effects and Epiphenomena Revisited. Noûs 37 (1):133–150.
    I argue that Lewis's counterfactual theory of causation, given his treatment of counterfactuals in terms of world-comparative similarity faces insuperable problems in the form of the problem of effects and the problem of epiphenomena.
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  22.  63
    Daniel von Wachter, The Tendency Theory of Causation.
    I propose a non-Humean theory of causation with “tendencies” as causal connections. Not, however, as “necessary connexions”: causes are not sufficient, they do not necessitate their effects. The theory is designed to be, not an analysis of the concept of causation, but a description of what is the case in typical cases of causa-tion. I therefore call it a metaphysical theory of causation, as opposed to a semantic one.
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  23.  25
    Roberto Poli (2007). Three Obstructions: Forms of Causation, Chronotopoids, and Levels of Reality. [REVIEW] Axiomathes 17 (1):1-18.
    The thesis is defended that the theories of causation, time and space, and levels of reality are mutually interrelated in such a way that the difficulties internal to theories of causation and to theories of space and time can be understood better, and perhaps dealt with, in the categorial context furnished by the theory of the levels of reality. The structural condition for this development to be possible is that the first two theories be opportunely generalized.
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  24.  3
    Alburey Castell (1972). The Status of the Principle of Universal Causation. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 32 (3):403-407.
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    Christophe Malaterre (2011). Making Sense of Downward Causation in Manipulationism (with Illustrations From Cancer Research). History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences (33):537-562.
    Many researchers consider cancer to have molecular causes, namely mutated genes that result in abnormal cell proliferation (e.g. Weinberg 1998). For others, the causes of cancer are to be found not at the molecular level but at the tissue level where carcinogenesis consists of disrupted tissue organization with downward causation effects on cells and cellular components (e.g. Sonnenschein and Soto 2008). In this contribution, I ponder how to make sense of such downward causation claims. Adopting a manipulationist account (...)
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  26.  18
    Stathis Psillos, Regularities All the Way Down: Thomas Brown's Philosophy of Causation∗.
    Thomas Brown (1778-1820) was one of the tail-enders of the Scottish Enlightenment. He shared with Dugald Stewart (1753-1828) the chair of Moral Philosophy at the University of Edinburgh from 1810 until his premature death in 1820. He is sometimes classed with the Scottish common-sense philosophers and, to some extent at least, his basic philosophical principles were akin to those of the common-sense philosophy. He did, for instance, forfeit the issue of the justification of some of our most basic (...)
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  27. Brad Weslake (forthcoming). A Partial Theory of Actual Causation. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science.
    One part of the true theory of actual causation is a set of conditions responsible for eliminating all of the non-causes of an effect that can be discerned at the level of counterfactual structure. I defend a proposal for this part of the theory.
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  28. Markus E. Schlosser (2012). Causally Efficacious Intentions and the Sense of Agency: In Defense of Real Mental Causation. Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology 32 (3):135-160.
    Empirical evidence, it has often been argued, undermines our commonsense assumptions concerning the efficacy of conscious intentions. One of the most influential advocates of this challenge has been Daniel Wegner, who has presented an impressive amount of evidence in support of a model of "apparent mental causation". According to Wegner, this model provides the best explanation of numerous curious and pathological cases of behavior. Further, it seems that Benjamin Libet's classic experiment on the initiation of action and the empirical (...)
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  29.  8
    María José García-Encinas (2004). Transference, or Identity Theories of Causation? Theoria 19 (1):31-47.
    Transference theorists propose to explain causation in terms of the transference of a physical element. I argue, in two steps, that this is not possible. First, I show that available accounts of ‘transference’ ultimately convey that transference -and, consequently, causation- is the (non-relational) identity over time of the transferred element (a universal, a trope, or even an absolute substance). But, second, I try to defend, it is conceptually impossible that causation is (non-relational) identity.
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  30. Douglas Kutach (2007). The Physical Foundations of Causation. In Huw Price & Richard Corry (eds.), Causation, Physics, and the Constitution of Reality: Russell's Republic Revisited. Oxford University Press
    I defend what may loosely be called an eliminativist account of causation by showing how several of the main features of causation, namely asymmetry, transitivity, and necessitation (or sometimes probability-raising), arise from the combination of fundamental dynamical laws and a special constraint on the macroscopic structure of matter in the past. At the microscopic level, the causal features of necessitation and transitivity are grounded, but not the asymmetry. At the coarse-grained level of the macroscopic physics, the causal asymmetry (...)
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  31.  34
    María José García-Encinas (2004). Transference, or Identiry Theories of Causation? Theoria 19 (1):31-47.
    Transference theorists propose to explain causation in terms of the transference of a physical element. I argue, in two steps, that this is not possible. First, I show that available accounts of ‘transference’ ultimately convey that transference -and, consequently, causation- is the (non-relational) identity over time of the transferred element (a universal, a trope, or even an absolute substance). But, second, I try to defend, it is conceptually impossible that causation is (non-relational) identity.
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  32.  1
    María José García Encinas (2004). Transference, or Identity Theories of Causation? Theoria: Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia 19 (49):31-48.
    Transference theorists propose to explain causation in terms of the transference of a physical element. I argue, in two steps, that this it not possible. First, I show that available accounts of 'transference' ultimately convey that transference -and, consequently, causation- is the (non-relational) identity over time of the transferred element (a universal, a trope, or even an absolute substance). But, second, I try to defend, it is conceptually impossible that causation it (non-relational) identity.
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  33. Huw Price & Brad Weslake (2009). The Time-Asymmetry of Causation. In Helen Beebee, Peter Menzies & Christopher Hitchcock (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Causation. Oxford University Press
    One of the most striking features of causation is that causes typically precede their effects – the causal arrow is strongly aligned with the temporal arrow. Why should this be so? We offer an opinionated guide to this problem, and to the solutions currently on offer. We conclude that the most promising strategy is to begin with the de facto asymmetry of human deliberation, characterised in epistemic terms, and to build out from there. More than any rival, this subjectivist (...)
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  34. Matt Farr & Alexander Reutlinger (2013). A Relic of a Bygone Age? Causation, Time Symmetry and the Directionality Argument. Erkenntnis 78 (2):215-235.
    Bertrand Russell famously argued that causation is not part of the fundamental physical description of the world, describing the notion of cause as “a relic of a bygone age” (Russell in Proc Aristot Soc 13:1–26, 1913). This paper assesses one of Russell’s arguments for this conclusion: the ‘Directionality Argument’, which holds that the time symmetry of fundamental physics is inconsistent with the time asymmetry of causation. We claim that the coherence and success of the Directionality Argument crucially depends (...)
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  35.  34
    Kyung-Man Kim (2011). Habermas on Understanding: Virtual Participation, Dialogue and the Universality of Truth. [REVIEW] Human Studies 34 (4):393-406.
    Although the success of Habermas’s theory of communicative action depends on his dialogical model of understanding in which a theorist is supposed to participate in the debate with the actors as a ‘virtual participant’ and seek context-transcendent truth through the exchange of speech acts, current literature on the theory of communicative action rarely touches on the difficulties it entails. In the first part of this paper, I will examine Habermas’s argument that understanding other cultural practices requires the interpreter to virtually (...)
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  36.  18
    Alexander Gebharter & Gerhard Schurz (2014). How Occam's Razor Provides a Neat Definition of Direct Causation. In J. M. Mooij, D. Janzing, J. Peters, T. Claassen & A. Hyttinen (eds.), Proceedings of the UAI Workshop Causal Inference: Learning and Prediction. CEUR-WS 1-10.
    In this paper we show that the application of Occam’s razor to the theory of causal Bayes nets gives us a neat definition of direct causation. In particular we show that Occam’s razor implies Woodward’s (2003) definition of direct causation, provided suitable intervention variables exist and the causal Markov condition (CMC) is satisfied. We also show how Occam’s razor can account for direct causal relationships Woodward style when only stochastic intervention variables are available.
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  37.  29
    Ioannis Trisokkas (2009). The Speculative Logical Theory of Universality. The Owl of Minerva 40 (2009):141-172.
    Speculative logical theory, as provided in Hegel’s Science of Logic, consists of three main parts: the logic of being, the logic of essence, and the logic of the concept. The peculiar character of each logic’s starting-point determines the most general character of each logic’s development. The essay aims at making explicit the character of the starting-point of the third logic, the logic of the concept. This starting-point is exemplified by the category of universality. It is shown (a) that the (...)
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  38.  51
    Marek Piechowiak (1996). Powszechność praw człowieka. Zagadnienia filozoficznoprawne [Universality of Human Rights in the Light of their Ontic Foundations]. In Tadeusz Jasudowicz & Cezary Mik (eds.), O prawach człowieka. W podwójną rocznicę Paktów. Księga Pamiątkowa w hołdzie Profesor Annie Michalskiej. Dom Organizatora TNOiK 49-71.
    Idea powszechności legła u samych podstaw współczesnej ochrony praw człowieka i nadal jest często podkreślana w dyskursie typu praktycznego, na różnych płaszczyznach: politycznej, moralnej czy religijnej. Jednakże trudno o koncepcję praw człowieka pozwalającą pogodzić powszechność z właściwościami prawa, z postulatami respektu dla pluralizmu ugruntowanego tak w odmienności kulturowej, jak i wolności poszczególnych jednostek ludzkich. Wziąwszy pod uwagę, że powszechność jest fundamentalnym przy¬miotem praw człowieka, kłopoty z powszechnością są kłopotami ze zbudowaniem filozoficznej koncepcji praw człowieka w ogóle. Odrzucenie powszechności jest równoznaczne (...)
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  39. Brendan Clarke (2011). Causality in Medicine with Particular Reference to the Viral Causation of Cancers. Dissertation, University College London
    In this thesis, I give a metascientific account of causality in medicine. I begin with two historical cases of causal discovery. These are the discovery of the causation of Burkitt’s lymphoma by the Epstein-Barr virus, and of the various viral causes suggested for cervical cancer. These historical cases then support a philosophical discussion of causality in medicine. This begins with an introduction to the Russo- Williamson thesis (RWT), and discussion of a range of counter-arguments against it. Despite these, I (...)
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  40.  93
    Stuart S. Glennan (1996). Mechanisms and the Nature of Causation. Erkenntnis 44 (1):49--71.
    In this paper I offer an analysis of causation based upon a theory of mechanisms-complex systems whose internal parts interact to produce a system's external behavior. I argue that all but the fundamental laws of physics can be explained by reference to mechanisms. Mechanisms provide an epistemologically unproblematic way to explain the necessity which is often taken to distinguish laws from other generalizations. This account of necessity leads to a theory of causation according to which events are causally (...)
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  41.  26
    Christian Jakob (2006). Hitchcock's (2001) Treatment of Singular and General Causation. Minds and Machines 16 (3):277-287.
    Hitchcock (2001a) argues that the distinction between singular and general causation conflates the two distinctions ‘actual causation vs. causal tendencies’ and ‘wide vs. narrow causation’. Based on a recent regularity account of causation I will show that Hitchcock’s introduction of the two distinctions is an unnecessary multiplication of causal concepts.
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  42. Manuel Dries (2013). The Feeling of Doing – Nietzsche on Agent Causation. Nietzscheforschung 20 (1).
    This article examines Nietzsche’s analysis of the phenomenology of agent causation. Sense of agent causation, our sense of self-efficacy, is tenacious because it originates, according to Nietzsche’s hypothesis, in the embodied and situated experience of effort in overcoming resistances. It arises at the level of the organism and is sustained by higher-order cognitive functions. Based on this hypothesis, Nietzsche regards the sense of self as emerging from a homeostatic system of drives and affects that unify such as to (...)
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  43.  56
    D. H. Mellor (1995). The Facts of Causation. Routledge.
    The Facts of Causation grapples with one of philosophy's most enduring issues. Causation is central to all of our lives. What we see and hear causes us to believe certain facts about the world. We need that information to know how to act and how to cause the effects we desire. D. H. Mellor, a leading scholar in the philosophy of science and metaphysics, offers a comprehensive theory of causation. (...) Many questions about causation remain unsettled. In science, the indeterminism of modern physics and genetics have made such questions considerably harder for philosophers to answer. While progress has been made, a complete account of the nature and cosequences of causation is long overdue. This major study provides that account. (shrink)
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  44. Andreas Hüttemann (2013). A Disposition-Based Process Theory of Causation. In Stephen Mumford & Matthew Tugby (eds.), Metaphysics and Science. Oxford 101.
    Given certain well-known observations by Mach and Russell, the question arises what place there is for causation in the physical world. My aim in this chapter is to understand under what conditions we can use causal terminology and how it fi ts in with what physics has to say. I will argue for a disposition-based process-theory of causation. After addressing Mach’s and Russell’s concerns I will start by outlining the kind of problem the disposition based process-theory of (...) is meant to solve. In a second step I will discuss the nature of those dispositions that will be relevant for our question. In section 3 I will discuss existing dispositional accounts of causation before I proceed to present my own account (sections 4 to 6) and contrast it with traditional process-theories (section 7). (shrink)
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  45.  16
    Frank Hofmann & Peter Schulte (2014). The Structuring Causes of Behavior: Has Dretske Saved Mental Causation? Acta Analytica 29 (3):267-284.
    Fred Dretske’s account of mental causation, developed in Explaining Behavior and defended in numerous articles, is generally regarded as one of the most interesting and most ambitious approaches in the field. According to Dretske, meaning facts, construed historically as facts about the indicator functions of internal states, are the structuring causes of behavior. In this article, we argue that Dretske’s view is untenable: On closer examination, the real structuring causes of behavior turn out to be markedly different from Dretske’s (...)
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  46.  21
    Wilson Mendonça (2010). Mental Causation and the Causal Completeness of Physics. Principia 6 (1):121-132.
    The paper takes issue with a widely accepted view of mental causation. This is the view that mental causation is either reducible to physical causation or ultimately untenable, because incompatible with the causal completeness of physics. The paper examines, first, why recent attempts to save the phenomena of mental causation by way of the notion of supervenient causation fail. The result of this examination is the claim that any attempted specification of the most basic causal (...)
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  47.  93
    Kevin McCain (2012). The Interventionist Account of Causation and the Basing Relation. Philosophical Studies 159 (3):357-382.
    It is commonplace to distinguish between propositional justification (having good reasons for believing p) and doxastic justification (believing p on the basis of those good reasons).One necessary requirement for bridging the gap between S’s merely having propositional justification that p and S’s having doxastic justification that p is that S base her belief that p on her reasons (propositional justification).A plausible suggestion for what it takes for S’s belief to be based on her reasons is that her reasons must contribute (...)
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  48.  31
    Thomas D. Bontly (2005). Exclusion, Overdetermination, and the Nature of Causation. Journal of Philosophical Research 30:261-282.
    A typical thesis of contemporary materialism holds that mental properties and events supervene on, without being reducible to, physical properties and events. Many philosophers have grown skeptical about the causal efficacy of irreducibly supervenient properties, however, and one of the main reasons is an assumption about causation which Jaegwon Kim calls the causal exclusion principle. I argue here that this principle runs afoul of cases of genuine causal overdetermination.Many would argue that causal overdetermination is impossible anyway, but a careful (...)
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  49. Peter A. White (1995). The Understanding of Causation and the Production of Action From Infancy to Adulthood. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
  50. Justin Broackes (1993). Did Hume Hold a Regularity Theory of Causation? British Journal for the History of Philosophy 1 (1):99 – 114.
    In The Secret Connexion1 Galen Strawson argues against the traditional interpretation of Hume, according to which Hume’s theory of meaning leads him to a regularity theory of causation. In actual fact, says Strawson, ‘Hume believes firmly in some sort of natural necessity’ (p. 277). What Hume denied was that we are aware of causal connections outrunning regular succession, and that we have a ‘positively or descriptively contentful conception’ of such powers (p. 283); he did not deny that there are (...)
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