Search results for 'Universe' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Nicholas Maxwell (1999). Has Science Established That the Universe is Comprehensible? Cogito 13 (2):139-145.score: 24.0
    Many scientists, if pushed, may be inclined to hazard the guess that the universe is comprehensible, even physically comprehensible. Almost all, however, would vehemently deny that science has already established that the universe is comprehensible. It is, nevertheless, just this that I claim to be the case. Once one gets the nature of science properly into perspective, it becomes clear that the comprehensibility of the universe is as secure an item of current scientific knowledge as anything theoretical (...)
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  2. Mohan Matthen & R. J. Hankinson (1993). Aristotle's Universe: Its Form and Matter. Synthese 96 (3):417 - 435.score: 24.0
    It is argued that according to Aristotle the universe is a single substance with its own form and matter.
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  3. Nicholas Maxwell (2014). How Can Our Human World Exist and Best Flourish Embedded in the Physical Universe? A Letter to an Applicant to a New Liberal Studies Course. On the Horizon 22 (1).score: 24.0
    In this paper I sketch a liberal studies course designed to explore our fundamental problem of thought and life: How can our human world exist and best flourish embedded as it is in the physical universe? The fundamental character of this problem provides one with the opportunity to explore a wide range of issues. What does physics tell us about the universe and ourselves? How do we account for everything physics leaves out? How can living brains be conscious? (...)
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  4. John E. Stewart (2010). The Meaning of Life in a Developing Universe. Foundations of Science 15 (4):395-409.score: 24.0
    The evolution of life on Earth has produced an organism that is beginning to model and understand its own evolution and the possible future evolution of life in the universe. These models and associated evidence show that evolution on Earth has a trajectory. The scale over which living processes are organized cooperatively has increased progressively, as has its evolvability. Recent theoretical advances raise the possibility that this trajectory is itself part of a wider developmental process. According to these theories, (...)
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  5. Jan M. Greben (2010). The Role of Energy Conservation and Vacuum Energy in the Evolution of the Universe. Foundations of Science 15 (2):153-176.score: 24.0
    We discuss a new theory of the universe in which the vacuum energy is of classical origin and dominates the energy content of the universe. As usual, the Einstein equations determine the metric of the universe. However, the scale factor is controlled by total energy conservation in contrast to the practice in the Robertson–Walker formulation. This theory naturally leads to an explanation for the Big Bang and is not plagued by the horizon and cosmological constant problem. It (...)
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  6. Attila Grandpierre (1995). Invited Essay Peak Experiences and the Natural Universe—Metaphysical Explorations of a Cosmological Physicist. World Futures 44 (1):1-13.score: 24.0
    Among the most exciting experiences in our lives are the ones that arouse a magical rapture within us. This may happen when we become engrossed in a musical piece, when dancing becomes ecstatic, when we are passionately in love (or making love) or when we experience an intuitive perception or an altered state of consciousness, get caught by the spell of the infinity of the Universe or the splendor of nature; it can also happen during telepathic contact or in (...)
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  7. J. Ostrowick (2012). Is Theism a Simple, and Hence Probable, Explanation for the Universe? South African Journal of Philosophy 31 (2):354-368.score: 24.0
    Richard Swinburne, in his The Existence of God (2004), presents a cosmological argument in defence of theism (Swinburne 1991: 119, 135). God, Swinburne argues, is more likely to bring about an ordered universe than other states (ibid.: 144, 299). To defend this view, Swinburne presents the following arguments: (1) That this ordered universe is a priori improbable (2004: 49, 150, 1991: 304 et seq.), given the stringent requirements for life (cf. also Leslie 2000: 12), and the Second Law (...)
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  8. Jason Brennan (2007). Free Will in the Block Universe. Philosophia 35 (2):207-217.score: 22.0
    Carl Hoefer has argued that determinism in block universes does not privilege any particular time slice as the fundamental determiner of other time slices. He concludes from this that our actions are free, insofar as they are pieces of time slices we may legitimately regard as fundamental determiners. However, I argue that Hoefer does not adequately deal with certain remaining problems. For one, there remain pervasive asymmetries in causation and the macroscopic efficacy of our actions. I suggest that what Hoefer (...)
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  9. Don Locke (1961). Strawson's Auditory Universe. Philosophical Review 70 (October):518-532.score: 21.0
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  10. Lothar Schäfer (2006). Quantum Reality, the Emergence of Complex Order From Virtual States, and the Importance of Consciousness in the Universe. Zygon 41 (3):505-532.score: 21.0
  11. Sten F. Odenwald (1990). A Modern Look at the Origin of the Universe. Zygon 25 (1):25-45.score: 21.0
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  12. M. Viale (2004). The Cumulative Hierarchy and the Constructible Universe of ZFA. Mathematical Logic Quarterly 50 (1):99.score: 21.0
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  13. C. V. N. Rao (2002). The Vedic Map of the Universe. New Bharatiya Book Corp..score: 21.0
     
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  14. Stefano Ansoldi & Eduardo I. Guendelman (2007). Solitons as Key Parts to Produce a Universe in the Laboratory. Foundations of Physics 37 (4-5):712-722.score: 20.0
    Cosmology is usually understood as an observational science, where experimentation plays no role. It is interesting, nevertheless, to change this perspective addressing the following question: what should we do to create a universe, in a laboratory? It appears, in fact, that this is, in principle, possible according to at least two different paradigms; both allow to circumvent singularity theorems, i.e. the necessity of singularities in the past of inflating domains which have the required properties to generate a universe (...)
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  15. Nicholas Maxwell (2011). A Priori Conjectural Knowledge in Physics: The Comprehensibility of the Universe. In Mkichael Shaffer & Michael Veber (eds.), What Place for the A Priori? Open Court.score: 18.0
    In this paper I argue for a priori conjectural scientific knowledge about the world. Physics persistently only accepts unified theories, even though endlessly many empirically more successful disunified rivals are always available. This persistent preference for unified theories, against empirical considerations, means that physics makes a substantial, persistent metaphysical assumption, to the effect that the universe has a (more or less) unified dynamic structure. In order to clarify what this assumption amounts to, I solve the problem of what it (...)
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  16. Helen Beebee (2006). Does Anything Hold the Universe Together? Synthese 149 (3):509-533.score: 18.0
    According to ‘regularity theories’ of causation, the obtaining of causal relations depends on no more than the obtaining of certain kinds of regularity. Regularity theorists are thus anti-realists about necessary connections in nature. Regularity theories of one form or another have constituted the dominant view in analytic Philosophy for a long time, but have recently come in for some robust criticism, notably from Galen Strawson. Strawson’s criticisms are natural criticisms to make, but have not so far provoked much response from (...)
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  17. Lorna Green, Some Radical New Ideas About Consciousness 2012 - Consciousness and the Cosmos: A New Copernican Reolution, Part 1 Science, Consciousness and the Universe.score: 18.0
    Some Radical New Ideas About Consciousness Consciousness and the Cosmos: A New Copernican Revolution Consciousness is our new frontier in modern science. Most scientists believe that it can be accomodated, explained, by existing scientific principles. I say that it cannot. That it calls all existing scientific principles into question. That consciousness is to modern science just exactly what light was to classical physics: All of our fundamental assumptions about the nature of Reality have to change. And I go on, in (...)
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  18. Quentin Smith, A Cosmological Argument for a Self Caused Universe (2008).score: 18.0
    I intend to argue for the conclusion that the universe, be it infinitely old or finitely old, causes itself. One might object that no such argument could possibly succeed, because the claim that "the universe causes itself" is incoherent. I agree that this claim is incoherent if it is understood to mean that one individual, the universe, causes that same individual to come into existence. No individual can bring about its own existence, because no individual can bring (...)
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  19. John Cramer, The New Recycling Universe.score: 18.0
    In this column I want to describe a new possible description of the universe, a cosmological paradigm proposing a universe that is infinite, eternal, and that recycles itself from Big Bang to Big Crunch at regular time intervals. This new model of cosmology is the work of Paul J. Steinhardt of Princeton and Neil Turok of Cambridge, and is inspired by string theory and based on Steinhardt’s own ekpyrotic cosmology, as described in a previous AV column (“Brane Bashing: (...)
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  20. Jenann Ismael (2003). How to Combine Chance and Determinism: Thinking About the Future in an Everett Universe. Philosophy of Science 70 (4):776-790.score: 18.0
    I propose, in the context of Everett interpretations of quantum mechanics, a way of understanding how there can be genuine uncertainty about the future notwithstanding that the universe is governed by known, deterministic dynamical laws, and notwithstanding that there is no ignorance about initial conditions, nor anything in the universe whose evolution is not itself governed by the known dynamical laws. The proposal allows us to draw some lessons about the relationship between chance and determinism, and to dispel (...)
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  21. T. J. Mawson (2011). Explaining the Fine Tuning of the Universe to Us and the Fine Tuning of Us to the Universe. Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 68 (68):25-50.score: 18.0
    In this paper, I evaluate the adequacy of various multiverse hypotheses relative to classical theism in explaining the fine tuning of the universe to life and the fine tuning of our life to the universe. I conclude that, despite its rational attractiveness in explaining the fine tuning of the universe to us in a more conclusive and arguably simpler manner than the God hypothesis, due to its failure to explain the continuing fine tuning of us to the (...)
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  22. Gerrit Smith & Robert Weingard (1990). Quantum Cosmology and the Beginning of the Universe. Philosophy of Science 57 (4):663-667.score: 18.0
    In this note a recently developed quantum oscillating finite space cosmological model is described. The principle novelty of the model is that there is a quantum blurring of the classical singularity between cycles, instead of a singularity free bounce. Recently, Quentin Smith (1988) has argued that present theoretical and observational evidence justifies the belief that the past history of the universe is finite. The relevance of this cosmological model to Smith's arguments is discussed.
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  23. Quentin Smith (1988). The Uncaused Beginning of the Universe. Philosophy of Science 55 (1):39-57.score: 18.0
    There is sufficient evidence at present to justify the belief that the universe began to exist without being caused to do so. This evidence includes the Hawking-Penrose singularity theorems that are based on Einstein's General Theory of Relativity, and the recently introduced Quantum Cosmological Models of the early universe. The singularity theorems lead to an explication of the beginning of the universe that involves the notion of a Big Bang singularity, and the Quantum Cosmological Models represent the (...)
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  24. John Bell, Time and Causation in Gödel's Universe.score: 18.0
    In 1949 the great logician Kurt Gödel constructed the first mathematical models of the universe in which travel into the past is, in theory at least, possible. Within the framework of Einstein’s general theory of relativity Gödel produced cosmological solutions to Einstein’s field equations which contain closed time-like curves, that is, curves in spacetime which, despite being closed, still represent possible paths of bodies. An object moving along such a path would travel back into its own past, to the (...)
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  25. William Dembski, Infinite Universe or Intelligent Design?score: 18.0
    To reach the conclusion that the universe is infinite, physicists (a) make some observations; (b) fit those observations to some mathematical model; (c) find that the neatest model that accommodates the data extrapolates to an infinite universe; (d) conclude that the universe is infinite. In my presentation I will examine the logic by which physicists reach this conclusion. Specifically, I will show that there is no way to empirically justify the move from (b) to (c). An infinite (...)
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  26. Richard Swinburne (1996). The Beginning of the Universe and of Time. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 26 (2):169 - 189.score: 18.0
    Given four modest verificationist theses, tying the meaning of talk about instants and periods to the events which (physically) could occur during, before or after them, the only content to the claim the Universe had a beginning (applicable equally to chaotic or orderly universes) is in terms of it being preceded by empty time. It follows that time cannot have a beginning. The Universe, however, could have a beginning--even if it has lasted for an infinite time.
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  27. Quentin Smith (1997). Simplicity and Why the Universe Exists. Philosophy 72 (279):125 - 132.score: 18.0
    If big bang cosmology is true, then the universe began to exist about 15 billion years ago with a 'big bang', an explosion of matter, energy and space from a singular point. This singularity is spatially and temporally pointlike; that is, it has zero spatial dimensions and exists for an instant (at t=0) before exploding with a 'big bang'. The big bang singularity is also lawless; Stephen Hawking writes: A singularity is a place where the classical concepts of space (...)
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  28. John Earman (2003). The Cosmological Constant, the Fate of the Universe, Unimodular Gravity, and All That. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 34 (4):559-577.score: 18.0
    The cosmological constant is back. Several lines of evidence point to the conclusion that either there is a positive cosmological constant or else the universe is filled with a strange form of matter (“quintessence”) that mimics some of the effects of a positive lambda. This paper investigates the implications of the former possibility. Two senses in which the cosmological constant can be a constant are distinguished: the capital Λ sense in which lambda is a universal constant on a par (...)
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  29. Brent Silby (2009). The Simulated Universe. Philosophy Now 75 (75):28-30.score: 18.0
    This article explores the Simulated Universe argument with particular reference to Nick Bostrom’s formulation. After providing an exposition of the argument, I address two problems and conclude that we reject the possibility that we exist in a simulation.
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  30. Nicholas Maxwell, The Problem of Induction and Metaphysical Assumptions Concerning the Comprehensibility and Knowability of the Universe. PhilSci Archive.score: 18.0
    Even though evidence underdetermines theory, often in science one theory only is regarded as acceptable in the light of the evidence. This suggests there are additional unacknowledged assumptions which constrain what theories are to be accepted. In the case of physics, these additional assumptions are metaphysical theses concerning the comprehensibility and knowability of the universe. Rigour demands that these implicit assumptions be made explicit within science, so that they can be critically assessed and, we may hope improved. This leads (...)
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  31. Markus Schrenk (2010). Mauro Dorato * The Software of the Universe: An Introduction to the History and Philosophy of the Laws of Nature. [REVIEW] British Journal for the Philosophy of Science (E-Version) 62 (1):225-232.score: 18.0
    This is a review of Mauro Dorato's book "The Software of the Universe: An Introduction to the History and Philosophy of the Laws of Nature".
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  32. David B. Malament (1984). "Time Travel" in the Godel Universe. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1984:91 - 100.score: 18.0
    The paper first tries to explain how the possibility of "time travel" arises in the Godel universe. It then goes on to discuss a technical problem conerning minimal acceleration requirements for time travel. A theorem is stated and a conjecture posed. If the latter is correct, time travel can be ruled out as a practical possibility in the Godel universe.
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  33. Dan Dennis (2011). Evil, Fine-Tuning and the Creation of the Universe. International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 70 (2):139-145.score: 18.0
    Could God have created a better universe? Well, the fundamental scientific laws and parameters of the universe have to be within a certain miniscule range, for a life-sustaining universe to develop: the universe must be ‘Fine Tuned’. Therefore the ‘embryonic universe’ that came into existence with the ‘big bang’ had to be either exactly as it was or within a certain tiny range, for there to develop a life-sustaining universe. If it is better that (...)
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  34. Richard Swinburne (2010). God As the Simplest Explanation of the Universe. European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 2 (1):1 - 24.score: 18.0
    Inanimate explanation is to be analysed in terms of substances having powers and liabilities to exercise their powers under certain conditions; while personal explanation is to be analysed in terms of persons, their beliefs, powers, and purposes. A crucial criterion for an explanation being probably true is that it is (among explanations leading us to expect the data) the simplest one. Simplicity is a matter of few substances, few kinds of substances, few properties (including powers and liabilities), few kinds of (...)
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  35. H. G. Callaway (ed.) (2008). William James, A Pluralistic Universe: A New Philosophical Reading. Cambridge Scholars.score: 18.0
    This book is my new scholarly edition of William James, A Pluralistic Universe. The original text has been recovered, annotations to the text added to identify James' authors and events of interest, there is a new bibliography chiefly based on James' sources, a brief chronology of James' career, and I have added an expository and critical Introduction and a comprehensive analytical index.
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  36. Jeffrey Grupp (2006). God's Spatial Unlocatedness Prevents Him From Being the Creator of the Universe: A New Argument for the Nonexistence of God. Sophia 45 (1):5-23.score: 18.0
    I discuss the relations between God and spatial entities, such as the universe. An example of a relation between God and a spatial entity is the relation,causes. Such relations are, in D.M. Armstrong’s words, ‘realm crossing’ relations: relations between or among spatial entities and entities in the realm of the spatially unlocated. I discuss an apparent problem with such realm crossing relations. If this problem is serious enough, as I will argue it is, it implies that God cannot be (...)
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  37. Stephen Coleman (2001). Fine-Tuning and Probability: Does the Universe Require Explanation? Sophia 40 (1):7 - 15.score: 18.0
    It has been suggested by many philosophers that the cosmos cries out for explanation. They base this claim on the fact that many of the fundamental characteristics of the cosmos seem to have to be incredibly ’fine-tuned’ to permit the existence of intelligent life. They further claim from this ’fine-tuning’ that the cosmos is highly improbable, and thus requires an explanation. In recent times, these views have been criticized by writers, such as Quentin Smith, who suggest that no explanation for (...)
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  38. Victor J. Stenger (2006). A Scenario for a Natural Origin of Our Universe Using a Mathematical Model Based on Established Physics and Cosmology. Philo 9 (2):93-102.score: 18.0
    A mathematical model of the natural origin of our universe is presented. The model is based only on well-established physics. No claim is made that this model uniquely represents exactly how the universe came about. But the viability of a single model serves to refute any assertions that the universe cannot have come about by natural means.
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  39. Chris Tillman & Gregory Fowler (2012). Propositions and Parthood: The Universe and Anti-Symmetry. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 90 (3):525 - 539.score: 18.0
    It is plausible that the universe exists: a thing such that absolutely everything is a part of it. It is also plausible that singular, structured propositions exist: propositions that literally have individuals as parts. Furthermore, it is plausible that for each thing, there is a singular, structured proposition that has it as a part. Finally, it is plausible that parthood is a partial ordering: reflexive, transitive, and anti-symmetric. These plausible claims cannot all be correct. We canvass some costs of (...)
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  40. David Bohm (1993). The Undivided Universe: An Ontological Interpretation of Quantum Theory. Routledge.score: 18.0
    In the The Undivided Universe, David Bohn and Basil Hiley present a radically different approach to quantum theory.
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  41. Yuri Balashov, Laws of Physics and the Universe.score: 18.0
    Are the laws of nature real? Do they belong to the world or merely reflect the way we speak about it? And if they are real, what sort of entity are they? These questions have been intensely debated by philosophers. Modern cosmology, however, has given such questions a new twist by introducing a unique perspective on physical reality, the perspective which I shall call the cosmological point of view. In this perspective, the universe as a whole presents itself as (...)
     
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  42. James K. A. Smith (2008). Is the Universe Open for Surprise? Pentecostal Ontology and the Spirit of Naturalism. Zygon 43 (4):879-896.score: 18.0
    Given the enchanted worldview of pentecost-alism, what possibility is there for a uniquely pentecostal intervention in the science-theology dialogue? By asserting the centrality of the miraculous and the fantastic, and being fundamentally committed to a universe open to surprise, does not pentecostalism forfeit admission to the conversation? I argue for a distinctly pentecostal contribution to the dialogue that is critical of regnant naturalistic paradigms but also of a naive supernaturalism. I argue that implicit in the pentecostal social imaginary is (...)
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  43. Quentin Smith (2000). Concerning the Metaphysical Necessity of the Universe Beginning Uncaused. Philo 3 (1):73-75.score: 18.0
    In George Nakhnikian’s interesting and stimulating paper, “Quantum Cosmology, Theistic Philosophical Cosmology, and the Existence Question” (present issue) he addresses the fundamental issue of whether it is metaphysically possible or justifiable to believe that our universe began to exist without a cause, divine or otherwise. His conclusion is negative, and he argues that, contrary to my views, quantum cosmology is consistent with theism. In this paper, I shall evaluate Nakhnikian’s arguments.
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  44. Nicholas Maxwell (2001). Weinert's Review of ‘the Comprehensibility of the Universe’. Philosophy 76 (2):297-303.score: 18.0
    In my book The Comprehensibility of the Universe (OUP, 1998), I argue for a new conception of science that construes science as adopting a hierarchy of increasingly contentless cosmological assumptions about the comprehensibility and knowability of the universe. This view, I argue, solves outstanding problems about science, such as problems of induction, simplicity and verisimilitude. In his essay review of my book (Philosophy 75, 2000, 296–309) Friedel Weinert criticizes me for defending a number of views about science. But, (...)
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  45. John Cramer, There's a Hole in Bottom of the Universe!score: 18.0
    It’s perhaps natural to think that our universe should be more or less the same in all directions, once we average out the lumpiness of stars, galaxies, galactic clusters, superclusters, etc. However, there’s a growing body of evidence suggesting that this presumption is not true. There is now a strong suspicion that our universe may contain a gaping “hole” located in the constellation Eridanus. This all started several years ago with the observation that there was a pronounced “Cold (...)
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  46. Susan Haack (2008). The Pluralistic Universe of Law: Towards a Neo-Classical Legal Pragmatism. Ratio Juris 21 (4):453-480.score: 18.0
    After a brief sketch of the history of philosophical pragmatism generally, and of legal pragmatism specifically (section 1), this paper develops a new, neo-classical legal pragmatism: a theory of law drawing in part on Holmes, but also on ideas from the classical pragmatist tradition in philosophy. Main themes are the "pluralistic universe" of law (section 2); the evolution of legal systems (section 3); the place of logic in the law (section 4); and the relation of law and morality (section (...)
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  47. William F. Vallicella (2000). Could the Universe Cause Itself to Exist? Philosophy 75 (4):604-612.score: 18.0
    This article responds to Quentin Smith's, ‘The Reason the Universe Exists is that it Caused Itself to Exist’, Philosophy 74 (1999), 579–586. My rejoinder makes three main points. The first is that Smith's argument for a finitely old, but causally self-explanatory, universe fails from probative overkill: if sound, it also shows that all manner of paltry event-sequences are causally self-explanatory.The second point is that the refutation of Smith's argument extends to Hume's argument for an infinitely old causally self-explanatory (...)
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  48. Karl R. Popper (1988/1991). The Open Universe: An Argument for Indeterminism. Routledge.score: 18.0
    The Open Universe is the centerpiece of the argument of the Postscript.
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  49. Anthony Skelton (2005). Review of Bart Schultz, Henry Sidgwick, Eye of the Universe: An Intellectual Biography. [REVIEW] Philosophy in Review 25 (3):231-234.score: 18.0
    A critical review of Bart Schultz, Henry Sidgwick, Eye of the Universe.
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  50. Nicholas Maxwell (2001). The Human World in the Physical Universe: Consciousness, Free Will and Evolution. Lanham: Rowman &Amp; Littlefield.score: 18.0
    This book tackles the problem of how we can understand our human world embedded in the physical universe in such a way that justice is done both to the richness...
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