Search results for 'Use value' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  22
    Martin Lipscomb (2012). Questioning the Use Value of Qualitative Research Findings. Nursing Philosophy 13 (2):112-125.
    In this paper the use value of qualitative research findings to nurses in practice is questioned. More precisely it is argued that, insofar as action follows belief then, in all but the rarest of cases, the beliefs that nurses in practice can justifiably derive from or form on the basis of qualitative research findings do not sanction action in the world and the assumption, apparently widely held, that qualitative research can as evidence productively inform practice collapses. If qualitative research (...)
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  2.  7
    Peter Gibbins (1976). Use-Value and Exchange-Value. Theory and Decision 7 (3):171-179.
    Discussion of the relation between exchange-value and use-value (as defined inCapital I) is clarified by the construction of set-theoretical models of these concepts. Marx argues fallaciously for the independence of exchange-value and use-value. His fallacy is diagnosed as depending upon a mistaken assumption about the impossibility of inferring a certain linear order on a set from a certain (different) partial order on that set.
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  3.  4
    Andre C. Willis (2015). The Potential Use-Value of Hume's ‘True Religion’. Journal of Scottish Philosophy 13 (1):1-15.
    Many hold that Hume was an atheist, that he despised the church, and that he was a devastating critic of religion. One cannot deny, however, the references to ‘true religion’ in his work, his sometimes seemingly favorable references to Deity, his call for religion in ‘every civilized community’, and his sense of ‘natural belief’. The following essay describes a speculative Humean ‘true religion’ and discusses its potential use-value for contemporary philosophy of religion. It begins, anecdotally, with a description of (...)
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  4. Jeff Noonan, Use Value, Life Value, and the Future of Socialism.
    The paper argues that the future of socialism depends upon the category of use value being grounded in a wider and deeper conception of life value. Only as such can it serve as the regulating principle of a future democratic socialist society. Life value is anchored in an understanding of the human life's space-time continuum understood as a continuum of life requirements. The multiple life crises regularly generated by capitalism are crises of its incapacity to adequately satisfy (...)
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  5. J. Brunger (2015). Marx's Doctrine of Use Value Compared with Mill's Theoretic Utilitarianism. Journal of Human Values 21 (1):48-50.
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  6. Joseph W. Childers & Stephen E. Cullenberg (2009). Use, Value, Aesthetics : Gambling with Difference/Speculating with Value. In Jack Amariglio, Joseph W. Childers & Stephen Cullenberg (eds.), Sublime Economy: On the Intersection of Art and Economics. Routledge
     
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  7.  15
    Patricia Kanngiesser & Bruce Hood (2014). Not by Labor Alone: Considerations for Value Influence Use of the Labor Rule in Ownership Transfers. Cognitive Science 38 (2):353-366.
    People often assign ownership to the person who has invested labor into making an object (labor rule). However, labor usually improves objects and increases their value, and it has not been investigated whether these considerations underlie people's use of the labor rule. We presented participants with third-party ownership conflicts between an owner of materials and an artist who used the materials for some artwork. Experiment 1 revealed that participants were more likely to transfer ownership to the artist for low- (...) materials than for high-value materials, and Experiment 2 showed that this effect was further moderated by the amount of effort the artist had invested. A third experiment confirmed that participants transferred ownership more often if the artist's labor had increased the value of the materials than when it had added no value. These findings suggest that considerations for value underlie ownership transfers following the investment of labor. (shrink)
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  8.  2
    David Kemmerer (1996). What About the Increasing Adaptive Value of Manipulative Language Use? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (3):546-548.
    Dunbar (1993) emphasizes the role of cooperative language use in the evolution of human linguistic capacity and neglects to consider the role that manipulative language use would have played. I argue that as group size and neocortieal size increased during human evolution, the adaptive value of using language to benefit oneself at the expense of others would also have increased. I discuss how selection pressures for manipulative language use would have operated in the contexts of mating, status striving, and (...)
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  9.  5
    Joseph Margolis (1968). The Use and Syntax of Value Judgments. Journal of Value Inquiry 2 (1):31-40.
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  10.  5
    M. J. Selgelid (2013). Biodefense and Dual-Use Research: The Optimisation Problem and the Value of Security. Journal of Medical Ethics 39 (4):205-206.
    Central to the argument of ‘Biodefense and the Production of Knowledge: Rethinking the Problem’ are claims that the vast majority of ethical debate about biodefense research to date has focused on the dual use problem, and the focus of ethical discussion of dual-use research has been on the need to strike ‘a proper balance of only two dominant values: biosecurity and “open science”’ —the idea being that ‘under current conditions other values can and ought to be ignored because the stakes (...)
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  11.  9
    P. S. Wilson (1975). The Use of Value Terms in Discussions of Education. Journal of Value Inquiry 9 (3):186-200.
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  12.  1
    Ian Schagen (2006). The Use of Standardized Residuals to Derive Value‐Added Measures of School Performance. Educational Studies 32 (2):119-132.
    Measures of school performance based on pupil attainment are becoming more sophisticated, with DfES piloting ‘contextualized value‐added’ measures. However, most such measures are based on simple sums of residuals about ‘expected’ values, but it is clear from national data that distributions of performance are not symmetrical and of constant variance. A method is explored which takes account of the exact shape of the performance distribution to produce ‘standardized residuals’ which can be aggregated to the school level and give consistent (...)
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  13.  78
    Todd S. Mei (2009). The Preeminence of Use: Reevaluating the Relation Between Use and Exchange in Aristotle's Economic Thought. Journal of the History of Philosophy 47 (4):pp. 523-548.
    Aristotle’s economic thinking in the Nicomachean Ethics 5.5 and Politics 1 provides one of the earliest analyses of the economic nature exchange. Establishing the significance of Aristotle in this area has often led modern commentators to equate Aristotle’s descriptive analysis of use and exchange to the definitions of use-value and exchange-value as it is found in Karl Marx. In this article, I show that Aristotle’s understanding of use and exchange is qualitatively different from this interpretation, focusing in particular (...)
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  14.  22
    David M. Johnson (2006). Sophrosyne and the Rhetoric of Self-Restraint: Polysemy & Persuasive Use of an Ancient Greek Value Term, by Adriaan Rademaker. Ancient Philosophy 26 (2):401-404.
  15.  17
    Hans Berends (2001). Veritistic Value and the Use of Evidence: A Shortcoming of Goldman's Epistemic Evaluation of Social Practices. Social Epistemology 16 (2):177 – 179.
  16.  5
    Jan Deckers (2012). The New EU Directive on the Use of Animals for Research and the Value of Moral Consistency. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 9 (4):377-379.
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  17.  4
    David Konstan (2006). Rademaker (A.) Sophrosyne and the Rhetoric of Self-Restraint. Polysemy & Persuasive Use of an Ancient Greek Value Term . ( Mnemosyne Supplementum 259.) Pp. Xii + 375, Figs. Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2005. Cased, €85, US$115. ISBN: 90-04-14251-. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 56 (01):16-.
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  18. E. Albert Cook (1918). Ritschl's Use of Value-Judgments. Philosophical Review 27:215.
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  19. Fiona Hobden (2006). (A.) Rademaker Sophrosyne and the Rhetoric of Restraint. Polysemy and Persuasive Use of an Ancient Greek Value Term. (Mnemosyne Suppl. 259). Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2005. Pp Xi + 375. €85. 9004142517. [REVIEW] Journal of Hellenic Studies 126:159-160.
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  20. Aleksandar Stojanovic (2014). What the Critique of He Political Economy Can and Can’T Do? Marx’s Theory of Value and its Use in Social Theory. Filozofija I Društvo 25 (3):109-128.
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  21.  10
    Andrew Sneddon (forthcoming). Symbolic Value. Journal of Value Inquiry:1-19.
    We are familiar with the idea of symbolic value in everyday contexts, and philosophers sometimes help themselves to it when discussing other topics. However, symbolic value itself has not been sufficiently studied. What is it for something to have symbolic value? How important is symbolic value? The present purpose is to shed some light on the nature and significance of symbolic value. Two kinds of symbolic value are distinguished, called the ‘symbolic mode of valuing’ (...)
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  22.  14
    C. L. Sheng (1989). Some Quantitative Concepts of Value and Utility From a Utilitarian Point of View. Theory and Decision 26 (2):175-195.
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  23. Peter Lund-Thomsen & Adam Lindgreen (2013). Corporate Social Responsibility in Global Value Chains: Where Are We Now and Where Are We Going? Journal of Business Ethics 123 (1):1-12.
    We outline the drivers, main features, and conceptual underpinnings of the compliance paradigm. We then use a similar structure to investigate the drivers, main features, and conceptual underpinnings of the cooperative paradigm for working with CSR in global value chains. We argue that the measures proposed in the new cooperation paradigm are unlikely to alter power relationships in global value chains and bring about sustained improvements in workers’ conditions in developing country export industries. After that, we provide a (...)
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  24.  42
    Joseph Raz (2003). The Practice of Value - Reply. In Jay Wallace (ed.), The Practice of Value. Oxford University Press
    The privilege of having three sets of extensive and hard-hitting comments on one's work is as welcome as it is rare, and especially so on this occasion as the lectures were, for me, but thefirst (well, not entirely first) stab at a subject I hope to explore at greater length. The reflectionsthat follow will respond to some of the criticisms, but will not be a point by point reply. I will use the occasion to clarify some obscurities in the lectures, (...)
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  25.  25
    Benjamin Hale (2008). Private Property and Environmental Ethics:. Some New Directions. Metaphilosophy 39 (3):402–421.
    This article argues that teachers of environmental ethics must more aggressively entertain questions of private property in their work and in their teaching. To make this case, it first introduces the three primary positions on property: occupation arguments, labor theory of value arguments, and efficiency arguments. It then contextualizes these arguments in light of the contemporary U.S. wise-use movement, in an attempt to make sense of the concerns that motivate wise-use activists, and also to demonstrate how intrinsic value (...)
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  26. John R. Welch (1994). Science and Ethics: Toward a Theory of Ethical Value. Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 25 (2):279 - 292.
    This article sketches descriptive and normative components of a theory of ethical value. The normative component, which receives the lion’s share of attention, is developed by adapting Laudan’s levels of scientific discourse. The resulting levels of ethical discourse can be critically addressed through the use of inductive inference, falsification, and causal inference. These techniques are likewise appropriate to the corresponding levels of scientific discourse.
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  27.  23
    Attila Tanyi (2015). On the Intrinsic Value of Genetic Integrity: A Commentary. Ethics, Policy and Environment 18 (3):248-251.
    In their article “Is There a Prima Facie Duty to Preserve Genetic Integrity in Conservation Biology?” Yasha Rower and Emma Harris argue that there is no underived prima facie obligation to preserve genetic integrity. In particular, it is argued that there is no such obligation because genetic integrity has no intrinsic value. In this commentary I raise doubts about this part of the authors’ argument. I argue that there might well be at least prima facie value in genetic (...)
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  28.  4
    Manuel Križ & Emmanuel Chemla (2015). Two Methods to Find Truth-Value Gaps and Their Application to the Projection Problem of Homogeneity. Natural Language Semantics 23 (3):205-248.
    Presupposition, vagueness, and oddness can lead to some sentences failing to have a clear truth value. The homogeneity property of plural predication with definite descriptions may also create truth-value gaps: The books are written in Dutch is true if all relevant books are in Dutch, false if none of them are, and neither true nor false if, say, half of the books are written in Dutch. We study the projection property of homogeneity by deploying methods of general interest (...)
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  29.  38
    Ellen-Marie Forsberg (2007). Value Pluralism and Coherentist Justification of Ethical Advice. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 20 (1):81-97.
    Liberal societies are characterized by respect for a fundamental value pluralism; i.e., respect for individuals’ rights to live by their own conception of the good. Still, the state must make decisions that privilege some values at the cost of others. When public ethics committees give substantial ethical advice on policy related issues, it is therefore important that this advice is well justified. The use of explicit tools for ethical assessment can contribute to justifying advice. In this article, I will (...)
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  30.  48
    Carrie Figdor (2014). What's the Use of an Intrinsic Property? In Robert Francescotti (ed.), Companion to Intrinsic Properties. De Gruyter 139-156.
    Work on the intrinsic/extrinsic distinction is often motivated by its use in other areas, such as intrinsic value, real vs. Cambridge change, supervenience and other topics. With the exception of Figdor 2008, philosophers have sought to articulate a global distinction -- a distinction between kinds of properties, rather than ways in which individuals have properties. I argue that global I/E distinctions are unable to do the work that allegedly motivates them, focusing on the case of intrinsic value.
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  31.  9
    Blumenthal-Barby (2013). “Choosing Wisely” to Reduce Low-Value Care: A Conceptual and Ethical Analysis. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 38 (5):559-580.
    The American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) Foundation has recently initiated a campaign called “Choosing Wisely,” which is aimed at reducing “low-value” care services. Lists of low-value care services are being developed and the ABIM Foundation is urging the American Medical Association and other organizations to get behind the lists, disseminate them, and implement them. Yet, there are many ethical questions that remain about the development, dissemination, and implementation of these low-value care lists. In this paper I (...)
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  32.  13
    Emmanuel Chauvet (2013). Value, a Way Out of Uncertainties: A Physical Model for Ethics and Freedoms. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 113 (3):395-413.
    Value analysis establishes a way to practice functional analysis which enables to think all matter as sets of functions. The study of the correlations between the phases of activation of these functions leads to consider the aggregation of correlated activation functions as an attractor in a configuration space. This point of view allows figuring out general behaviors reducing the conceptual gap between microeconomics and macroeconomics. Then, based on a characterization of complex adaptive systems in terms of functional attractors, the (...)
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  33.  16
    Sviatoslav Moskalev & Seung Chan Park (2010). South Korean Chaebols and Value-Based Management. Journal of Business Ethics 92 (1):49 - 62.
    South Korean industrial conglomerates (chaebols) are discussed in the context of value-based management (VBM). Recent economics and finance literature on the diversion of corporate resources from the firm to the controlling shareholders (tunneling), for which chaebols are notoriously known, is discussed. Chaebols have engaged in empire building and expropriation of minority shareholders, distorting the process of efficient resource allocation in South Korea, and became the root cause of the 1997 financial crisis. We argue that the 1997 crisis should be (...)
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  34.  3
    Francien Dechesne, Martijn Warnier & Jeroen van den Hoven (2013). Ethical Requirements for Reconfigurable Sensor Technology: A Challenge for Value Sensitive Design. [REVIEW] Ethics and Information Technology 15 (3):173-181.
    Information technology is widely used to fulfill societal goals such as safety and security. These application areas put ever changing demands on the functionality of the technology. Designing technological appliances to be reconfigurable, thereby keeping them open to functionalities yet to be determined, will possibly allow the technology to fulfill these changing demands in an efficient way. In this paper we present a first exploration of potential societal and moral issues of reconfigurable sensors developed for application in the safety and (...)
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  35.  51
    Matthew Jones, Crowder's Value Pluralism: Autonomy and Exclusion.
    In Crowder’s reformulation of Berlin’s argument, not only does value pluralism provide support for liberalism, it actually suggests a version of liberalism that promotes the public use of personal autonomy. For Crowder, personal autonomy is a necessary element given value pluralism as it allows the individual to choose between a plurality of incommensurable options. In order to advance personal autonomy, Crowder advocates a robust account of freedom of exit coupled with a form of autonomy-facilitating education. To this effect (...)
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  36.  71
    Fred Feldman (1998). Hyperventilating About Intrinsic Value. Journal of Ethics 2 (4):339-354.
    Plato, Aristotle, Kant, Brentano, Moore, and Chisholm have suggested marks or criteria of intrinsic goodness. I distinguish among eight of these. I focus in this paper on four: (a) unimprovability, (b) unqualifiedness, (c) dependence upon intrinsic natures, and (d) incorruptibility. I try to show that each of these is problematic in some way. I also try to show that they are not equivalent – they point toward distinct conceptions of intrinsic goodness. In the end it appears that none of them (...)
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  37.  70
    Philip Hugly & Charles Sayward (1993). Theories of Truth and Truth-Value Gaps. Linguistics and Philosophy 16 (6):551 - 559.
    The fact that a group of axioms use the word 'true' does not guarantee that that group of axioms yields a theory of truth. For Davidson the derivability of certain biconditionals from the axioms is what guarantees this. We argue that the test does not work. In particular, we argue that if the object language has truth-value gaps, the result of applying Davidson''s definition of a theory of truth is that no correct theory of truth for the language is (...)
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  38.  22
    Amir Konigsberg (2013). Epistemic Value and Epistemic Compromise, A Reply to Moss. Episteme 10 (1):87-97.
    In this paper I present a criticism of Sarah Moss‘ recent proposal to use scoring rules as a means of reaching epistemic compromise in disagreements between epistemic peers that have encountered conflict. The problem I have with Moss‘ proposal is twofold. Firstly, it appears to involve a double counting of epistemic value. Secondly, it isn‘t clear whether the notion of epistemic value that Moss appeals to actually involves the type of value that would be acceptable and unproblematic (...)
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  39.  50
    Elizabeth Brake (2007). Marriage, Morality, and Institutional Value. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 10 (3):243 - 254.
    This paper develops a Kantian account of the moral assessment of institutions. The problem I address is this: while a deontological theory may find that some legal institutions are required by justice, it is not obvious how such a theory can assess institutions not strictly required (or prohibited) by justice. As a starting-point, I consider intuitions that in some cases it is desirable to attribute non-consequentialist moral value to institutions not required by justice. I will argue that neither consequentialist (...)
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  40.  13
    David Kirk (2013). Educational Value and Models-Based Practice in Physical Education. Educational Philosophy and Theory 45 (9):973-986.
    A models-based approach has been advocated as a means of overcoming the serious limitations of the traditional approach to physical education. One of the difficulties with this approach is that physical educators have sought to use it to achieve diverse and sometimes competing educational benefits, and these wide-ranging aspirations are rarely if ever achieved. Models-based practice offers a possible resolution to these problems by limiting the range of learning outcomes, subject matter and teaching strategies appropriate to each pedagogical model and (...)
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  41.  20
    Jason Goulah (2012). Daisaku Ikeda and Value-Creative Dialogue: A New Current in Interculturalism and Educational Philosophy. Educational Philosophy and Theory 44 (9):997-1009.
    This article focuses on Daisaku Ikeda's (1928– ) philosophy and practice of intercultural dialogue—what I call ‘value-creative dialogue’—as a new current in interculturalism and educational philosophy and theory. I use excerpts from Ikeda's writings to consider two aspects of his approach to dialogue. First, I locate his approach philosophically in Buddhism; in the examples of dialogue modeled by Ikeda's mentor, Josei Toda (1900–1958), and by Toda's mentor, Tsunesaburo Makiguchi (1871–1944); and in Makiguchi's theory of value creation (soka) and (...)
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  42.  32
    Guy Fletcher (2009). On Hatzimoysis on Sentimental Value. Philosophia 37 (1):149-152.
    Despite its apparent ubiquity, philosophers have not talked much about sentimental value. One exception is Anthony Hatzimoysis (The Philosophical Quarterly 53:373–379, 2003). Those who wish to take sentimental value seriously are likely to make use of Christine Korsgaard’s ideas on two distinctions in value. In this paper I show that Hatzimoysis has misrendered Korsgaard’s insight in his discussion of sentimental value. I begin by briefly summarising Korsgaard’s idea before showing how Hatzimoysis’ treatment of it is mistaken.
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  43.  22
    Philip Hugly & Charles Sayward (1992). Classical Logic and Truth-Value Gaps. Philosophical Papers 21 (2):141-150.
    An account of the logic of bivalent languages with truth-value gaps is given. This account is keyed to the use of tables introduced by S. C. Kleene. The account has two guiding ideas. First, that the bivalence property insures that the language satisfies classical logic. Second, that the general concepts of a valid sentence and an inconsistent sentence are, respectively, as sentences which are not false in any model and sentences which are not true in any model. What recommends (...)
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  44.  16
    P. Lehoux, M. Hivon, B. Williams-Jones, F. A. Miller & D. R. Urbach (2012). How Do Medical Device Manufacturers' Websites Frame the Value of Health Innovation? An Empirical Ethics Analysis of Five Canadian Innovations. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 15 (1):61-77.
    While every health care system stakeholder would seem to be concerned with obtaining the greatest value from a given technology, there is often a disconnect in the perception of value between a technology’s promoters and those responsible for the ultimate decision as to whether or not to pay for it. Adopting an empirical ethics approach, this paper examines how five Canadian medical device manufacturers, via their websites, frame the corporate “value proposition” of their innovation and seek to (...)
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  45.  7
    Heiner Fangerau (2009). Genetics and the Value of Life: Historical Dimensions. [REVIEW] Medicine Studies 1 (2):105-112.
    The value of life can be viewed from moral, biologic, and economic perspectives. In connection with the development of genetics, each of these perspectives has gained importance throughout history. Whereas agricultural genetics has always been directed towards having an economic impact, from the beginning genetics research in humans has focused on all dimensions of the value of life. Today, health insurance, employers, politicians, and public health scientists view genetics research as one of the key disciplines to predict costs (...)
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  46.  5
    Silviu Guiasu (2011). Three Ancient Problems Solved by Using the Game Theory Logic Based on the Shapley Value. Synthese 181 (1):65 - 79.
    The ancient problems of bankruptcy, contested garment, and rights arbitration have generated many studies, debates, and controversy. The objective of this paper is to show that the Shapley value from game theory, measuring the power of each player in a game, may be consistently applied for getting the general one-step solution of all these three problems viewed as -person games. The decision making is based on the same tool, namely the game theory logic based on the use of the (...)
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  47.  9
    Niklas Juth, Åsa Nilsonne & Niels Lynöe (2013). Are Interpretations of Other People's Arguments Value-Impregnated? A Pilot Study Among Medical Students. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 16 (3):601-603.
    Analogously to Kuhn’s and Hanson’s understanding of observation as theory-impregnated, we try to test the hypothesis that observation and interpretation might also be value-impregnated. We use a written examination task for medical students who were asked to read and interpret a text where the authors provide arguments pro et contra euthanasia. Afterwards the students were asked to provide their own reflected opinion on the issue. We found that medical students who were against and indecisive provided interpretations of the text (...)
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  48. Victoria von Groddeck (2011). Rethinking the Role of Value Communication in Business Corporations From a Sociological Perspective - Why Organisations Need Value-Based Semantics to Cope with Societal and Organisational Fuzziness. Journal of Business Ethics 100 (1):69 - 84.
    Why is it so plausible that business organisations in contemporary society use values in their communication? In order to answer this question, a sociological, system theoretical approach is applied which approaches values not pre-empirically as invisible drivers for action but as observable semantics that form organisational behaviour. In terms of empirical material, it will be shown that business organisations resort to a communication of values whenever uncertainty or complexity is very high. Inevitably, value semantics are applied in organisations first (...)
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  49.  67
    Fabrizio Macagno & Douglas Walton (2010). What We Hide in Words: Value-Based Reasoning and Emotive Language. Journal of Pragmatics 42:1997-2013.
    There are emotively powerful words that can modify our judgment, arouse our emotions and influence our decisions. This paper shows how the use of emotive meaning in argumentation can be explained by showing how their logical dimension, which can be analysed using argumentation schemes, combines with heuristic processes triggered by emotions. Arguing with emotive words is shown to use value-based practical reasoning grounded on hierarchies of values and maxims of experience for evaluative classification.
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  50.  3
    Daniel G. Campos (2002). Assessing the Value of Nature: A Transactional Approach. Environmental Ethics 24 (1):57-74.
    Henry David Thoreau’s discussion of the highest value of wild apples and my own reflection upon my experience, interacting with the sea and enjoying its products during my Central American upbringing, motivate this discussion of how human beings may apprehend nature’s highest worth. I propose that in order to apprehend nature’s highest value it is necessary to understand the complete transaction between human beings and nature—an active transaction that requires from the human being a continuous movement along experience, (...)
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