Search results for 'Use value' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Peter Gibbins (1976). Use-Value and Exchange-Value. Theory and Decision 7 (3):171-179.score: 180.0
    Discussion of the relation between exchange-value and use-value (as defined inCapital I) is clarified by the construction of set-theoretical models of these concepts. Marx argues fallaciously for the independence of exchange-value and use-value. His fallacy is diagnosed as depending upon a mistaken assumption about the impossibility of inferring a certain linear order on a set from a certain (different) partial order on that set.
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  2. Martin Lipscomb (2012). Questioning the Use Value of Qualitative Research Findings. Nursing Philosophy 13 (2):112-125.score: 150.0
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  3. Joseph W. Childers & Stephen E. Cullenberg (2009). Use, Value, Aesthetics : Gambling with Difference/Speculating with Value. In Jack Amariglio, Joseph W. Childers & Stephen Cullenberg (eds.), Sublime Economy: On the Intersection of Art and Economics. Routledge.score: 150.0
     
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  4. Patricia Kanngiesser & Bruce Hood (2014). Not by Labor Alone: Considerations for Value Influence Use of the Labor Rule in Ownership Transfers. Cognitive Science 38 (2):353-366.score: 144.0
    People often assign ownership to the person who has invested labor into making an object (labor rule). However, labor usually improves objects and increases their value, and it has not been investigated whether these considerations underlie people's use of the labor rule. We presented participants with third-party ownership conflicts between an owner of materials and an artist who used the materials for some artwork. Experiment 1 revealed that participants were more likely to transfer ownership to the artist for low- (...) materials than for high-value materials, and Experiment 2 showed that this effect was further moderated by the amount of effort the artist had invested. A third experiment confirmed that participants transferred ownership more often if the artist's labor had increased the value of the materials than when it had added no value. These findings suggest that considerations for value underlie ownership transfers following the investment of labor. (shrink)
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  5. David Kemmerer (1996). What About the Increasing Adaptive Value of Manipulative Language Use? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (3):546-548.score: 144.0
    Dunbar (1993) emphasizes the role of cooperative language use in the evolution of human linguistic capacity and neglects to consider the role that manipulative language use would have played. I argue that as group size and neocortieal size increased during human evolution, the adaptive value of using language to benefit oneself at the expense of others would also have increased. I discuss how selection pressures for manipulative language use would have operated in the contexts of mating, status striving, and (...)
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  6. P. S. Wilson (1975). The Use of Value Terms in Discussions of Education. Journal of Value Inquiry 9 (3):186-200.score: 126.0
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  7. Joseph Margolis (1968). The Use and Syntax of Value Judgments. Journal of Value Inquiry 2 (1):31-40.score: 126.0
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  8. Todd S. Mei (2009). The Preeminence of Use: Reevaluating the Relation Between Use and Exchange in Aristotle's Economic Thought. Journal of the History of Philosophy 47 (4):pp. 523-548.score: 120.0
    Aristotle’s economic thinking in the Nicomachean Ethics 5.5 and Politics 1 provides one of the earliest analyses of the economic nature exchange. Establishing the significance of Aristotle in this area has often led modern commentators to equate Aristotle’s descriptive analysis of use and exchange to the definitions of use-value and exchange-value as it is found in Karl Marx. In this article, I show that Aristotle’s understanding of use and exchange is qualitatively different from this interpretation, focusing in particular (...)
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  9. Hans Berends (2001). Veritistic Value and the Use of Evidence: A Shortcoming of Goldman's Epistemic Evaluation of Social Practices. Social Epistemology 16 (2):177 – 179.score: 120.0
  10. David M. Johnson (2006). Sophrosyne and the Rhetoric of Self-Restraint: Polysemy & Persuasive Use of an Ancient Greek Value Term, by Adriaan Rademaker. Ancient Philosophy 26 (2):401-404.score: 120.0
  11. Jan Deckers (2012). The New EU Directive on the Use of Animals for Research and the Value of Moral Consistency. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 9 (4):377-379.score: 120.0
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  12. M. J. Selgelid (2013). Biodefense and Dual-Use Research: The Optimisation Problem and the Value of Security. Journal of Medical Ethics 39 (4):205-206.score: 120.0
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  13. David Konstan (2006). Rademaker (A.) Sophrosyne and the Rhetoric of Self-Restraint. Polysemy & Persuasive Use of an Ancient Greek Value Term . ( Mnemosyne Supplementum 259.) Pp. Xii + 375, Figs. Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2005. Cased, €85, US$115. ISBN: 90-04-14251-. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 56 (01):16-.score: 120.0
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  14. Fiona Hobden (2006). (A.) Rademaker Sophrosyne and the Rhetoric of Restraint. Polysemy and Persuasive Use of an Ancient Greek Value Term. (Mnemosyne Suppl. 259). Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2005. Pp Xi + 375. €85. 9004142517. [REVIEW] Journal of Hellenic Studies 126:159-160.score: 120.0
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  15. Ian Schagen (2006). The Use of Standardized Residuals to Derive Value‐Added Measures of School Performance. Educational Studies 32 (2):119-132.score: 120.0
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  16. Kristina R. Olson Alex Shaw (2013). All Inequality is Not Equal: Children Correct Inequalities Using Resource Value. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 102.0
    Fairness concerns guide children’s judgments about how to share resources with others. However, it is unclear from past research if children take extant inequalities or the value of resources involved in an inequality into account when sharing with others; these questions are the focus of the current studies. In all experiments, children saw an inequality between two recipients—one had two more resources than another. What varied between conditions was the value of the resources that the child could subsequently (...)
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  17. Silviu Guiasu (2011). Three Ancient Problems Solved by Using the Game Theory Logic Based on the Shapley Value. Synthese 181 (1):65 - 79.score: 96.0
    The ancient problems of bankruptcy, contested garment, and rights arbitration have generated many studies, debates, and controversy. The objective of this paper is to show that the Shapley value from game theory, measuring the power of each player in a game, may be consistently applied for getting the general one-step solution of all these three problems viewed as -person games. The decision making is based on the same tool, namely the game theory logic based on the use of the (...)
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  18. C. L. Sheng (1989). Some Quantitative Concepts of Value and Utility From a Utilitarian Point of View. Theory and Decision 26 (2):175-195.score: 90.0
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  19. Elizabeth Anderson (2004). Uses of Value Judgments in Science: A General Argument, with Lessons From a Case Study of Feminist Research on Divorce. Hypatia 19 (1):1-24.score: 84.0
    : The underdetermination argument establishes that scientists may use political values to guide inquiry, without providing criteria for distinguishing legitimate from illegitimate guidance. This paper supplies such criteria. Analysis of the confused arguments against value-laden science reveals the fundamental criterion of illegitimate guidance: when value judgments operate to drive inquiry to a predetermined conclusion. A case study of feminist research on divorce reveals numerous legitimate ways that values can guide science without violating this standard.
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  20. Sharon Galbraith & Harriet Buckman Stephenson (1993). Decision Rules Used by Male and Female Business Students in Making Ethical Value Judgments: Another Look. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 12 (3):227 - 233.score: 84.0
    This study was conducted to corroborate findings that females invoke a decision rule that is significantly different from that of their male counterparts when making ethical value judgements. In addition, the study examines whether the same decision rule is used by men and women for all types of ethical situations. The results show that males and females use different decision rules when making ethical evaluations, although there are types of situations where there are no significant differences in decision rules (...)
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  21. Joseph Raz (2003). The Practice of Value - Reply. In Jay Wallace (ed.), The Practice of Value. Oxford University Press.score: 72.0
    The privilege of having three sets of extensive and hard-hitting comments on one's work is as welcome as it is rare, and especially so on this occasion as the lectures were, for me, but thefirst (well, not entirely first) stab at a subject I hope to explore at greater length. The reflectionsthat follow will respond to some of the criticisms, but will not be a point by point reply. I will use the occasion to clarify some obscurities in the lectures, (...)
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  22. Benjamin Hale (2008). Private Property and Environmental Ethics:. Some New Directions. Metaphilosophy 39 (3):402–421.score: 72.0
    This article argues that teachers of environmental ethics must more aggressively entertain questions of private property in their work and in their teaching. To make this case, it first introduces the three primary positions on property: occupation arguments, labor theory of value arguments, and efficiency arguments. It then contextualizes these arguments in light of the contemporary U.S. wise-use movement, in an attempt to make sense of the concerns that motivate wise-use activists, and also to demonstrate how intrinsic value (...)
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  23. Victoria von Groddeck (2011). Rethinking the Role of Value Communication in Business Corporations From a Sociological Perspective - Why Organisations Need Value-Based Semantics to Cope with Societal and Organisational Fuzziness. Journal of Business Ethics 100 (1):69 - 84.score: 68.0
    Why is it so plausible that business organisations in contemporary society use values in their communication? In order to answer this question, a sociological, system theoretical approach is applied which approaches values not pre-empirically as invisible drivers for action but as observable semantics that form organisational behaviour. In terms of empirical material, it will be shown that business organisations resort to a communication of values whenever uncertainty or complexity is very high. Inevitably, value semantics are applied in organisations first (...)
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  24. Philip Hugly & Charles Sayward (1993). Theories of Truth and Truth-Value Gaps. Linguistics and Philosophy 16 (6):551 - 559.score: 66.0
    The fact that a group of axioms use the word 'true' does not guarantee that that group of axioms yields a theory of truth. For Davidson the derivability of certain biconditionals from the axioms is what guarantees this. We argue that the test does not work. In particular, we argue that if the object language has truth-value gaps, the result of applying Davidson''s definition of a theory of truth is that no correct theory of truth for the language is (...)
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  25. Fred Feldman (1998). Hyperventilating About Intrinsic Value. Journal of Ethics 2 (4):339-354.score: 66.0
    Plato, Aristotle, Kant, Brentano, Moore, and Chisholm have suggested marks or criteria of intrinsic goodness. I distinguish among eight of these. I focus in this paper on four: (a) unimprovability, (b) unqualifiedness, (c) dependence upon intrinsic natures, and (d) incorruptibility. I try to show that each of these is problematic in some way. I also try to show that they are not equivalent – they point toward distinct conceptions of intrinsic goodness. In the end it appears that none of them (...)
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  26. Elizabeth Brake (2007). Marriage, Morality, and Institutional Value. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 10 (3):243 - 254.score: 66.0
    This paper develops a Kantian account of the moral assessment of institutions. The problem I address is this: while a deontological theory may find that some legal institutions are required by justice, it is not obvious how such a theory can assess institutions not strictly required (or prohibited) by justice. As a starting-point, I consider intuitions that in some cases it is desirable to attribute non-consequentialist moral value to institutions not required by justice. I will argue that neither consequentialist (...)
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  27. Ellen-Marie Forsberg (2007). Value Pluralism and Coherentist Justification of Ethical Advice. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 20 (1):81-97.score: 66.0
    Liberal societies are characterized by respect for a fundamental value pluralism; i.e., respect for individuals’ rights to live by their own conception of the good. Still, the state must make decisions that privilege some values at the cost of others. When public ethics committees give substantial ethical advice on policy related issues, it is therefore important that this advice is well justified. The use of explicit tools for ethical assessment can contribute to justifying advice. In this article, I will (...)
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  28. Guy Fletcher (2009). On Hatzimoysis on Sentimental Value. Philosophia 37 (1):149-152.score: 66.0
    Despite its apparent ubiquity, philosophers have not talked much about sentimental value. One exception is Anthony Hatzimoysis (The Philosophical Quarterly 53:373–379, 2003). Those who wish to take sentimental value seriously are likely to make use of Christine Korsgaard’s ideas on two distinctions in value. In this paper I show that Hatzimoysis has misrendered Korsgaard’s insight in his discussion of sentimental value. I begin by briefly summarising Korsgaard’s idea before showing how Hatzimoysis’ treatment of it is mistaken.
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  29. Philip Hugly & Charles Sayward (1992). Classical Logic and Truth-Value Gaps. Philosophical Papers 21 (2):141-150.score: 66.0
    An account of the logic of bivalent languages with truth-value gaps is given. This account is keyed to the use of tables introduced by S. C. Kleene. The account has two guiding ideas. First, that the bivalence property insures that the language satisfies classical logic. Second, that the general concepts of a valid sentence and an inconsistent sentence are, respectively, as sentences which are not false in any model and sentences which are not true in any model. What recommends (...)
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  30. Jason Goulah (2012). Daisaku Ikeda and Value-Creative Dialogue: A New Current in Interculturalism and Educational Philosophy. Educational Philosophy and Theory 44 (9):997-1009.score: 66.0
    This article focuses on Daisaku Ikeda's (1928– ) philosophy and practice of intercultural dialogue—what I call ‘value-creative dialogue’—as a new current in interculturalism and educational philosophy and theory. I use excerpts from Ikeda's writings to consider two aspects of his approach to dialogue. First, I locate his approach philosophically in Buddhism; in the examples of dialogue modeled by Ikeda's mentor, Josei Toda (1900–1958), and by Toda's mentor, Tsunesaburo Makiguchi (1871–1944); and in Makiguchi's theory of value creation (soka) and (...)
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  31. Emmanuel Chauvet (2013). Value, a Way Out of Uncertainties: A Physical Model for Ethics and Freedoms. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 113 (3):395-413.score: 66.0
    Value analysis establishes a way to practice functional analysis which enables to think all matter as sets of functions. The study of the correlations between the phases of activation of these functions leads to consider the aggregation of correlated activation functions as an attractor in a configuration space. This point of view allows figuring out general behaviors reducing the conceptual gap between microeconomics and macroeconomics. Then, based on a characterization of complex adaptive systems in terms of functional attractors, the (...)
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  32. Amir Konigsberg (2013). Epistemic Value and Epistemic Compromise, A Reply to Moss. Episteme 10 (1):87-97.score: 66.0
    In this paper I present a criticism of Sarah Moss‘ recent proposal to use scoring rules as a means of reaching epistemic compromise in disagreements between epistemic peers that have encountered conflict. The problem I have with Moss‘ proposal is twofold. Firstly, it appears to involve a double counting of epistemic value. Secondly, it isn‘t clear whether the notion of epistemic value that Moss appeals to actually involves the type of value that would be acceptable and unproblematic (...)
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  33. John R. Welch (1994). Science and Ethics: Toward a Theory of Ethical Value. Journal for General Philosophy of Science 25 (2):279 - 292.score: 66.0
    This article sketches descriptive and normative components of a theory of ethical value. The normative component, which receives the lion’s share of attention, is developed by adapting Laudan’s levels of scientific discourse. The resulting levels of ethical discourse can be critically addressed through the use of inductive inference, falsification, and causal inference. These techniques are likewise appropriate to the corresponding levels of scientific discourse.
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  34. Niklas Juth, Åsa Nilsonne & Niels Lynöe (2013). Are Interpretations of Other People's Arguments Value-Impregnated? A Pilot Study Among Medical Students. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 16 (3):601-603.score: 66.0
    Analogously to Kuhn’s and Hanson’s understanding of observation as theory-impregnated, we try to test the hypothesis that observation and interpretation might also be value-impregnated. We use a written examination task for medical students who were asked to read and interpret a text where the authors provide arguments pro et contra euthanasia. Afterwards the students were asked to provide their own reflected opinion on the issue. We found that medical students who were against and indecisive provided interpretations of the text (...)
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  35. Sviatoslav Moskalev & Seung Chan Park (2010). South Korean Chaebols and Value-Based Management. Journal of Business Ethics 92 (1):49 - 62.score: 66.0
    South Korean industrial conglomerates (chaebols) are discussed in the context of value-based management (VBM). Recent economics and finance literature on the diversion of corporate resources from the firm to the controlling shareholders (tunneling), for which chaebols are notoriously known, is discussed. Chaebols have engaged in empire building and expropriation of minority shareholders, distorting the process of efficient resource allocation in South Korea, and became the root cause of the 1997 financial crisis. We argue that the 1997 crisis should be (...)
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  36. Blumenthal-Barby (2013). “Choosing Wisely” to Reduce Low-Value Care: A Conceptual and Ethical Analysis. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 38 (5):559-580.score: 66.0
    The American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) Foundation has recently initiated a campaign called “Choosing Wisely,” which is aimed at reducing “low-value” care services. Lists of low-value care services are being developed and the ABIM Foundation is urging the American Medical Association and other organizations to get behind the lists, disseminate them, and implement them. Yet, there are many ethical questions that remain about the development, dissemination, and implementation of these low-value care lists. In this paper I (...)
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  37. David Kirk (2013). Educational Value and Models-Based Practice in Physical Education. Educational Philosophy and Theory 45 (9):973-986.score: 66.0
    A models-based approach has been advocated as a means of overcoming the serious limitations of the traditional approach to physical education. One of the difficulties with this approach is that physical educators have sought to use it to achieve diverse and sometimes competing educational benefits, and these wide-ranging aspirations are rarely if ever achieved. Models-based practice offers a possible resolution to these problems by limiting the range of learning outcomes, subject matter and teaching strategies appropriate to each pedagogical model and (...)
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  38. Heiner Fangerau (2009). Genetics and the Value of Life: Historical Dimensions. [REVIEW] Medicine Studies 1 (2):105-112.score: 66.0
    The value of life can be viewed from moral, biologic, and economic perspectives. In connection with the development of genetics, each of these perspectives has gained importance throughout history. Whereas agricultural genetics has always been directed towards having an economic impact, from the beginning genetics research in humans has focused on all dimensions of the value of life. Today, health insurance, employers, politicians, and public health scientists view genetics research as one of the key disciplines to predict costs (...)
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  39. P. Lehoux, M. Hivon, B. Williams-Jones, F. A. Miller & D. R. Urbach (2012). How Do Medical Device Manufacturers' Websites Frame the Value of Health Innovation? An Empirical Ethics Analysis of Five Canadian Innovations. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 15 (1):61-77.score: 66.0
    While every health care system stakeholder would seem to be concerned with obtaining the greatest value from a given technology, there is often a disconnect in the perception of value between a technology’s promoters and those responsible for the ultimate decision as to whether or not to pay for it. Adopting an empirical ethics approach, this paper examines how five Canadian medical device manufacturers, via their websites, frame the corporate “value proposition” of their innovation and seek to (...)
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  40. Peter Lund-Thomsen & Adam Lindgreen (2013). Corporate Social Responsibility in Global Value Chains: Where Are We Now and Where Are We Going? Journal of Business Ethics:1-12.score: 66.0
    We outline the drivers, main features, and conceptual underpinnings of the compliance paradigm. We then use a similar structure to investigate the drivers, main features, and conceptual underpinnings of the cooperative paradigm for working with CSR in global value chains. We argue that the measures proposed in the new cooperation paradigm are unlikely to alter power relationships in global value chains and bring about sustained improvements in workers’ conditions in developing country export industries. After that, we provide a (...)
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  41. Francien Dechesne, Martijn Warnier & Jeroen van den Hoven (2013). Ethical Requirements for Reconfigurable Sensor Technology: A Challenge for Value Sensitive Design. [REVIEW] Ethics and Information Technology 15 (3):173-181.score: 66.0
    Information technology is widely used to fulfill societal goals such as safety and security. These application areas put ever changing demands on the functionality of the technology. Designing technological appliances to be reconfigurable, thereby keeping them open to functionalities yet to be determined, will possibly allow the technology to fulfill these changing demands in an efficient way. In this paper we present a first exploration of potential societal and moral issues of reconfigurable sensors developed for application in the safety and (...)
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  42. Darrell A. Worthy, Bo Pang & Kaileigh A. Byrne (2013). Decomposing the Roles of Perseveration and Expected Value Representation in Models of the Iowa Gambling Task. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 66.0
    Models of human behavior in the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) have played a pivotal role in accounting for behavioral differences during decision-making. One critical difference between models that have been used to account for behavior in the IGT is the inclusion or exclusion of the assumption that participants tend to persevere, or stay with the same option over consecutive trials. Models that allow for this assumption include win-stay-lose-shift (WSLS) models and reinforcement learning (RL) models that include a decay learning rule (...)
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  43. Carrie Figdor (2014). What's the Use of an Intrinsic Property? In Robert Francescotti (ed.), Companion to Intrinsic Properties. De Gruyter.score: 66.0
    Work on the intrinsic/extrinsic distinction is often motivated by its use in other areas, such as intrinsic value, real vs. Cambridge change, supervenience and other topics. With the exception of Figdor 2008, philosophers have sought to articulate a global distinction -- a distinction between kinds of properties, rather than ways in which individuals have properties. I argue that global I/E distinctions are unable to do the work that allegedly motivates them, focusing on the case of intrinsic value.
     
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  44. Delali B. K. Dovie, E. T. F. Witkowski & Charlie M. Shackleton (2005). Monetary Valuation of Livelihoods for Understanding the Composition and Complexity of Rural Households. Agriculture and Human Values 22 (1):87-103.score: 62.0
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  45. John L. Barger (1980). The Meaningful Character of Value-Language: A Critique of the Linguistic Foundations of Emotivism. [REVIEW] Journal of Value Inquiry 14 (2):77-91.score: 60.0
    The above arguments have not conclusively demonstrated the existence of value; nor have they sought to. Rather, they have focused primarily on value-language itself: what it is, what it means, and how men use it. In value-judgements, men intend to speak about reality, and not merely to manifest their feelings to influence others. The conceptual character of value-words gives them a formal objectivity lacking in mere manifestations of feeling; the meaning of value-words contains a “claim (...)
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  46. W. Ray Rucker (1969). A Value-Oriented Framework for Education and the Behavioral Sciences. Journal of Value Inquiry 3 (4):270-280.score: 60.0
    The valuing process characterizes man's conscious or unconscious striving in both personal and institutional contexts. Education helps learners to clarify, analyze, and modify their valuing processes. Therapy unifies value thinking with expressions of feeling in the therapist-client relationship.A more comprehensive value theory is provided by the converging perceptions of several leading thinkers. Both valuing (the process) and values (the goals, outcomes, or products) emerge as the bedrock of humanistic studies. A list of categories in which to classify human (...)
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  47. James B. Wilbur (1968). The Value of a Liberal Education: An Essay on the Power of Knowing. [REVIEW] Journal of Value Inquiry 2 (2-3):187-195.score: 60.0
    It is not easy to summarize what has been suggested in this essay. But in greatly simplified terms, something like this may serve.The understanding which comes through education increases the power of man over himself and his world; it increases his awareness, his capacity to influence, to accept and to enjoy. Everybody knows these things, but an explanation of how this power arises has been attempted. To do this, understanding, was said to be a process, a dynamic act, and four (...)
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  48. Daniel G. Campos (2002). Assessing the Value of Nature: A Transactional Approach. Environmental Ethics 24 (1):57-74.score: 60.0
    Henry David Thoreau’s discussion of the highest value of wild apples and my own reflection upon my experience, interacting with the sea and enjoying its products during my Central American upbringing, motivate this discussion of how human beings may apprehend nature’s highest worth. I propose that in order to apprehend nature’s highest value it is necessary to understand the complete transaction between human beings and nature—an active transaction that requires from the human being a continuous movement along experience, (...)
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  49. K. O. Kwarteng (2011). The Elephant in Pre–Colonial Ghana: Cultural and Economic Use Values. Journal of Philosophy and Culture 3 (2):1-32.score: 60.0
    Using multi–sources: archeaology, history, geography, anthropology, wildlife, zoology, biology, oral tradition and archival material, the article examines the history of the elephant in Ghana, highlighting the various methods employed in hunting as well as the cultural and economic use values of the elephant in Ghana.
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  50. M. Carmen Ruiz Jiménez, Manuel Carlos Vallejo Martos & Rocío Martínez Jiménez (2013). Organisational Harmony as a Value in Family Businesses and Its Influence on Performance. Journal of Business Ethics:1-14.score: 58.0
    The aims of this research were twofold: first, to compare the levels of organisational harmony between family and non-family firms and, second, to study the influence of organisational harmony on family firms’ performance (profitability, longevity and group cohesion). Starting from a definition of organisational harmony as a value and considering the importance of the management of organisational values, we use the main topics indicated by the general literature (organisational climate, trust and participation) to analyse organisational harmony, as well as (...)
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