Search results for 'Utilitarianism' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Anthony Skelton (2013). Ideal Utilitarianism. In James Crimmins (ed.), Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Utilitarianism. Bloomsbury Academic.score: 27.0
    An opinionated encyclopedia entry on ideal utilitarianism in which various arguments for the view are discussed and evaluated.
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  2. Jeremy Bentham (1983). Deontology ; Together with a Table of the Springs of Action ; and the Article on Utilitarianism. Oxford University Press.score: 24.0
    A critical edition of three works of Bentham, Deontology and The Article on Utilitarianism were previously unpublished. Together with An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation, they provide a comrehensive exposition of Bentham's views. Based entirely on manuscripts by Bentham of his amanuenses, this edition's full introduction linking the three works. Each work is supplemented with detailed and critical notes.
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  3. John Jamieson Carswell Smart & Bernard Williams (1973). Utilitarianism: For and Against. Cambridge University Press.score: 24.0
    Two essays on utilitarianism, written from opposite points of view, by J. J. C. Smart and Bernard Williams. In the first part of the book Professor Smart advocates a modern and sophisticated version of classical utilitarianism; he tries to formulate a consistent and persuasive elaboration of the doctrine that the rightness and wrongness of actions is determined solely by their consequences, and in particular their consequences for the sum total of human happiness. This is a revised version of (...)
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  4. Robert E. Goodin (1995). Utilitarianism as a Public Philosophy. Cambridge University Press.score: 24.0
    Utilitarianism, the great reforming philosophy of the nineteenth century, has today acquired the reputation for being a crassly calculating, impersonal philosophy unfit to serve as a guide to moral conduct. Yet what may disqualify utilitarianism as a personal philosophy makes it an eminently suitable guide for public officials in the pursuit of their professional responsibilities. Robert E. Goodin, a philosopher with many books on political theory, public policy and applied ethics to his credit, defends utilitarianism against its (...)
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  5. Anthony Skelton (2014). Utilitarianism, Welfare, Children. In Alexander Bagattini & Colin Macleod (eds.), The Nature of Children's Well-being: Theory and Practice. Springer. 85-103.score: 24.0
    Utilitarianism is the view according to which the only basic requirement of morality is to maximize net aggregate welfare. This position has implications for the ethics of creating and rearing children. Most discussions of these implications focus either on the ethics of procreation and in particular on how many and whom it is right to create, or on whether utilitarianism permits the kind of partiality that child rearing requires. Despite its importance to creating and raising children, there are, (...)
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  6. Krister Bykvist (2009). Utilitarianism: A Guide for the Perplexed. Continuum.score: 24.0
    Introduction -- The nature and assessment of moral theories -- What is utilitarianism? -- Well-being -- Utilitarian aggregation -- A user-friendly guide to action? -- Is utilitarianism too demanding? -- Is utilitarianism too permissive? -- The way outcomes are brought about -- The place of rules in utilitarianism.
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  7. James Wood Bailey (1997). Utilitarianism, Institutions, and Justice. Oxford University Press.score: 24.0
    This book is a rebuttal of the common charge that the moral doctrine of utilitarianism permits horrible acts, justifies unfair distribution of wealth and other social goods, and demands too much of moral agents. Bailey defends utilitarianism by applying central insights of game theory regarding feasible equilibria and evolutionary stability of norms to elaborate an account of institutions that real-world utilitarians would want to foster. With such an account he shows that utilitarianism, while still a useful doctrine (...)
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  8. Roger Crisp (1997). Routledge Philosophy Guidebook to Mill on Utilitarianism. Routledge.score: 24.0
    John Stuart Mill's Utilitarianism is one of the most important philosophical works of the nineteenth century. Its advocacy of utilitarianism--the view that individual and political action should be directed at the "greatest happiness"--not only influenced political life, but attracted a great deal of criticism. This is the first book dedicated to the interpretation and critical discussion of this significant work.
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  9. William H. Shaw (1999). Contemporary Ethics: Taking Account of Utilitarianism. Blackwell.score: 24.0
    In these ways, the book is not only a guide to utilitarianism, but also an introduction to some standard problems of ethics and to several important topics in ...
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  10. David McCarthy (2006). Utilitarianism and Prioritarianism I. Economics and Philosophy 22 (3):335-363.score: 24.0
    Utilitarianism and prioritarianism make a strong assumption about the uniqueness of measures of how good things are for people, or for short, individual goodness measures. But it is far from obvious that the presupposition is correct. The usual response to this problem assumes that individual goodness measures are determined independently of our discourse about distributive theories. This article suggests reversing this response. What determines the set of individual goodness measures just is the body of platitudes we accept about distributive (...)
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  11. Robin Barrow (1975). Plato, Utilitarianism and Education. Routledge and Kegan Paul.score: 24.0
    Introduction I i Plato's critics The view that I shall put forward is that utilitarianism is the only acceptable ethical theory and that this was recognised ...
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  12. John Stuart Mill (1993). Utilitarianism. Tuttle.score: 24.0
    This is an important work for those studying the concept of utilitarianism, or those who are interested in the writings of John Stuart Mill.
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  13. Fred Feldman (1997). Utilitarianism, Hedonism, and Desert: Essays in Moral Philosophy. Cambridge University Press.score: 24.0
    Fred Feldman is an important philosopher, who has made a substantial contribution to utilitarian moral philosophy. This collection of ten previously published essays plus a new introductory essay reveal the striking originality and unity of his views. Feldman's version of utilitarianism differs from traditional forms in that it evaluates behaviour by appeal to the values of accessible worlds. These worlds are in turn evaluated in terms of the amounts of pleasure they contain, but the conception of pleasure involved is (...)
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  14. Stephen Buckle (2005). Peter Singer's Argument for Utilitarianism. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 26 (3):175-194.score: 24.0
    The paper begins by situating Singer within the British meta-ethical tradition. It sets out the main steps in his argument for utilitarianism as the ‘default setting’ of ethical thought. It argues that Singer’s argument depends on a hierarchy of reasons, such that the ethical viewpoint is understood to be an adaptation – an extension – of a fundamental self-interest. It concludes that the argument fails because it is impossible to get from this starting-point in self-interest to his conception of (...)
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  15. Wlodek Rabinowicz & Bertil Strömberg (1996). What If I Were in His Shoes? On Hare's Argument for Preference Utilitarianism. Theoria 62 (1-2):95-123.score: 24.0
    This paper discusses the argument for preference utilitarianism proposed by Richard Hare in Moral Thinking(Hare, 1981). G. F. Schueler (1984) and Ingmar Persson (1989) identified a serious gap in Hare’s reasoning, which might be called the No-Conflict Problem. The paper first tries to fill the gap. Then, however, starting with an idea of Zeno Vendler, the question is raised whether the gap is there to begin with. Unfortunately, this Vendlerian move does not save Hare from criticism. Paradoxically, it instead (...)
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  16. Michael Moehler (2013). Contractarian Ethics and Harsanyi's Two Justifications of Utilitarianism. Politics, Philosophy and Economics 12 (1):24-47.score: 24.0
    Harsanyi defends utilitarianism by means of an axiomatic proof and by what he calls the 'equiprobability model'. Both justifications of utilitarianism aim to show that utilitarian ethics can be derived from Bayesian rationality and some weak moral constraints on the reasoning of rational agents. I argue that, from the perspective of Bayesian agents, one of these constraints, the impersonality constraint, is not weak at all if its meaning is made precise, and that generally, it even contradicts individual rational (...)
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  17. David McCarthy (2008). Utilitarianism and Prioritarianism II. Economics and Philosophy 24 (1):1-33.score: 24.0
    A natural formalization of the priority view is presented which results from adding expected utility theory to the main ideas of the priority view. The result is ex post prioritarianism. But ex post prioritarianism entails that in a world containing just one person, it is sometimes better for that person to do what is strictly worse for herself. This claim may appear to be implausible. But the deepest objection to ex post prioritarianism has to do with meaning: ex post prioritarianism (...)
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  18. Donald Regan (1980). Utilitarianism and Co-Operation. Oxford University Press.score: 24.0
    The author identifies and defines the features of traditional utilitarian theories which account for their appeal, demonstrates that no theory which is "exclusively act-oriented" can have all the properties that ultilitarians have attempted to build into their theories, and develops a new theory "co-operative utilitarianism", which is radically different than traditional theories.
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  19. John Stuart Mill (1962). Utilitarianism. Cleveland, World Pub. Co..score: 24.0
    This is an important work for those studying the concept of utilitarianism, or those who are interested in the writings of John Stuart Mill.
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  20. Erich Rast, Evaluating Time-Continuous Action Alternatives From the Perspective of Negative Utilitarianism: A Layered Approach. Proceedings of the GV-Conf 2013.score: 24.0
    A layered approach to the evaluation of action alternatives with continuous time for decision making under the moral doctrine of Negative Utilitarianism is presented and briefly discussed from a philosophical perspective.
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  21. Joost Leuven & Tatjana Višak (2013). Ryder's Painism and His Criticism of Utilitarianism. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 26 (2):409-419.score: 24.0
    As a member of the British Oxford Group, psychologist Richard Ryder marked the beginning of the modern animal rights and animal welfare movement in the seventies. By introducing the concept “speciesism.” Ryder contributed importantly to the expansion of this movement. Surprisingly little attention has been paid to Ryder’s moral theory, “painism”, that aims to resolve the conflict between the two predominant rival theories in animal ethics, the deontological of Tom Regan and the utilitarian of Peter Singer. First, this paper examines (...)
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  22. Tim Mulgan (2012). The Future of Utilitarianism. In James Maclaurin (ed.), Rationis Defensor.score: 24.0
    Climate change has obvious practical implications. It will kill millions of people, wipe out thousands of species, and so on. My question in this paper is much narrower. How might climate change impact on moral theory – and especially on the debate between utilitarians and their non-utilitarian rivals? I argue that climate change creates serious theoretical difficulties for non-utilitarian moral theories – especially those that based morality or justice on any contract or bargain for reciprocal advantage. Climate change thus tips (...)
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  23. Matti Häyry (1994). Liberal Utilitarianism and Applied Ethics. Routledge.score: 24.0
    Liberal Utilitarianism and Applied Ethics explores the foundations of early utilitarianism and, at the same time, the theoretical bases of social ethics and policy in modern Western welfare states. Matti Hayry sees the main reason for utilitarianism's growing disrepute among moral philosophers is that its principles cannot legitimately be extended to situations where the basic needs of the individuals involved are in conflict. He is able to formulate a solution to this fundamental problem by arguing convincingly that (...)
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  24. Rex Martin (2008). Two Concepts of Rule Utilitarianism. Journal of Moral Philosophy 5 (2):227-255.score: 24.0
    The notion of rule utilitarianism (a twentieth-century addition to the canon of utilitarian thought) has been discussed under two main headings—ideal-rule utilitarianism and 'indirect' utilitarianism. The distinction between them is often hazy. But we can sketch out each perspective along three different dimensions, contrasting the two conceptions of rule utilitarianism at each of three main hinge points: (1) the grounding of rules, (2) the allowed complexity of rules, (3) the conflict of rules. These two profiles constitute (...)
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  25. J. L. A. Garcia & Mark T. Nelson (1994). The Problem of Endless Joy: Is Infinite Utility Too Much for Utilitarianism? Utilitas 6 (02):183-.score: 24.0
    What if human joy (more technically, utility) went on endlessly? Suppose, for example, that each human generation were followed by another, or that the Western religions are right when they teach that each human being lives eternally after death. If any such possibility is true in the actual world, then an agent might sometimes be so situated that more than one course of action would produce an infinite amount of utility (or of disutility, or of both). Deciding whether to have (...)
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  26. Clay Splawn (2001). “The Self-Other Asymmetry and Act Utilitarianism.”. Utilitas 13 (3):323-333.score: 24.0
    The self-other asymmetry is a prominent and important feature of common-sense morality. It is also a feature that does not find a home in standard versions of act-utilitarianism. Theodore Sider has attempted to make a place for it by constructing a novel version of utilitarianism that incorporates the asymmetry into its framework. So far as I know, it is the best attempt to bring the two together. I argue, however, that Sider's ingenious attempt fails. I also offer a (...)
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  27. Cecile Renouard (2011). Corporate Social Responsibility, Utilitarianism, and the Capabilities Approach. Journal of Business Ethics 98 (1):85 - 97.score: 24.0
    This article explores the possible convergence between the capabilities approach and utilitarianism to specify CSR. It defends the idea that this key issue is related to the anthropological perspective that underpins both theories and demonstrates that a relational conception of individual freedoms and rights present in both traditions gives adequate criteria for CSR toward the company's stakeholders. I therefore defend "relational capability" as a means of providing a common paradigm, a shared vision of a core component of human development. (...)
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  28. Wlodek Rabinowicz (2000). Kotarbinski's Early Criticism of Utilitarianism. Utilitas 12 (01):79-.score: 24.0
    Apart from a short introduction, this contribution consists of a translation of Tadeusz Kotarbinski’s “Utilitarianism and The Ethics of Pity” (1914). In that very concise and relatively unknown early note, written before he embarked on his long and influential career as a nominalist logician and philosopher of science, Kotarbinski had formulated four astonishingly ‘modern’ objections to utilitarianism. Unlike Christian ‘ethics of pity’, utilitarian ethics (i) disregards the normative importance of the distinction between preventing suffering and promoting happiness, (ii) (...)
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  29. Anne Maclean (1993). The Elimination of Morality: Reflections on Utilitarianism and Bioethics. Routledge.score: 24.0
    The Elimination of Morality poses a fundamental challenge to the dominant conception of medical ethics. In this controversial and timely study, Anne Maclean addresses the question of what kind of contribution philosophers can make to the discussion of medico-moral issues and the work of health care professionals. She establishes the futility of bioethics by challenging the conception of reason in ethics which is integral to the utilitarian tradition. She argues that a philosophical training confers no special authority to make pronouncements (...)
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  30. Olaf L. Mueller (2003). Can They Say What They Want? A Transcendental Argument Against Utilitarianism. Southern Journal of Philosophy 41 (2):241-259.score: 24.0
    Let us imagine an ideal ethical agent, i.e., an agent who (i) holds a certain ethical theory, (ii) has all factual knowledge needed for determining which action among those open to her is right and which is wrong, according to her theory, and who (iii) is ideally motivated to really do whatever her ethical theory demands her to do. If we grant that the notions of omniscience and ideal motivation both make sense, we may ask: Could there possibly be an (...)
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  31. José L. Tasset (2011). On Knaves and Rules. (An Approach to the 'Sensible Knave' Problem From a Tempered Rule Utilitarianism). Daimon. Revista Internacional de Filosofía 52:117-140.score: 24.0
    In the attempt of defending an interpretation of David Hume's moral and political philosophy connected to classical utilitarianism, intervenes in a key way the so called problem of the " Sensitive Knave " raised by this author at the end of his more utilitarian work, the Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Morals. According to the classic interpretation of this fragment, the utilitarian rationality in politics would clash with morality turning useless the latter. Therefore, in the political area the defense (...)
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  32. Gary Varner (2008). Utilitarianism and the Evolution of Ecological Ethics. Science and Engineering Ethics 14 (4):551-573.score: 24.0
    R.M. Hare’s two-level utilitarianism provides a useful framework for understanding the evolution of codes of professional ethics. From a Harean perspective, the codes reflect both the fact that members of various professions face special kinds of ethically charged situations in the normal course of their work, and the need for people in special roles to acquire various habits of thought and action. This highlights the role of virtue in professional ethics and provides guidance to professional societies when considering modifications (...)
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  33. Daniel Groll (2013). Autonomy (The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Utilitarianism). In James Crimmins (ed.), The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Utilitarianism. Bloomsbury.score: 24.0
  34. Paul Dolan (2001). Utilitarianism and the Measurement and Aggregation of Quality €“ Adjusted Life Years. Health Care Analysis 9 (1):65-76.score: 24.0
    It is widely accepted that one of the main objectives ofgovernment expenditure on health care is to generate health. Sincehealth is a function of both length of life and quality of life, thequality-adjusted life-year (QALY) has been developed in an attempt tocombine the value of these attributes into a single index number. TheQALY approach – and particularly the decision rule that healthcare resources should be allocated so as to maximise the number of QALYsgenerated – has often been equated with the (...)
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  35. Yew-Kwang Ng (2000). From Separability to Unweighted Sum: A Case for Utilitarianism. [REVIEW] Theory and Decision 49 (4):299-312.score: 24.0
    After reviewing the compelling case for separability (`social welfare is a separable function of individual utilities'), an argument is advanced for utilitarianism (defined as `social welfare is the unweighted sum of individual utilities'). Basically, a compelling individualism-type axiom leads us to (social welfare as an) unweighted sum (of individual utilities), given separability.
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  36. Y. Michael Barilan (2004). Towards a Dialogue Between Utilitarianism and Medicine. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 7 (2):163-173.score: 24.0
    Utilitarianism focuses on the optimization of personal well being in ways that seems to make the practice of medicine irrelevant to the well being of the practitioners, unless given external incentives such as money or honor. Care based on indirect incentives is considered inferior to care motivated internally. This leads to the paradox of utilitarian care. Following Nozick's conceptual Pleasure Machine it is argued that in addition to the promotion of personal well being, people care about fulfilling their well (...)
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  37. Mauro Cardoso Simões (2013). Hare's Preference Utilitarianism: An Overview and Critique. Trans/Form/Ação 36 (2):123-134.score: 24.0
    My purpose in this paper is to summarize some aspects of utilitarianism and to provide a general overview of Hare's preference utilitarianism, followed by a critique of Hare's preference theory.
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  38. Jonathan Harrison (1995). Ethical Egoism, Utilitarianism and the Fallacy of Pragmatic Inconsistency. Argumentation 9 (4):595-609.score: 24.0
    In this paper I shall consider the difficulty for Ethical Egoism, Act Utilitarianism and later what I shall call Cumulative Effect Utilitarianism, that they both commit the fallacy of pragmatic inconsistency. I shall distinguish various forms of the fallacy of pragmatic inconsistency; in particular I shall distinguish between the fallacy of direct and indirect pragmatic inconsistency, and shall argue that though both Ethical Egoism and Act Utilitarianism probably commit both, Cumulative Effect Utilitarianism does not.
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  39. Nikil Mukerji (2013). Utilitarianism. In Christoph Lütge (ed.), Handbook of the Philosophical Foundations of Business Ethics. Springer. 297-313.score: 24.0
    This chapter offers a concise discussion of classic utilitarianism which is the prototypical moral doctrine of the utilitarian family. It starts with an analysis of the classic utilitarian criterion of rightness, gives an overview over its virtues and vices, and suggests an overall assessment of its adequacy as a theory of morality. Furthermore, it briefly discusses whether classic utilitarianism holds promise as a philosophy for doing business.
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  40. Enrico Diecidue (2006). Deriving Harsanyi's Utilitarianism From De Finetti's Book-Making Argument. Theory and Decision 61 (4):363-371.score: 24.0
    The book-making argument was introduced by de Finetti as a principle to prove the existence and uniqueness of subjective probabilities. It has subsequently been accepted as a principle of rationality for decisions under uncertainty. This note shows that the book-making argument has relevant applications to welfare: it gives a new foundation for utilitarianism that is alternative to Harsanyi’s, it generalizes foundations based on the theorem of the alternative, and it avoids arguments based on expected utility.
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  41. Stefan T. Trautmann (2010). Individual Fairness in Harsanyi's Utilitarianism: Operationalizing All-Inclusive Utility. [REVIEW] Theory and Decision 68 (4):405-415.score: 24.0
    Fairness can be incorporated into Harsanyi’s utilitarianism through all-inclusive utility. This retains the normative assumptions of expected utility and Pareto-efficiency, and relates fairness to individual preferences. It makes utilitarianism unfalsifiable, however, if agents’ all-inclusive utilities are not explicitly specified. This note proposes a two-stage model to make utilitarian welfare analysis falsifiable by specifying all-inclusive utilities explicitly through models of individual fairness preferences. The approach is applied to include fairness in widely discussed allocation examples.
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  42. Amartya Kumar Sen & Bernard Arthur Owen Williams (eds.) (1982). Utilitarianism and Beyond. Cambridge University Press.score: 24.0
    A volume of studies of utilitarianism considered both as a theory of personal morality and a theory of public choice. All but two of the papers have been commissioned especially for the volume, and between them they represent not only a wide range of arguments for and against utilitarianism but also a first-class selection of the most interesting and influential work in this very active area. There is also a substantial introduction by the two editors. The volume will (...)
     
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  43. John Stuart Mill (2009). Utilitarianism. In Steven M. Cahn (ed.), Exploring Philosophy: An Introductory Anthology. Oxford University Press.score: 24.0
    John Stuart Mill's Utilitarianism is one of the most important, controversial, and suggestive works of moral philosophy ever written. Mill defends the view that all human action should produce the greatest happiness overall, and that happiness itself is to be understood as consisting in "higher" and "lower" pleasures. This volume uses the 1871 edition of the text, the last to be published in Mill's lifetime. The text is preceded by a comprehensive introduction assessing Mill's philosophy and the alternatives to (...)
     
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  44. Richard B. Brandt (1992). Morality, Utilitarianism, and Rights. Cambridge University Press.score: 21.0
    Richard Brandt is one of the most eminent and influential of contemporary moral philosophers. His work has been concerned with how to justify what is good or right not by reliance on intuitions or theories about what moral words mean but by the explanation of moral psychology and the description of what it is to value something, or to think it immoral. His approach thus stands in marked contrast to the influential theories of John Rawls. The essays reprinted in this (...)
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  45. Christopher Grau (2011). There is No 'I' in 'Robot': Robots and Utilitarianism (Expanded & Revised). In Susan Anderson & Michael Anderson (eds.), Machine Ethics. Cambridge University Press. 451.score: 21.0
    Utilizing the film I, Robot as a springboard, I here consider the feasibility of robot utilitarians, the moral responsibilities that come with the creation of ethical robots, and the possibility of distinct ethics for robot-robot interaction as opposed to robot-human interaction. (This is a revised and expanded version of an essay that originally appeared in IEEE: Intelligent Systems.).
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  46. John Stuart Mill (1987). Utilitarianism and Other Essays. Penguin Books.score: 21.0
    The works by Bentham and Mill collected in this volume show the creation and development of a system of ethics that has had an enduring influence on moral ...
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  47. David Lyons (1965). Forms and Limits of Utilitarianism. Oxford, Clarendon Press.score: 21.0
    UTILITARIAN GENERALIZATION Sometimes an act is criticized just because the results of everyone's acting similarly would be bad. The generalization test ...
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  48. John Stuart Mill (1972). Utilitarianism, Liberty, Representative Government. London,Dent.score: 21.0
    John Stuart Mill (1806-1873) was a British philosopher, political economist, civil servant, and Member of Parliament.
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  49. F. Rosen (2003). Classical Utilitarianism From Hume to Mill. Routledge.score: 21.0
    This book presents a new interpretation of the principle of utility in moral and political theory based on the writings of the classical utilitarians. The writings of Adam Smith, William Paley and Jeremy Bentham are also considered.
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