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Varol Akman [66]V. Akman [4]
  1. Varol Akman, An Information-Based Treatment of Punctuation in Discourse Representation Theory.
    Punctuation has so far attracted attention within the linguistics community mostly from a syntactic perspective. In this paper, we give a preliminary account of the information-based aspects of punctuation, drawing our points from assorted, naturally occurring sentences. We present our formal models of these sentences and the semantic contributions of punctuation marks. Our formalism is a simpli ed analogue of an extension|due to Nicholas Asher|of Discourse Representation Theory.
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  2. Varol Akman, A Simple and Efficient Haloed Line Algorithm for Hidden Line Elimination.
    An efficient algorithm, HALO, is given to compute As computer aided design (CAD) deals with more com- haloed line drawings of wire frame objects. (Haloed..
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  3. Varol Akman, BABY-SIT: A Computational Medium Based on Situations.
    Following its inception (Barwise and Perry, 1983), situation theory has quickly matured (Cooper et al., 1990; Devlin, 1991) and under the familiarname of situation semantics has been applied to a number of linguistic issues (Barwise, 1987; Barwise, 1989; Barwise and Etchemendy, 1987; Cooper, 1986; Cooper, 1991; Cooper et al., 1990; Fenstad et al., 1987), including quanti cation and anaphora (Gawron and Peters, 1990). In the past, the development of a `mathematical'situation theory has been held back by a lack of availability (...)
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  4. Varol Akman, Book Re Iews.
    Analogical Natural Language Processing aims to challenge the current hegemony of the rulebased paradigm in NLP. Traditional NLP decomposes languages into atomic units, whereas example-based NLP centres around the re-use of language fragments. The book consists of six chapters : a short introduction, chapters on background material, analogical machine translation, stochastic and analogy-based NLP, some experiments in analogical cloning and a conclusion. We shall now look at the chapters more closely.
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  5. Varol Akman, Context in Artificial Intelligence: A Fleeting Overview.
    The notion of context arises in assorted areas of artificial intelligence (AI), including knowledge representation, natural language processing, intelligent information retrieval, etc. Although the term ‘context’ is frequently employed in descriptions, explanations, and analyses of computer programs in these areas, its meaning is frequently left to the reader’s understanding. In other words, it is used in an intuitive manner. In an influential paper, Clark and Carlson (1981) state that context has become a favourite word. They then complain that the denotation (...)
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  6. Varol Akman, Contexts of Social Action: Guest Editors' Introduction.
    In traditional linguistic accounts of context, one thinks of the immediate features of a speech situation, that is, a situation in which an expression is uttered. Thus, features such as time, location, speaker, hearer and preceding discourse are all parts of context. But context is a wider and more transcendental notion than what these accounts imply. For one thing, context is a relational concept relating social actions and their surroundings, relating social actions, relating individual actors and their surroundings, and relating (...)
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  7. Varol Akman, Dashes as Typographical Cues for the Information Structure.
    We take em-dash as our sample punctuation mark and examine its usage from a discourse perspective, using sentences from well-known corpora. We particularly comment on how dashes can give hints on information structure, focus, and anaphora. Throughout the paper Discourse Representation Theory is used as a framework. Keywords: Punctuation, Discourse, Discourse Representation Theory, Information Structure..
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  8. Varol Akman, Guest Editor's Introduction: Artificial Intelligence.
    Founded in 1993, ELEKTRIK: Turkish Journal of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, has gradually become better known and is fast establishing itself as a research oriented publication outlet with high academic standards. In a modest attempt to advance this trend, this special issue of ELEKTRIK brings together five papers exemplifying the state of the art in artificial intelligence (AI). Written by experts, the papers are especially aimed at readers interested in gaining a better appraisal of the applications side of the (...)
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  9. Varol Akman, Information-Based Aspects of Punctuation.
    We o er a preliminary account of the information-based aspects of punctuation marks. We give our initial treatment within the Discourse Representation Theory and its segmented version. We hypothesize that this work will be useful in classifying the informational contributions of punctuation marks and bringing them to bear on the semantic characterization of written discourse.
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  10. Varol Akman, Information-Oriented Computation With.
    While situation theory and situation semantics (Barwise and Perry 1983) provide an appropriate framework for a realistic model-theoretic treatment of natural language, serious thinking on their `computational' aspects has only recently started (Black 1993, Nakashima et al. 1988). Existing proposals mainly o er a Prolog- or Lisp-like programming environment with varying degrees of divergence from the ontology of situation theory. In this paper, we introduce a computational medium (called BABY-SIT) based on situations (T n and Akman 1994a, T n and (...)
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  11. Varol Akman, Issues in Commonsense Set Theory.
    The success of set theory as a foundation for mathematics inspires its use in arti cial intelligence, particularly in commonsense reasoning. In this survey, we brie y review classical set theory from an AI perspective, and then consider alternative set theories. Desirable properties of a possible commonsense set theory are investigated, treating di erent aspects like cumulative hierarchy, self-reference, cardinality, etc. Assorted examples from the ground-breaking research on the subject are also given.
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  12. Varol Akman, In Search of Intended Meaning: Investigating Barwise's Equation CR(S, C) = P.
    Here, S is a sentence—or possibly a smaller or larger unit of meaningful expression for a language—that’s written by an author and c is the circumstance in which S is used. R is defined as the language conventions holding between an author and a reader (or better yet, his readership). P , probably the most important part of the equation, is the content of S or, the intended meaning of the author. We assume that the communication between an author and (...)
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  13. Varol Akman, John McCarthy, Formalizing Common Sense: Papers by John McCarthy.
    This is a review of the above title published by Ablex Publishing Corporation, Norwood, New Jersey, 1990; vi + 256 pages, hardback, ISBN 0{89391{535{1 (Library of Congress: Q335.M38 1989), edited by Vladimir Lifschitz.
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  14. Varol Akman, Notions and Oracles.
    On Crimmins and Perry’s account of propositional attitude ascription (1989), beliefs are concrete cognitive structures—particulars ("things in the head") that belong to an agent and that have a lifetime. They are related to the world and to other cognitive structures and abilities, allowing one to classify the latter by propositional content. Containing ideas and notions as constituents, beliefs are structured entities. The difference between notions and ideas is the difference between an agent’s ways of thinking about individuals vs. properties.
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  15. Varol Akman, Reading McDermott.
    The author is interested in computational approaches to consciousness. His reason for working in the field of AI is to solve the mind-body problem, that is, to understand how the brain can have experiences. This is an intricate project because it involves elucidation of the relationship between our mentality and its physical foundation. How can a biological/chemical system (the human body) have experiences, beliefs, desires, intentions, and so on? Physicists have good reasons to persuade us that ours is a material (...)
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  16. Varol Akman, Situations and Computation: An Overview of Recent Research.
    Serious thinking about the computational aspects of situation theory is just starting. There have been some recent proposals in this direction (viz. PROSIT and ASTL), with varying degrees of divergence from the ontology of the theory. We believe that a programming environment incorporating bona de situation-theoretic constructs is needed and describe our very recent BABY-SIT implementation. A detailed critical account of PROSIT and ASTL is also o ered in order to compare our system with these pioneering and in uential frameworks.
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  17. Varol Akman, Speci City, Automatic Designation, and `I'.
    In its most common linguistic use, speci city refers to a kind of de niteness. This is expressed by the grammatical marking on an NP, showing that the speaker knows the identity of the referent. Thus, a police chief has (presumably) a particular Colombian in mind when he utters \My agents cannot wait to interrogate the Colombian.".
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  18. Varol Akman, Situated Modeling of Epistemic Puzzles.
    Situation theory is a mathematical theory of meaning introduced by Jon Barwise and John Perry. It has evoked great theoretical interest and motivated the framework of a few `computational' systems. PROSIT is the pioneering work in this direction. Unfortunately, there is a lack of real-life applications on these systems and this study is a preliminary attempt to remedy this de ciency. Here, we solve a group of epistemic puzzles using the constructs provided by PROSIT.
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  19. Varol Akman, Situated Nonmonotonic Temporal Reasoning with BABY-SIT.
    gramming environment, BABY-SIT, which is based on situation theory. We then demonstrate how problems requir-.
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  20. Varol Akman, The Complexity of Context: Guest Editors' Introduction.
    In our routine communicative activities, context is exploited both in production and in comprehension, and is strictly related to another problematic notion, viz. meaning. Thus Bateson (1979: 15): ‘‘Without context, words and actions have no meaning at all. This is true not only of human communication in words but also of all communication whatsoever, of all mental process, of all mind, including that which tells the sea anemone how to grow and the amoeba what he should do next.’’.
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  21. Varol Akman, The Mark of the Mental.
    and it's just comfortable in here. But what is a belief anyway? How does it acquire the content it has (e.g., that it's chilly in here)? These questions cannot really be answered without clarifying the concept of "a mechanism with a mind". What conditions must be satisfied by a mechanism (say, a computer or a robot) before we can attribute a mind to it? Obviously, the essence of this problem concerns the relation between mental and physical properties. After all, a (...)
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  22. Varol Akman, Using Criticalities as a Heuristic for Answer Set Programming.
    Answer Set Programming is a new paradigm based on logic programming. The main component of answer set programming is a system that finds the answer sets of logic programs. During the computation of an answer set, systems are faced with choice points where they have to select a literal and assign it a truth value. Generally, systems utilize some heuristics to choose new literals at the choice points. The heuristic used is one of the key factors for the performance of (...)
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  23. Varol Akman, Using Stable Model Semantics (SMODELS) in the Causal Calculator (CCALC).
    Action Languages are formal methods of talking about actions and their effects on fluents. One recent approach in planning is to define the domains of the planning problems using action languages. The aim of this research is to find a plan for a system defined in the action language C by translating it into a causal theory and then finding an equivalent logic program. The planning problem will then be reduced to finding the answer set (stable model) of this logic (...)
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  24. Varol Akman (2009). Situated Semantics. In Murat Aydede & P. Robbins (eds.), The Cambridge Handbook of Situated Cognition. Cambridge. 401--418.
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  25. Varol Akman (2009). Varol Akman on the Turkish War Against Mediocrity and Cliché. The Philosophers' Magazine 44 (44):42-44.
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  26. Varol Akman (2008). Relational Priming: Obligational Nitpicking. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 31 (4):378-379.
    According to the target article authors, initial experience with a circumstance primes a relation that can subsequently be applied to a different circumstance to draw an analogy. While I broadly agree with their claim about the role of relational priming in early analogical reasoning, I put forward a few concerns that may be worthy of further reflection.
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  27. Varol Akman (2005). On Strawsonian Contexts. Pragmatics and Cognition 13 (2):363-382.
    P.F. Strawson proposed in the early seventies a threefold distinction regarding how context bears on the meaning of ¿what is said¿ when a sentence is uttered. The proposal was somewhat tentative and, being aware of this aspect, Strawson himself raised various questions to make it more adequate. In this paper, we review Strawson¿s scheme, note his concerns, and add some of our own. We also defend its essence and recommend it as an insightful entry point re the interplay of intended (...)
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  28. Varol Akman (2002). Review of Drew V. McDermott, Mind and Mechanism. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2002 (5).
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  29. Bruce Edmonds & Varol Akman (2002). Editorial: Context in Context. [REVIEW] Foundations of Science 7 (3):233-238.
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  30. V. Akman (2001). © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2001. In P. Bouquet V. Akman (ed.), Modeling and Using Context. Springer. 465.
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  31. V. Akman, P. Bouquet, R. Thomason & R. A. Young (2001). Modeling and Using Context, Volume 2116 Of. In P. Bouquet (ed.), Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence. Kluwer.
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  32. S. Aguzzoli, V. Akman, A. D. C. Bennett, P. Blackburn, S. Bringsjord, C. Caporale, A. Ciabattoni, B. J. Copeland, S. Demri & D. Dubois (2000). Index of Authors of Volume 9. Journal of Logic, Language, and Information 9 (519):519.
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  33. Varol Akman (2000). Introduction to the Special Issue on Philosophical Foundations of Artificial Intelligence. Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Artificial Intelligence 12 (3):247-250.
    This is the guest editor's introduction to a JETAI special issue on philosophical foundations of AI.
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  34. Varol Akman & Patrick Blackburn (2000). Editorial: Alan Turing and Artificial Intelligence. [REVIEW] Journal of Logic, Language and Information 9 (4):391-395.
    Department of Computer Engineering, Bilkent University, 06533 Ankara, Turkey E-mail: akman@cs.bilkent.edu.tr; http://www.cs.bilkent.edu.tr/?akman..
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  35. Ayse Pinar Saygin, Ilyas Cicekli & Varol Akman (2000). Turing Test: 50 Years Later. [REVIEW] Minds and Machines 10 (4):463-518.
    The Turing Test is one of the most disputed topics in artificial intelligence, philosophy of mind, and cognitive science. This paper is a review of the past 50 years of the Turing Test. Philosophical debates, practical developments and repercussions in related disciplines are all covered. We discuss Turing's ideas in detail and present the important comments that have been made on them. Within this context, behaviorism, consciousness, the `other minds' problem, and similar topics in philosophy of mind are discussed. We (...)
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  36. Ayse P. Saygin, Ilyas Cicekli & Varol Akman (2000). Turing Test: 50 Years Later. [REVIEW] Minds and Machines 10 (4):463-518.
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  37. Varol Akman & Ferda N. Alpaslan, Strawson on Intended Meaning and Context.
    Strawson proposed in the early seventies an attractive threefold distinction regarding how context bears on the meaning of `what is said' when a sentence is uttered. The proposed scheme is somewhat crude and, being aware of this aspect, Strawson himself raised various points to make it more adequate. In this paper, we review the scheme of Strawson, note his concerns, and add some of our own. However, our main point is to defend the essence of Strawson's approach and to recommend (...)
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  38. Varol Akman (1998). Book Review -- John Haugeland (Editor), Mind Design II: Philosophy, Psychology, and Artificial Intelligence. [REVIEW] Philosophical Explorations.
    This is a review of Mind Design II: Philosophy, Psychology, and Artificial Intelligence, edited by John Haugeland, published by MIT Press in 1997.
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  39. Varol Akman (1998). Book Review--Jaap Van der Does and Jan Van Eijk, Eds., Quantifiers, Logic, and Language. [REVIEW] Philosophical Explorations.
    This is a review of Quantifiers, Logic, and Language, edited by Jaap van der Does and Jan van Eijk, published by CSLI (Center for the Study of Language and Information) Publications in 1996.
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  40. Varol Akman (1998). Guest Editor's Introduction. Minds and Machines 8 (4):475-477.
    In this special issue of Minds and Machines ("Situations and Artificial Intelligence") we take a close look at recent situation-theoretic research which has mostly originated within a philosophical framework but promises to have strong connotations for Artificial Intelligence workers. The seven papers which make up this special issue (three of the papers appear in Minds and Machines 9(1)) demonstrate the advantages of the situation-based approach towards problems with a definite AI flavor.
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  41. Varol Akman (1998). Situations and Artificial Intelligence. Minds and Machines 8 (4):475-477.
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  42. Varol Akman (1997). Book Review -- John Lyons, Linguistic Semantics: An Introduction. [REVIEW] Philosophical Explorations.
    This is a review of Lingustic Semantics: An Introduction, by John Lyons, published by Cambridge University Press in 1995.
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  43. Varol Akman, Context as a Social Construct.
    This position paper argues that in addition to the familiar approach using formal contexts, there is now a need in AI to study contexts as social constructs. As a successful example of the latter approach, I draw attention to `interpretation' (in the sense of literary theory), viz. the reconstruction of intended meaning of a literary text that takes into account the context in which the author assumed the reader would place the text. An important contribution here comes from Harris (1988), (...)
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  44. Varol Akman (1997). Review of J. Barwise and L. Moss, Vicious Circles: On the Mathematics of Non-Wellfounded Phnenomena. [REVIEW] Journal of Logic, Language and Information 6 (4):460-464.
    This is a review of Vicious Circles: On the Mathematics of Non-Wellfounded Phenomena, by Jon <span class='Hi'>Barwise</span> and Lawrence Moss, published by CSLI (Center for the Study of Language and Information) Publications in 1996.
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  45. Varol Akman & Mehmet Surav (1997). The Use of Situation Theory in Context Modeling. Philosophical Explorations.
    At the heart of natural language processing is the understanding of context dependent meanings. This paper presents a preliminary model of formal contexts based on situation theory. It also gives a worked-out example to show the use of contexts in lifting, i.e., how propositions holding in a particular context transform when they are moved to another context. This is useful in NLP applications where preserving meaning is a desideratum.
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  46. Bilge Say & Varol Akman (1997). Current Approaches to Punctuation in Computational Linguistics. Philosophical Explorations.
    Some recent studies in computational linguistics have aimed to take advantage of various cues presented by punctuation marks. This short survey is intended to summarise these research efforts and additionally, to outline a current perspective for the usage and functions of punctuation marks. We conclude by presenting an information-based framework for punctuation, influenced by treatments of several related phenomena in computational linguistics.
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  47. Erkan Tin & Varol Akman (1997). Situated Nonmonotonic Temporal Reasoning with Baby-Sit. Philosophical Explorations.
    After a review of situation theory and previous attempts at `computational' situation theory, we present a new programming environment, BABY-SIT, which is based on situation theory. We then demonstrate how problems requiring formal temporal reasoning can be solved in this framework. Specifically, the Yale Shooting Problem, which is commonly regarded as a canonical problem for nonmonotonic temporal reasoning, is implemented in BABY-SIT using Yoav Shoham's causal theories.
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  48. Varol Akman & Mujdat Pakkan (1996). Nonstandard Set Theories and Information Management. Philosophical Explorations.
    The merits of set theory as a foundational tool in mathematics stimulate its use in various areas of artificial intelligence, in particular intelligent information systems. In this paper, a study of various nonstandard treatments of set theory from this perspective is offered. Applications of these alternative set theories to information or knowledge management are surveyed.
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  49. Varol Akman & Mehmet Surav (1996). Steps Toward Formalizing Context. Philosophical Explorations.
    The importance of contextual reasoning is emphasized by various researchers in AI. (A partial list includes John McCarthy and his group, R. V. Guha, Yoav Shoham, Giuseppe Attardi and Maria Simi, and Fausto Giunchiglia and his group.) Here, we survey the problem of formalizing context and explore what is needed for an acceptable account of this abstract notion.
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  50. Erkan Tin & Varol Akman (1996). [Book Chapter].
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