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  1. V. S. Ramachandran, Brain.
    This article reviews the potential use of visual feedback, focusing on mirror visual feedback, introduced over 15 years ago, for the treatment of many chronic neurological disorders that have long been regarded as intractable such as phantom pain, hemiparesis from stroke and complex regional pain syndrome. Apart from its clinical importance, mirror visual feedback paves the way for a paradigm shift in the way we approach neurological disorders. Instead of resulting entirely from irreversible damage to specialized brain modules, some of (...)
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  2. V. S. Ramachandran, Contextual Priming in Grapheme-Color Synaesthesia.
    ��Grapheme-color synaesthesia is a neurological phenomenon in which particular graphemes, such as the numeral 9, automatically induce the simultaneous perception of a particular color, such as the color red. To test whether the concurrent color sensations in graphemecolor synaesthesia are treated as meaningful stimuli, we recorded event-related brain potentials as 8 synaesthetes and 8 matched control subjects read sentences such as ‘‘Looking very clear, the lake was the most beautiful hue of 7.’’ In synaesthetes, but not control subjects, congruous graphemes, (...)
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  3. V. S. Ramachandran, Review Neurocognitive Mechanisms of Synesthesia.
    Synesthesia is a condition in which stimulation of one sensory modality causes unusual experiences in a second, unstimulated modality. Although long treated as a curiosity, recent research with a combination of phenomenological, behavioral, and neuroimaging methods has begun to identify the cognitive and neural basis of synesthesia. Here, we review this literature with an emphasis on grapheme-color synesthesia, in which viewing letters and numbers induces the perception of colors. We discuss both the substantial progress that has been made in the (...)
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  4. V. S. Ramachandran, Apraxia, Metaphor and Mirror Neurons.
    Summary Ideomotor apraxia is a cognitive disorder in which the patient loses the ability to accurately perform learned, skilled actions. This is despite normal limb power and coordination. It has long been known that left supramarginal gyrus lesions cause bilateral upper limb apraxia and it was proposed that this area stored a visualkinaesthetic image of the skilled action, which was translated elsewhere in the brain into the pre-requisite movement formula. We hypothesise that, rather than these two functions occurring separately, both (...)
     
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  5. V. S. Ramachandran, Autonomic Responses of Autistic Children to People and Objects.
    Several recent lines of inquiry have pointed to the amygdala as a potential lesion site in autism. Because one function of the amygdala may be to produce autonomic arousal at the sight of a signi¢cant face, we compared the responses of autistic children to their mothers’ face and to a plain paper cup. Unlike normals, the autistic children as a whole did not show a larger response to the person than to the cup. We also monitored sympathetic activity in autistic (...)
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  6. V. S. Ramachandran, A Simple Method to Stand Outside Oneself.
    Here we outline a simple method of using two mirrors which allows one to stand outside oneself. This method demonstrates that registration of vision with touch and proprioception is crucial for the perception of the corporeal self. Our method may also allow the disassociation of taste from touch, proprioception, and movement.
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  7. V. S. Ramachandran, By Vilayanur S. Ramachandran and Lindsay M. Oberman.
    A t first glance you might not noorder, which afflicts about 0.5 percent of tice anything odd on meeting a American children. Neither researcher young boy with autism. But if had any knowledge of the other’s work, you try to talk to him, it will and yet by an uncanny coincidence each quickly become obvious that gave the syndrome the same name: autism, something is seriously wrong. He may not which derives from the Greek word autos, make eye contact with (...)
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  8. V. S. Ramachandran, Neurocase.
    First Published on: 21 June 2007 To cite this Article: Ramachandran, Vilayanur S., McGeoch, Paul D., Williams, Lisa and Arcilla, Gerard (2007) 'Rapid Relief of Thalamic Pain Syndrome Induced by Vestibular Caloric Stimulation', Neurocase, 13:3, 185 - 188 To link to this article: DOI: 10.1080/13554790701450446 URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13554790701450446..
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  9. V. S. Ramachandran, Projecting Sensations to External Objects: Evidence From Skin Conductance Response.
    Subjects perceived touch sensations as arising from a table (or a rubber hand) when both the table (or the rubber hand) and their own real hand were repeatedly tapped and stroked in synchrony with the real hand hidden from view. If the table or rubber hand was then ‘injured’, subjects displayed a strong skin conductance response (SCR) even though nothing was done to the real hand. Sensations could even be projected to anatomically impossible locations. The illusion was much less vivid, (...)
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  10. V. S. Ramachandran & Paul McGeoch, Can Vestibular Caloric Stimulation Be Used to Treat Apotemnophilia?
    Summary Apotemnophilia, or body integrity image disorder (BIID), is characterised by a feeling of mismatch between the internal feeling of how one’s body should be and the physical reality of how it actually is. Patients with this condition have an often overwhelming desire for an amputation- of a specific limb at a specific level. Such patients are not psychotic or delusional, however, they do express an inexplicable emotional abhorrence to the limb they wish removed. It is also known that such (...)
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  11. V. S. Ramachandran & Paul D. McGeoch, Occurrence of Phantom Genitalia After Gender Reassignment Surgery.
    Summary Transsexuals are individuals who identify as a member of the gender opposite to that which they are born. Many transsexuals report that they have always had a feeling of a mismatch between their inner gender-based ‘‘body image’’ and that of their body’s actual physical form. Often transsexuals undergo gender reassignment surgery to convert their bodies to the sex they feel they should have been born. The vivid sensation of still having a limb although it has been amputated, a phantom (...)
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  12. David Brang, Ursina Teuscher, V. S. Ramachandran & Seana Coulson (2010). Temporal Sequences, Synesthetic Mappings, and Cultural Biases: The Geography of Time. Consciousness and Cognition 19 (1):311-320.
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  13. William Hirstein & V. S. Ramachandran (2009). He is Not My Father, and That is Not My Arm: Accounting for Misidentifications of People and Limbs. In , Confabulation: Views From Neuroscience, Psychiatry, Psychology and Philosophy. Oup Oxford. 109.
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  14. V. S. Ramachandran (2008). Phantom Penises in Transsexuals. Journal of Consciousness Studies 15 (1):5-16.
    How the brain constructs one's inner sense of gender iden-tity is poorly understood. On the other hand, the phenomenon of phantom sensations-- the feeling of still having a body-part after amputation--has been much studied. Around 60% of men experience a phantom penis post-penectomy. As transsexuals report a mismatch between their inner gender identity and that of their body, we won-dered what could be learnt from this regarding innate gender-specific body image. We surveyed male-to-female transsexuals regarding the incidence of phantoms post-gender (...)
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  15. V. S. Ramachandran & E. M. Hubbard (2005). The Emergence of the Human Mind: Some Clues From Synesthesia. In Robertson, C. L. & N. Sagiv (eds.), Synesthesia: Perspectives From Cognitive Neuroscience. Oxford University Press. 147--190.
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  16. E. M. Hubbard & V. S. Ramachandran (2003). Refining the Experimental Lever. Journal of Consciousness Studies 10 (3):77-84.
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  17. V. S. Ramachandran (2001). Sharpening Up «the Science of Art». Journal of Consciousness Studies 8 (1):9-29.
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  18. V. S. Ramachandran (2000). Memory and the Brain: New Lessons From Old Syndromes, In. In Daniel L. Schacter & Elaine Scarry (eds.), Memory, Brain, and Belief. Harvard Univ Pr. 87--114.
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  19. V. S. Ramachandran & W. Hirstein (1999). A Theory of Human Artistic Experience and the Neural Mechanisms That Mediate It. Journal of Consciousness Studies 6 (6-7):15-51.
     
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  20. V. S. Ramachandran & William Hirstein (1999). Three Laws ofQualia. In Jonathan Shear & Shaun Gallagher (eds.), Models of the Self. Imprint Academic. 83.
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  21. Patricia S. Churchland, V. S. Ramachandran & Terrence J. Sejnowski (1993). A Critique of Pure Vision. In Christof Koch & Joel L. David (eds.), Large-scale neuronal theories of the brain. MIT Press. 23.
    Anydomainofscientificresearchhasitssustainingorthodoxy. Thatis, research on a problem, whether in astronomy, physics, or biology, is con- ducted against a backdrop of broadly shared assumptions. It is these as- sumptionsthatguideinquiryandprovidethecanonofwhatisreasonable-- of what "makes sense." And it is these shared assumptions that constitute a framework for the interpretation of research results. Research on the problem of how we see is likewise sustained by broadly shared assump- tions, where the current orthodoxy embraces the very general idea that the business of the visual system is to (...)
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  22. V. S. Ramachandran (1993). Filling in Gaps in Logic: Some Comments on Dennett. Consciousness and Cognition 2 (2):165-168.
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  23. V. S. Ramachandran & D. C. Rogers-Ramachandran (1991). Phantom Contours: A New Class of Visual Patterns That Selectively Activates the Magnocellular Pathway in Man. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 29 (5):391-394.
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  24. V. S. Ramachandran, H. Pashler & D. Plummer (1989). 2-D or Not 2-D-That is the Question. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 27 (6):487-488.
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  25. B. D. Josephson & V. S. Ramachandran (eds.) (1980). Consciousness and the Physical World: Edited Proceedings of an Interdisciplinary Symposium on Consciousness Held at the University of Cambridge in January 1978. Pergamon Press.
    Edited proceedings of an interdisciplinary symposium on consciousness held at the University of Cambridge in January 1978. Includes a foreword by Freeman Dyson. Chapter authors: G. Vesey, R.L. Gregory, H.C. Longuet-Higgins, N.K. Humphrey, H.B. Barlow, D.M. MacKay, B.D. Josephson, M. Roth, V.S. Ramachandran, S. Padfield, and (editorial summary only) E. Noakes. -/- Page numbering convention: 'go to page n' accesses the pair of scanned pages 2n and 2n+1. A text-format version of the book (OCR generated with occasional errors) is available (...)
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  26. V. S. Ramachandran (1980). Twins, Split Brains and Personal Identity. In Brian Josephson & Vilayanur S. Ramachandran (eds.), Consciousness and the Physical World. Pergamon Press. 139--163.
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  27. V. S. Ramachandran (1975). High Spatial Frequencies Dominate Perception. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 6 (6):611-612.
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