Search results for 'VL21 system' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. James Larson (1977). Induce-1, an Interactive Inductive Inference Program in Vl₂₁ Logic System. Dept. Of Computer Science, University of Illinois.
     
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  2. James Larson (1977). Inductive Inference in the Variable Valued Predicate Logic System Vl 21: Methodology and Computer Implementation. Dept. Of Computer Science, University of Illinois.
     
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  3.  10
    Jeffrey A. Gray (1982). Précis of The Neuropsychology of Anxiety: An Enquiry Into the Functions of the Septo-Hippocampal System. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 5 (3):469.
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  4.  29
    Jon Lawhead (forthcoming). Structural Modeling Error and the System Individuation Problem. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science.
    Recent work by Frigg et. al. and Mayo-Wilson have called attention to a particular sort of error associated with attempts to model certain complex systems: structural modeling error. The assessment of the degree of SME in a model presupposes agreement between modelers about the best way to individuate natural systems, an agreement which can be more problematic than it appears. This problem, which we dub “the system individuation problem” arises in many of the same contexts as SME, and the (...)
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  5. Robert K. Garcia (2014). Towards a Just Solar Radiation Management Compensation System: A Defense of the Polluter Pays Principle. Ethics, Policy and Environment 17 (2):178-182.
    In their ‘Ethical and Technical Challenges in Compensating for Harm Due to Solar Radiation Management Geoengineering’ (2014), Toby Svoboda and Peter Irvine (S&I) argue that there are significant technical and ethical challenges that stand in the way of crafting a just solar radiation management (SRM) compensation system. My aim in this article is to contribute to the project of addressing these problems. I do so by focusing on one of S&I’s important ethical challenges, their claim that the polluter pays (...)
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  6.  51
    Matthias Unterhuber (2014). Do Ceteris Paribus Laws Exist? A Regularity-Based Best System Analysis. Erkenntnis 79 (10):1833-1847.
    This paper argues that ceteris paribus (cp) laws exist based on a Lewisian best system analysis of lawhood (BSA). Furthermore, it shows that a BSA faces a second trivialization problem besides the one identified by Lewis. The first point concerns an argument against cp laws by Earman and Roberts. The second point aims to help making some assumptions of the BSA explicit. To address the second trivialization problem, a restriction in terms of natural logical constants is proposed (...)
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  7.  11
    Han-Kyul Kim (2016). A System of Matter Fitly Disposed: Locke's Thinking Matter Revisited. American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 90 (1):125-145.
    In this paper, I address the controversial issue around Locke’s account of a “superadded” power of thought. I first show that Locke uses the term “super­addition” in discussing the nominal distinction of natural kinds. This general observation applies to Locke’s account of thinking matter. Specifically, I attribute to him the following three theses: (1) the mind-body distinction is nominal; (2) there is no metaphysical repugnancy between them; and (3) their common ground—namely, substratum—can only be characterized in terms of its (...)
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  8.  13
    Robert Feagan & Amanda Henderson (2009). Devon Acres CSA: Local Struggles in a Global Food System. [REVIEW] Agriculture and Human Values 26 (3):203-217.
    This paper focuses on examining the dynamic nature of community supported agriculture (CSA) and the real-world experiences which mark its contours, often making it distinct from the early idealized CSA “model.” Specifically, our study examines the narratives of the farmers of Devon Acres CSA over its duration, in tandem with a survey of recent shareholders in order to understand and explain its evolution. The framework we develop here shows that this CSA is largely characterized by instrumental and functional beliefs and (...)
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  9.  3
    Eduardo Fermé & Maurício D. L. Reis (2012). System of Spheres-Based Multiple Contractions. Journal of Philosophical Logic 41 (1):29-52.
    We propose a new class of multiple contraction operations — the system of spheres-based multiple contractions — which are a generalization of Grove’s system of spheres-based (singleton) contractions to the case of contractions by (possibly non-singleton) sets of sentences. Furthermore, we show that this new class of functions is a subclass of the class of the partial meet multiple contractions.
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  10.  70
    James Ladyman, James Lambert & Karoline Wiesner (2013). What is a Complex System? European Journal for Philosophy of Science 3 (1):33-67.
    Complex systems research is becoming ever more important in both the natural and social sciences. It is commonly implied that there is such a thing as a complex system, different examples of which are studied across many disciplines. However, there is no concise definition of a complex system, let alone a definition on which all scientists agree. We review various attempts to characterize a complex system, and consider a core set of features that are widely associated with (...)
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  11.  16
    Luka Burazin (2015). The Rule of Recognition and the Emergence of a Legal System. Revus 27.
    The paper claims that the rule of recognition, given the way it is presented by Hart, cannot be a constitutive rule of any legal system as a whole, but rather a constitutive rule of legal rules as elements of a legal system. Since I take the legal system to be an institutional artifact kind, I claim that, in order to account for a legal system as a whole, at least two further constitutive rules, in addition to (...)
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  12.  87
    Giovanni Villani (2014). Structured System in Chemistry: Comparison with Mechanics and Biology. [REVIEW] Foundations of Chemistry 16 (2):107-123.
    The fundamental concept of structured chemical system has been introduced and analysed in this paper. This concept, as in biology but not in physics, is very important in chemistry. In fact, the main chemical concepts (molecule and compound) have been identified as systemic concepts and their use in chemical explanation can only be justified in this approach. The fundamental concept of “environment” has been considered and then the system concept in mechanics, chemistry and biology. The differences and the (...)
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  13.  22
    Robert Elliott Allinson (2004). Circles Within a Circle: The Condition for the Possibility of Ethical Business Institutions Within a Market System. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 53 (1-2):17-28.
    How can a business institution function as an ethical institution within a wider system if the context of the wider system is inherently unethical? If the primary goal of an institution, no matter how ethical it sets out to be, is to function successfully within a market system, how can it reconcile making a profit and keeping its ethical goals intact? While it has been argued that some ethical businesses do exist, e.g., Johnson and Johnson, the argument (...)
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  14.  3
    Valerie Gray Hardcastle (2015). Traumatic Brain Injury, Neuroscience, and the Legal System. Neuroethics 8 (1):55-64.
    This essay addresses the question: What is the probative value of including neuroscience data in court cases where the defendant might have had a traumatic brain injury? That is, this essay attempts to articulate how well we can connect scientific data and clinical test results to the demands of the Daubert standard in the United States’ court system, and, given the fact that neuroimaging is already being used in our courts, what, if anything, we should do about this fact. (...)
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  15.  21
    Amy Guptill & Jennifer L. Wilkins (2002). Buying Into the Food System: Trends in Food Retailing in the US and Implications for Local Foods. [REVIEW] Agriculture and Human Values 19 (1):39-51.
    The contemporary US food systemis characterized by both an unprecedentedconcentration of corporate control as well as afragmentation of sourcing and marketingprocesses, introducing both new constraints andnew opportunities for more localized foodsystems. The purpose of our study is to explorethese issues by investigating three keyquestions. First, what are the key trends inthe US grocery industry? Second, how dodifferent kinds of food outlets choose,procure, and promote food products? Finally,what are the implications of recent trends inthe food retailing process for strengtheninglocal flows of (...)
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  16.  22
    Margarita Vázquez & Manuel Liz (2011). Models as Points of View: The Case of System Dynamics. [REVIEW] Foundations of Science 16 (4):383-391.
    We propose an analysis of the notion of model as crucially related to the notion of point of view. A model in this sense would always suggest a certain way of looking at a real system, a certain way of thinking about it and a certain way of acting upon it. We focus on System Dynamics as a paradigmatic case with respect to many of the features and problems we can find in the field of modelling and simulation. (...)
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  17.  5
    Egbert Kanis, Ab F. Groen & Karel H. De Greef (2003). Societal Concerns About PORK and PORK Production and Their Relationships to the Production System. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 16 (2):137-162.
    Pork producers in Western Europe moreand more encounter a variety of societalconcerns about pork and pork production. Sofar, however, producers predominantly focusedon low consumer prices, therewith addressingjust one concern. This resulted in an intensiveand large-scale production system, decreasinglyrelated to the area of farm land, andaccompanied with increasing concerns aboutsafety and healthiness of pork, animal welfare,environmental pollution, and others.An overview was given of possible concernsabout West-European pork production with theconsumers, citizens, and producers, and thoseconcerns are traced back to the pork (...)
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  18.  10
    Tim Lang (1999). The Complexities of Globalization: The UK as a Case Study of Tensions Within the Food System and the Challenge to Food Policy. [REVIEW] Agriculture and Human Values 16 (2):169-185.
    This article proposes a number of arguments about the contemporary food system. Using the UK as a case study, it argues that the food system is marked by tensions and conflicts. The paper explores different strands of public policy as applied to the food system over the last two centuries. It differentiates between various uses of the term globalization and proposes that the real features and dynamics of the new world food order are complex and neither as (...)
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  19.  4
    Gilbert W. Gillespie Jr (2010). 2009 AFHVS Presidential Address: The Steering Question: Challenges to Achieving Food System Sustainability. [REVIEW] Agriculture and Human Values 27 (1):3-12.
    In this address I examine the challenges of achieving food system sustainability. Starting from the position that most people want a food system that is “sustainable” and that we have a great reservoir of unapplied technical knowledge applicable to increasing sustainability, I argue that the big issue is collective decision-making to accomplish the goal of sustainability. Using the metaphor of a sailing ship, I raise three questions about steering collectively toward sustainability: What do we want? What are our (...)
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  20.  36
    F. I. Cooperstock & S. Tieu (2003). The Energy of a Dynamical Wave-Emitting System in General Relativity. Foundations of Physics 33 (7):1033-1059.
    The problem of energy and its localization in general relativity is critically re-examined. The Tolman energy integral for the Eddington spinning rod is analyzed in detail and evaluated apart from a single term. It is shown that a higher order iteration is required to find its value. Details of techniques to solve mathematically challenging problems of motion with powerful computing resources are provided. The next phase of following a system from static to dynamic to final quasi-static state is described.
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  21.  1
    Romain Boulet, Pierre Mazzega & Danièle Bourcier (2011). A Network Approach to the French System of Legal Codes—Part I: Analysis of a Dense Network. [REVIEW] Artificial Intelligence and Law 19 (4):333-355.
    We explore one aspect of the structure of a codified legal system at the national level using a new type of representation to understand the strong or weak dependencies between the various fields of law. In Part I of this study, we analyze the graph associated with the network in which each French legal code is a vertex and an edge is produced between two vertices when a code cites another code at least one time. We show that this (...)
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  22.  11
    Robert J. O'Hara (1991). Representations of the Natural System in the Nineteenth Century. Biology and Philosophy 6 (2): 255–274.
    "The Natural System" is the abstract notion of the order in living diversity. The richness and complexity of this notion is revealed by the diversity of representations of the Natural System drawn by ornithologists in the Nineteenth Century. These representations varied in overall form from stars, to circles, to maps, to evolutionary trees and cross-sections through trees. They differed in their depiction of affinity, analogy, continuity, directionality, symmetry, reticulation and branching, evolution, and morphological convergence and divergence. Some representations (...)
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  23.  1
    Michael Kahn (forthcoming). Mitigating South Africa’s HIV Epidemic: The Interplay of Social Entrepreneurship and the Innovation System. Minerva:1-22.
    With the struggle against apartheid achieved, South Africa faced the new struggle of overcoming the HIV/AIDS pandemic. This paper examines the response of government, the innovation system and civil society in rising to the challenge. The response included a fatal denialism concerning the etiology of AIDS, a fatalism that constitutes political market failure. This political market failure was counteracted through the emergence of social entrepreneurship in the form of the Treatment Action Campaign that mobilized civil society and like-minded health (...)
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  24.  39
    Larry R. Churchill (1999). The United States Health Care System Under Managed Care: How the Commodification of Health Care Distorts Ethics and Threatens Equity. [REVIEW] Health Care Analysis 7 (4):393-411.
    Describing the U.S. health care system meansdescribing managed care under commercial forces. Managed care creates new moral tension forpractitioners, but more importantly, in its currentform it intensifies the commercialization of healthexpectations and interactions. The largely unregulatedmarketing of health services under managed care hasbeen a major factor in the increasing number ofuninsured citizens, while claims for cost reductionthrough managed care are equivocal. Risk-ratingpractices integral to the current medical marketplacethwart concerns for justice in (...)
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  25.  31
    Mohammadreza Zolfagharian, Reza Akbari & Hamidreza Fartookzadeh (2014). Theory of Knowledge in System Dynamics Models. Foundations of Science 19 (2):189-207.
    Having entered into the problem structuring methods, system dynamics (SD) is an approach, among systems’ methodologies, which claims to recognize the main structures of socio-economic behaviors. However, the concern for building or discovering strong philosophical underpinnings of SD, undoubtedly playing an important role in the modeling process, is a long-standing issue, in a way that there is a considerable debate about the assumptions or the philosophical foundations of it. In this paper, with a new perspective, we have explored theory (...)
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  26.  16
    Jukka Vuorinen (2007). Ethical Codes in the Digital World: Comparisons of the Proprietary, the Open/Free and the Cracker System. [REVIEW] Ethics and Information Technology 9 (1):27-38.
    The digital world provides various ethical frames for individuals to become ethical subjects. In this paper I examine – in a Foucauldian and Luhmannian way – the differences between three systems of communication: the proprietary, the open/free and the cracker system. It is argued that all three systems provide a different set of ethical codes which one can be subjected to. The language of each system is restricted and they cannot understand each other, they merely consider each other (...)
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  27.  23
    Hubert Ertl & David Phillips (2000). The Enduring Nature of the Tripartite System of Secondary Schooling in Germany: Some Explanations. British Journal of Educational Studies 48 (4):391 - 412.
    This paper suggests explanations for the enduring nature of the tripartite system of secondary education in Germany and the failure to develop the comprehensive school (Gesamtschule) over a long period.
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  28.  14
    C. Richmond (1997). Preserving the Identity Crisis: Autonomy, System and Sovereignty in European Law. [REVIEW] Law and Philosophy 16 (4):377-420.
    This article uses Hans Kelsen's theory of a legal system to take a fresh look at European Community law, and the relationship between the European Community, its Member States, and international law. It argues that the basis of the Community's legal legitimacy is indeterminate, and offers a model to accommodate that indeterminacy. This model is founded on a constructivist approach suggested to be particularly useful in the EC context. Using this approach, it is argued that the concepts of (...), autonomy and sovereignty in the Community can only be understood through the recognition of a plurality of viewpoints, and that it is crucial, in describing the Community, to distinguish between a concept per se and the choice to adopt that concept. (shrink)
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  29.  26
    Margo Trappenburg (2000). Lifestyle Solidarity in the Healthcare System. Health Care Analysis 8 (1):65-75.
    Encompassing health care systems in modern welfarestates embody several forms of solidarity: between thesick and the healthy, the old and the young andbetween those who take good care of their health onthe one hand and fellow citizens who choose to risktheir lives by smoking or unsafe sex on the other. Thelatter form is called lifestyle solidarity. In theNetherlands this type of solidarity has become theobject of a debate between medical ethicists. Mostmedical ethicist seem to want to uphold lifestylesolidarity. Most Dutch (...)
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  30.  17
    Andrea Caldelli & Marisa Luisa Parmigiani (2004). Management Information System – a Tool for Corporate Sustainability. Journal of Business Ethics 55 (2):159 - 171.
    This paper represents the attempt to define a methodology that can evaluate the degree to which companies'' information systems correspond to needs determined by the objectives of sustainability the firm imposes on itself. The result is the creation of a general model which define the correct approach to evaluating information systems – a model which should be adapted to the specificity of each single company which intends to adopt it. In the chart indicated, we obviously have not considered activities connected (...)
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  31.  11
    Alisa Clarke (2012). The Potential of the Human Rights-Based Approach for the Evolution of the United Nations as a System. Human Rights Review 13 (2):225-248.
    The United Nations (UN), facing increasingly intense challenges in the fulfillment of its mission, also harbors the potential for enhanced effectiveness, relevance, and legitimacy in the form of the human rights-based approach. The human rights-based approach (HRBA) is one model for translating the organization’s values into a more adaptive, inclusive, dynamic, and responsive system of processes and outcomes. In the arena of politics, its meeting with a meaningful degree of receptiveness could signal a growing acceptance of the validity of (...)
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  32.  4
    Piotr Grzegorz Nowak (2015). Ograniczanie niedoboru narządów. System Aktywnej Rejestracji Dawców jako alternatywa dla polskiej regulacji sprzeciwu. Diametros 44:56-77.
    In the article I argue for replacing the opt-out system of organ donation, currently applied in Poland, with the Active Donor Registration system. The basic idea of the ADR system is to send a special form to all adult citizens, which would give them an opportunity to consent or dissent to the removal of organs, or to delegate their decision to their next of kin. Granting priority to declared donors – an additional assumption of ADR – would (...)
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  33.  54
    L. M. Vaina (1990). What and Where in the Human Visual System: Two Hierarchies of Visual Modules. Synthese 83 (1):49-91.
    In this paper we focus on the modularity of visual functions in the human visual cortex, that is, the specific problems that the visual system must solve in order to achieve recognition of objects and visual space. The computational theory of early visual functions is briefly reviewed and is then used as a basis for suggesting computational constraints on the higher-level visual computations. The remainder of the paper presents neurological evidence for the existence of two visual systems in man, (...)
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  34.  2
    Ivana Spasic (2005). Politics and Everyday Life in Serbia in 2005: Views of Politics, Change of Social System, the Public Sphere. Filozofija I Društvo 27:45-74.
    The paper offers an analysis of the interview data collected in the project "Politics and everyday life: Three years later" in terms of three main topics: attitudes to the political sphere, change of social system, and the democratic public sphere. The analysis focuses on ambivalences expressed in the responses which, under the surface of overall disappointment and discontent, may contain preserved results of the previously achieved "social learning" and their positive potentials. The main objective was to examine to what (...)
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  35.  5
    Qinghui Suo (2016). Chinese Academic Assessment and Incentive System. Science and Engineering Ethics 22 (1):297-299.
    The Chinese academic assessment and incentive system drew mixed responses from academia. In the essay the author tried to explain why the current assessment system is appropriate in China and an opportunistic behavior in Chinese academia is exposed.
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  36.  49
    Philip J. Stewart (2010). Charles Janet: Unrecognized Genius of the Periodic System. [REVIEW] Foundations of Chemistry 12 (1):5-15.
    Janet is known almost exclusively for his left-step periodic table (LSPT). A study of his writings shows him to have been a highly creative thinker and a brilliant draftsman. His approach was primarily arithmetic-geometric, but it led him to anticipate the discovery of deuterium, helium-3, transuranian elements, antimatter and energy from nuclear fusion. He recognized the (n + ℓ) rule well before Madelung and correctly placed the actinides. His controversial treatment of helium at the head of the alkaline earth elements (...)
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  37.  5
    David Godden (2014). Mill's System of Logic. In W. J. Mander (ed.), Oxford handbook of British philosophy in the nineteenth century. Oxford University Press 44-70.
    This chapter situates Mill’s System of Logic (1843/1872) in the context of some of the meta-logical themes and disputes characteristic of the 19th century as well as Mill’s empiricism. Particularly, by placing the Logic in relation to Whately’s (1827) Elements of Logic and Mill’s response to the “great paradox” of the informativeness of syllogistic reasoning, the chapter explores the development of Mill’s views on the foundation, function, and the relation between ratiocination and induction. It provides a survey of the (...)
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  38.  12
    Joanna Golinska-Pilarek (2007). Rasiowa-Sikorski Proof System for the Non-Fregean Sentential Logic SCI. Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics 17 (4):509–517.
    The non-Fregean logic SCI is obtained from the classical sentential calculus by adding a new identity connective = and axioms which say ?a = ß' means ?a is identical to ß'. We present complete and sound proof system for SCI in the style of Rasiowa-Sikorski. It provides a natural deduction-style method of reasoning for the non-Fregean sentential logic SCI.
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  39.  8
    Libby Hattersley (2013). Agri-Food System Transformations and Diet-Related Chronic Disease in Australia: A Nutrition-Oriented Value Chain Approach. Agriculture and Human Values 30 (2):299-309.
    Attention has become increasingly focused in recent years on the role agri-food system transformations have played in driving the global diet-related chronic disease burden. Identifying the role played by the food-consuming industries (predominantly large manufacturers, processors, distributors, and retailers) in particular, and identifying possibilities to facilitate healthier diets through intervening in these industries, have been identified as a research priority. This paper explores the potential for one promising analytic framework—the nutrition-oriented value chain approach—to contribute to this area, drawing on (...)
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  40.  32
    Fady Farah & François Rousselot (2007). DARES: Documents Annotation and Recombining System—Application to the European Law. [REVIEW] Artificial Intelligence and Law 15 (2):83-102.
    Accessing legislation via the Internet is more and more frequent. As a result, systems that allow consultation of law texts are becoming more and more powerful. This paper presents DARES, a generic system which can be adapted to any domain to handle documents production needs. It is based on an annotation engine which allows obtaining XML documents inputs as required by the system, and on an XML fragments recombining system. The latter operates using a fragment manipulation functions (...)
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  41.  13
    Sun-Joo Shin (1999). Reconstituting Beta Graphs Into an Efficacious System. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 8 (3):273-295.
    Logicians have strongly preferred first-order natural deductive systems over Peirce's Beta Graphs even though both are equivalent to each other. One of the main reasons for this preference, I claim, is that inference rules for Beta Graphs are hard to understand, and, therefore, hard to apply for deductions. This paper reformulates the Beta rules to show more fine-grained symmetries built around visual features of the Beta system, which makes the rules more natural and easier to use and understand. Noting (...)
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  42. Este Armstrong (1991). The Limbic System and Culture. Human Nature 2 (2):117-136.
    The human ability to live according to learned, shared rules of behavior requires cortical functions. Is the limbic system also necessary for culture or are its functions opposed to it, requiring cortical inhibition? The sizes of monkey and ape neocortical and major limbic structures scale with brain weight, but the neocortex expands more (has a steeper exponent) than limbic structures. As the human brain evolved it did not deviate from the scaling relationships found in nonhuman anthropoids. This evidence for (...)
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  43.  27
    S. Coyle (2002). Hart, Raz and the Concept of a Legal System. Law and Philosophy 21 (3):275-304.
    An underpinning assumption of modern legal positivism is that the question of how legal standards differ from normative standards in other spheres of human thought is resolved via the concept of a legal system and the notion of internal logic, through use of contextual definition. This approach is seen to lead to an untenable form of structuralism altogether at odds with the positivist's intentions. An alternative strategy is offered which allows the positivists to retain their deepest insights, though at (...)
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  44.  4
    Mehmet Ozansoy & Yagmur Denizhan (2009). The Endomembrane System: A Representation of the Extracellular Medium? [REVIEW] Biosemiotics 2 (3):255-267.
    Both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells share the basic mechanisms of secretory protein synthesis. However, unlike prokaryotes, eukaryotic cells posses a system of compartments, the so-called endomembrane system, which are involved in the synthesis process. A comparison of the prokaryotic and eukaryotic protein synthesis processes and particularly the observation of the functional and structural similarity between the prokaryotic cell membrane (the interface to the cell exterior) and the membrane of the eukaryotic endoplasmic reticulum (one of the compartments within the (...)
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  45.  8
    A. Wigmore & M. Ruiz (2010). Sustainability Assessment in Higher Education Institutions. The Stars System. Ramon Llull Journal of Applied Ethics 1 (1):25.
    Sustainable development is a concern for countries, businesses and organizations sensitive to excess in terms of utilized resources. This is evident in international initiatives which aim to establish guiding principles for institutions to follow regarding what is considered to be socially responsible behavior, allowing for assessment and the identification of objectives. As higher education institutions, colleges and universities have a public responsibility to generate and transmit knowledge to society as a whole, as well as an economic and social (...)
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  46.  7
    Maribel Anacona, Luis Carlos Arboleda & F. Javier Pérez-Fernández (2014). On Bourbaki's Axiomatic System for Set Theory. Synthese 191 (17):4069-4098.
    In this paper we study the axiomatic system proposed by Bourbaki for the Theory of Sets in the Éléments de Mathématique. We begin by examining the role played by the sign \(\uptau \) in the framework of its formal logical theory and then we show that the system of axioms for set theory is equivalent to Zermelo–Fraenkel system with the axiom of choice but without the axiom of foundation. Moreover, we study Grothendieck’s proposal of adding to Bourbaki’s (...)
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  47.  3
    María Teresa Signes Pont, Higinio Mora Mora, Gregorio De Miguel Casado & David Gil Méndez (2016). A Computational Model of the Belief System Under the Scope of Social Communication. Foundations of Science 21 (1):215-223.
    This paper presents an approach to the belief system based on a computational framework in three levels: first, the logic level with the definition of binary local rules, second, the arithmetic level with the definition of recursive functions and finally the behavioural level with the definition of a recursive construction pattern. Social communication is achieved when different beliefs are expressed, modified, propagated and shared through social nets. This approach is useful to mimic the belief system because the defined (...)
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  48.  23
    Douglas Walton (2011). A Dialogue System Specification for Explanation. Synthese 182 (3):349-374.
    This paper builds a dialectical system of explanation with speech act rules that define the kinds of moves allowed, like requesting and offering an explanation. Pre and post-condition rules for the speech acts determine when a particular speech act can be put forward as a move in the dialogue, and what type of move or moves must follow it. A successful explanation has been achieved when there has been a transfer of understanding from the party giving the explanation to (...)
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    David Lumsden (2005). How Can a Symbol System Come Into Being? Dialogue 44 (1):87-96.
    One holistic thesis about symbols is that a symbol cannot exist singly, but only as apart of a symbol system. There is also the plausible view that symbol systems emerge gradually in an individual, in a group, and in a species. The problem is that symbol holism makes it hard to see how a symbol system can emerge gradually, at least if we are considering the emergence of a first symbol system. The only way it seems possible (...)
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    Michael McCubbin & David Cohen (1999). A Systemic and Value-Based Approach to Strategic Reform of the Mental Health System. Health Care Analysis 7 (1):57-77.
    Most writers now recognize that mental health policy and the mental health system are extremely resistant to real changes that reflect genuine biopsychosocial paradigms of mental disorder. Writers bemoaning the intransigence of the mental health system tend to focus on a small analytical level, only to find themselves mired in the rationalities of the existing system. Problems are acknowledged to be system-wide, yet few writers have used a method of analysis appropriate for systemic problems. Drawing upon (...)
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