Search results for 'Variable' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Matthias Egg (2013). The Foundational Significance of Leggett's Non-Local Hidden-Variable Theories. Foundations of Physics 43 (7):872-880.score: 24.0
    Laudisa (Found. Phys. 38:1110–1132, 2008) claims that experimental research on the class of non-local hidden-variable theories introduced by Leggett is misguided, because these theories are irrelevant for the foundations of quantum mechanics. I show that Laudisa’s arguments fail to establish the pessimistic conclusion he draws from them. In particular, it is not the case that Leggett-inspired research is based on a mistaken understanding of Bell’s theorem, nor that previous no-hidden-variable theorems already exclude Leggett’s models. Finally, I argue that (...)
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  2. A. J. Leggett (2003). Nonlocal Hidden-Variable Theories and Quantum Mechanics: An Incompatibility Theorem. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 33 (10):1469-1493.score: 24.0
    It is argued that among possible nonlocal hidden-variable theories a particular class (called here “crypto-nonlocal” or CN) is relatively plausible on physical grounds. CN theories have the property that (for example) the two photons emitted in an atomic cascade process are indistinguishable in their individual statistical properties from photons emitted singly, and that in the latter case the effects of nonlocality are unobservable. It is demonstrated that all CN theories are constrained by inequalities which are violated by the quantum-mechanical (...)
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  3. Friederike Moltmann (forthcoming). Variable Objects and Truthmaking. In Mircea Dumitru (ed.), Metaphysics, Meaning, and Modality. Themes from Kit Fine. Oxford UP.score: 24.0
    This paper will focus on a philosophically significant construction whose semantics brings together two important notions in Kit Fine’s philosophy, the notion of truthmaking and the notion of a variable embodiment, or its extension, namely what I call a ‘variable object’. The analysis of the construction this paper will develop will be based on an account of clausal complements of intensional verbs that is of more general interest, based on truthmaking and the notion of a cognitive product, such (...)
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  4. Bernhard Beckert & Rajeev GorÉ (2001). Free-Variable Tableaux for Propositional Modal Logics. Studia Logica 69 (1):59-96.score: 24.0
    Free-variable semantic tableaux are a well-established technique for first-order theorem proving where free variables act as a meta-linguistic device for tracking the eigenvariables used during proof search. We present the theoretical foundations to extend this technique to propositional modal logics, including non-trivial rigorous proofs of soundness and completeness, and also present various techniques that improve the efficiency of the basic naive method for such tableaux.
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  5. Philip G. Calabrese (2003). Operating on Functions with Variable Domains. Journal of Philosophical Logic 32 (1):1-18.score: 24.0
    The sum, difference, product and quotient of two functions with different domains are usually defined only on their common domain. This paper extends these definitions so that the sum and other operations are essentially defined anywhere that at least one of the components is defined. This idea is applied to propositions and events, expressed as indicator functions, to define conditional propositions and conditional events as three-valued indicator functions that are undefined when their condition is false. Extended operations of "and", "or", (...)
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  6. Gemma Robles & José M. Méndez (2012). A General Characterization of the Variable-Sharing Property by Means of Logical Matrices. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 53 (2):223-244.score: 24.0
    As is well known, the variable-sharing property (vsp) is, according to Anderson and Belnap, a necessary property of any relevant logic. In this paper, we shall consider two versions of the vsp, what we label the "weak vsp" (wvsp) and the "strong vsp" (svsp). In addition, the "no loose pieces property," a property related to the wvsp and the svsp, will be defined. Each one of these properties shall generally be characterized by means of a class of logical matrices. (...)
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  7. Robert L. Brown, Darren Charters, Sally Gunz & Neil Haddow (2007). Colliding Interests – Age as an Automobile Insurance Rating Variable: Equitable Rate-Making or Unfair Discrimination? [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 72 (2):103 - 114.score: 24.0
    Many private business relationships are increasingly characterized by claims that certain actions should not be permitted since particular right claims are involved. Such claims should be taken seriously, but are they always ethically legitimate? This paper analyzes one context, the use of age as a rating variable in the pricing of automobile insurance, where such claims are made. By identifying, evaluating and assessing the relevant basis for the differentiation, actuarial equity, it is concluded that there is an ethical basis (...)
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  8. Nicole Hassoun & S. Subramanian (2012). Variable Population Poverty Comparisons. Journal of Development Economics 98 (2):238-241.score: 24.0
    This paper demonstrates that the property of Replication Invariance, generally considered to be an innocuous requirement for the extension of fixed-population poverty comparisons to variable-population contexts, is incompatible with other plausible variable- and fixed-population axioms. This fact raises questions about what constitutes an appropriate headcount assessment of poverty, in terms of whether one should focus on the proportion, or the absolute numbers, of the population in poverty. This observation, in turn, has important implications for tracking poverty and setting (...)
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  9. George Horton & Chris Dewdney (2010). A Relativistic Hidden-Variable Interpretation for the Massive Vector Field Based on Energy-Momentum Flows. Foundations of Physics 40 (6):658-678.score: 24.0
    This paper is motivated by the desire to formulate a relativistically covariant hidden-variable particle trajectory interpretation of the quantum theory of the vector field that is formulated in such a way as to allow the inclusion of gravity. We present a methodology for calculating the flows of rest energy and a conserved density for the massive vector field using the time-like eigenvectors and eigenvalues of the stress-energy-momentum tensor. Such flows may be used to define particle trajectories which follow the (...)
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  10. Ian Pratt-Hartmann (2003). A Two-Variable Fragment of English. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 12 (1):13-45.score: 24.0
    Controlled languages are regimented fragments of natural languagedesigned to make the processing of natural language more efficient andreliable. This paper defines a controlled language, E2V, whose principalgrammatical resources include determiners, relative clauses, reflexivesand pronouns. We provide a formal syntax and semantics for E2V, in whichanaphoric ambiguities are resolved in a linguistically natural way. Weshow that the expressive power of E2V is equal to that of thetwo-variable fragment of first-order logic. It follows that the problemof determining the satisfiability of a (...)
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  11. Ian Pratt-Hartmann (2005). Complexity of the Two-Variable Fragment with Counting Quantifiers. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 14 (3):369-395.score: 24.0
    The satisfiability and finite satisfiability problems for the two-variable fragment of first-order logic with counting quantifiers are both in NEXPTIME, even when counting quantifiers are coded succinctly.
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  12. G. Robles & J. M. Méndez (2011). A Class of Simpler Logical Matrices for the Variable-Sharing Property. Logic and Logical Philosophy 20 (3):241-249.score: 24.0
    In our paper “A general characterization of the variable-sharing property by means of logical matrices”, a general class of so-called “Relevant logical matrices”, RMLs, is defined. The aim of this paper is to define a class of simpler Relevant logical matrices RMLs′serving the same purpose that RMLs, to wit: any logic verified by an RML′has the variable-sharing property and related properties predicable of the logic of entailment E and of the logic of relevance R.
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  13. Gemma Robles, José M. Méndez & Francisco Salto (2010). A Modal Restriction of R-Mingle with the Variable-Sharing Property. Logic and Logical Philosophy 19 (4):341-351.score: 24.0
    A restriction of R-Mingle with the variable-sharing property and the Ackermann properties is defined. From an intuitive semantical point of view, this restriction is an alternative to Anderson and Belnap’s logic of entailment E.
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  14. Jasmine K. Ahluwalia, Manoj Hariharan, Rhishikesh Bargaje, Beena Pillai & Vani Brahmachari (2009). Incomplete Penetrance and Variable Expressivity: Is There a microRNA Connection? Bioessays 31 (9):981-992.score: 21.0
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  15. M. C. Corballis (1966). Memory Span as a Function of Variable Presentation Speeds and Stimulus Durations. Journal of Experimental Psychology 71 (3):461.score: 21.0
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  16. David E. Goldberg, Kumara Sastry & Xavier Llorà (2007). Toward Routine Billion‐Variable Optimization Using Genetic Algorithms. Complexity 12 (3):27-29.score: 21.0
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  17. Edward A. Bilodeau & Ina McD Bilodeau (1958). Variable Frequency of Knowledge of Results and the Learning of a Simple Skill. Journal of Experimental Psychology 55 (4):379.score: 21.0
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  18. Karl Haberlandt, Kevin C. Hails & Robert Leghorn (1974). Probability of Conditioned Responses as a Function of Variable Intertrial Intervals. Journal of Experimental Psychology 102 (3):522.score: 21.0
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  19. Ronald H. Hopkins, Richard E. Edwards & James R. Gavelek (1971). Presentation Modality as an Encoding Variable in Short-Term Memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology 90 (2):319.score: 21.0
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  20. Austin Jones, H. Jean Wilkinson & Ina Braden (1961). Information Deprivation as a Motivational Variable. Journal of Experimental Psychology 62 (2):126.score: 21.0
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  21. George E. Passey & Francis Sekyra (1964). Geometric and Arithmetic Means as Indexes of UCS Intensity with Variable Reinforcement. Journal of Experimental Psychology 67 (1):7.score: 21.0
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  22. E. C. Poulton & D. C. V. Simmonds (1963). Value of Standard and Very First Variable in Judgments of Reflectance of Grays with Various Ranges of Available Numbers. Journal of Experimental Psychology 65 (3):297.score: 21.0
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  23. L. H. Shaffer (1965). Choice Reaction with Variable S-R Mapping. Journal of Experimental Psychology 70 (3):284.score: 21.0
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  24. L. H. Shaffer (1967). Transition Effects in Three-Choice Reaction with Variable s-R Mapping. Journal of Experimental Psychology 73 (1):101.score: 21.0
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  25. Erich Gradel & Eric Rosen (1999). On Preservation Theorems for Two-Variable Logic. Mathematical Logic Quarterly 45 (3):315-325.score: 21.0
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  26. Donald J. Lewis & Carl P. Duncan (1961). Effects of Variable Magnitude of Reward on a Lever-Pulling Response. Journal of Experimental Psychology 62 (2):203.score: 21.0
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  27. J. Dennis Nolan & Leah V. Pendarvis (1970). Effects of Variable-Irrelevant Dimensions on the Discrimination Reversal Learning of Nursery School Children. Journal of Experimental Psychology 86 (3):428.score: 21.0
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  28. L. H. Shaffer (1966). Some Effects of Partial Advance Information on Choice Reaction with Fixed or Variable S-R Mapping. Journal of Experimental Psychology 72 (4):541.score: 21.0
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  29. Bryan E. Shepp & Vicky A. Gray (1971). Some Effects of Variable-Within and Variable-Between Irrelevant Stimuli on Dimensional Learning, and Transfer. Journal of Experimental Psychology 89 (1):32.score: 21.0
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  30. F. O. Smith (1942). The Influence of Variable Time Intervals on Retention of Meaningful Material. Journal of Experimental Psychology 30 (2):175.score: 21.0
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  31. Iain A. Stewart (1997). Logics with Zero‐One Laws That Are Not Fragments of Bounded‐Variable Infinitary Logic. Mathematical Logic Quarterly 43 (2):158-178.score: 21.0
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  32. Peter J. Lewis (2007). Towards a Local Hidden Variable Theory. Foundations of Physics 37 (10):1461-1469.score: 20.0
    A local hidden variable theory of quantum mechanics is formulated by adapting Gell-Mann and Hartle’s many-histories formulation. The resulting theory solves the measurement problem by exploiting the independence loophole in Bell’s theorem; it violates the independence of hidden variable values and measuring device settings. Although the theory is problematic in some respects, it provides a concrete example via which the tenability of this approach can be better evaluated.
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  33. Anna Szabolcsi (2003). Binding On the Fly: Cross-Sentential Anaphora in Variable— Free Semantics. In R. Oehrle & J. Kruijff (eds.), Resource Sensitivity, Binding, and Anaphora. Kluwer. 215--227.score: 18.0
    Combinatory logic (Curry and Feys 1958) is a “variable-free” alternative to the lambda calculus. The two have the same expressive power but build their expressions differently. “Variable-free” semantics is, more precisely, “free of variable binding”: it has no operation like abstraction that turns a free variable into a bound one; it uses combinators—operations on functions—instead. For the general linguistic motivation of this approach, see the works of Steedman, Szabolcsi, and Jacobson, among others. The standard view in (...)
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  34. Brad Hooker & Guy Fletcher (2008). Variable Versus Fixed-Rate Rule-Utilitarianism. Philosophical Quarterly 58 (231):344–352.score: 18.0
    Fixed-rate versions of rule-consequentialism and rule-utilitarianism evaluate rules in terms of the expected net value of one particular level of social acceptance, but one far enough below 100% social acceptance to make salient the complexities created by partial compliance. Variable-rate versions of rule-consequentialism and rule-utilitarianism instead evaluate rules in terms of their expected net value at all different levels of social acceptance. Brad Hooker has advocated a fixed-rate version. Michael Ridge has argued that the variable-rate version is better. (...)
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  35. Friederike Moltmann (2012). Tropes, Intensional Relative Clauses, and the Notion of a Variable Object. In Aloni Maria, Kimmelman Vadim, Weidman Sassoon Galit, Roloefson Floris, Schulz Katrin & Westera Matthjis (eds.), Proceedings of the 18th Amsterdam Colloquium 2011. Springer.score: 18.0
    NPs with intensional relative clauses such as 'the impact of the book John needs to write' pose a significant challenge for trope theory (the theory of particularized properties), since they seem to refer to tropes that lack an actual bearer. This paper proposes a novel semantic analysis of such NPs on the basis of the notion of a variable object. The analysis avoids a range of difficulties that an alternative analysis based on the notion of an individual concept would (...)
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  36. Pauline Jacobson (1999). Towards a Variable-Free Semantics. Linguistics and Philosophy 22 (2):117-185.score: 18.0
    The Montagovian hypothesis of direct model-theoretic interpretation of syntactic surface structures is supported by an account of the semantics of binding that makes no use of variables, syntactic indices, or assignment functions & shows that the interpretation of a large portion of so-called variable-binding phenomena can dispense with the level of logical form without incurring equivalent complexity elsewhere in the system. Variable-free semantics hypothesizes local interpretation of each surface constituent; binding is formalized as a type-shifting operation on expressions (...)
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  37. Alejandro A. Hnilo, Marcelo G. Kovalsky & Guillermo Santiago (2007). Low Dimension Dynamics in the EPRB Experiment with Random Variable Analyzers. Foundations of Physics 37 (1):80-102.score: 18.0
    The Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen–Bohm (EPRB) experiment performed with random variable and spatially separated analyzers is a milestone test in the controversy between Objective Local Theories (OLT) and Quantum Mechanics (QM). Only a few OLT are still possible. Some of the surviving OLT (specifically, the so called non-ergodic theories) would be undetectable in the averaged statistical values, but they may leave their trace in the time dynamics. For, while QM predicts random processes, the OLT of this kind predict the existence of regularities (...)
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  38. Frank Arntzenius (1994). Relativistic Hidden Variable Theories? Erkenntnis 41 (2):207 - 231.score: 18.0
    I show that for any quantum dynamics and any choice of observables as hidden variables an adequate hidden variable theory always exists. I argue that hidden variable theories have no more problems in reconciling non-locality with relativity than no-hidden-variable theories.
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  39. R. Y. Levine (1985). Isospin as a Hidden Variable. Foundations of Physics 15 (6):667-676.score: 18.0
    A hidden isospin variable is coupled to the spin of particles observed in an EPR experiment. For spin-1/2 it is shown that isospin i≥3/2 is sufficient to ensure a locally realistic spin distribution. For spin-1, examples of violation of the Mermin-Schwarz inequalities in the case of i=0 are shown satisfied with isospin. The general feature of a softening of quantum nonlocality with isospin is suggested, as well as applications to quantum physics at high energy.
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  40. D. C. Salisbury (1998). A Classical and Quantum Relativistic Interacting Variable-Mass Model. Foundations of Physics 28 (9):1433-1442.score: 18.0
    A classical and quantum relativistic interacting particle formalism is revisited. A Hilbert space is achieved through the use of variable individual particle rest masses, but no c-number mass parameter is required for the relativistic free particle. Boosted center of momentum states feature in both the free and interacting model. The implications of a failure to impose simultaneity conditions at the classical level are explored. The implementation of these conditions at the quantum level leads to a finite uncertainty in interaction (...)
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  41. H. P. Seipp (1986). Bell's Theorem and an Explicit Stochastic Local Hidden-Variable Model. Foundations of Physics 16 (11):1143-1152.score: 18.0
    Motivated by a paper by Barut and Meystre, Bohm's EPR gedanken experiment performed with classical and spin-s particles is considered, and the applicability of Bell's theorem to these cases is discussed. The classical model presented by Barut and Meystre is modified to become a stochastic local hidden-variable model reproducing the results of an EPR experiment of the type performed by Aspect et al.
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  42. Campbell Brown (2007). Prioritarianism for Variable Populations. Philosophical Studies 134 (3):325 - 361.score: 18.0
    Philosophical discussions of prioritarianism, the view that we ought to give priority to those who are worse off, have hitherto been almost exclusively focused on cases involving a fixed population. The aim of this paper is to extend the discussion of prioritarianism to encompass also variable populations. I argue that prioritarianism, in its simplest formulation, is not tenable in this area. However, I also propose several revised formulations that, so I argue, show more promise.
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  43. Dien A. Rice (1997). Nonlocality and Conservation Laws in Hidden Variable Theories. Foundations of Physics 27 (10):1345-1353.score: 18.0
    It is shown that any hidden variable model that reproduces quantum mechanics for a single particle must either be nonlocal or violate conservation of momentum. This is established by deriving an inequality which must hold in any local, momentum-conserving hidden variable model for a modified form of the double-slit experiment. It is then shown that any hidden variable model that reproduces quantum mechanics must violate the inequality. The inconsistency between the classical and quantum views of the world (...)
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  44. Peter Vallentyne & Bertil Tungodden (2007). Paretian Egalitarianism with Variable Population Size. In John Roemer & Kotaro Suzumura (eds.), Intergenerational Equity and Sustainability. Palgrave Publishers Ltd.score: 18.0
    Where there is a fixed population (i.e., who exists does not depend on what choice an agent makes), the deontic version of anonymous Paretian egalitarianism holds that an option is just if and only if (1) it is anonymously Pareto optimal (i.e., no feasible alternative has a permutation that is Pareto superior), and (2) it is no less equal than any other anonymously Pareto optimal option. We shall develop and discuss a version of this approach for the variable population (...)
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  45. Peter M. Sullivan (2004). ‘The General Propositional Form is a Variable’ (Tractatus 4.53). Mind 113 (449):43-56.score: 18.0
    Wittgenstein presents in the Tractatus a variable purporting to capture the general form of proposition. One understanding of what Wittgenstein is doing there, an understanding in line with the ‘new’ reading of his work championed by Diamond, Conant and others, sees it as a deflationary or even an implosive move—a move by which a concept sometimes put by philosophers to distinctively metaphysical use is replaced, in a perspicuous notation, by an innocent device of generalization, thereby dispersing the clouds (...)
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  46. J. V. Narlikar (1983). Cosmologies with Variable Gravitational Constant. Foundations of Physics 13 (3):311-323.score: 18.0
    In 1937 Dirac presented an argument, based on the socalled large dimensionless numbers, which led him to the conclusion that the Newtonian gravitational constantG changes with epoch. Towards the end of the last century Ernst Mach had given plausible arguments to link the property of inertia of matter to the large scale structure of the universe. Mach's principle also leads to cosmological models with a variable gravitational constant. Three cosmologies which predict a variableG are discussed in this paper both (...)
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  47. V. Hushwater (1998). A Path From the Quantization of the Action Variable to Quantum Mechanical Formalism. Foundations of Physics 28 (2):167-184.score: 18.0
    Starting from the quantization of the action variable as a basic principle, I show that this leads one to the probabilistic description of physical quantities as random variables, which satisfy the uncertainty relation. Using such variables I show that the ensemble-averaged action variable in the quantum domain can be presented as a contour integral of a “quantum momentum function,” pq(z), which is assumed to be analytic. The condition that all bound states pq(z) must yield the quantized values of (...)
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  48. Tudor Baetu (2012). Filling in the Mechanistic Details: Two-Variable Experiments as Tests for Constitutive Relevance. [REVIEW] European Journal for Philosophy of Science 2 (3):337-353.score: 18.0
    This paper provides an account of the experimental conditions required for establishing whether correlating or causally relevant factors are constitutive components of a mechanism connecting input (start) and output (finish) conditions. I argue that two-variable experiments, where both the initial conditions and a component postulated by the mechanism are simultaneously manipulated on an independent basis, are usually required in order to differentiate between correlating or causally relevant factors and constitutively relevant ones. Based on a typical research project molecular biology, (...)
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  49. Aleksandar Kellenberg (2010). The Antinomy of the Variable. Dialectica 64 (2):225-236.score: 18.0
    There is a solution to the antinomy of the variable that does not call for semantic relationism. I argue that if we carefully distinguish between variable types and variable tokens or occurrences, and if we take the number of variable types involved properly into account, then coordination among variable tokens or occurrences is reducible to an intrinsic semantic feature of those tokens or occurrences. The fact that two tokens or occurrences of the same variable (...)
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  50. Ron Amundson (1983). E. C. Tolman and the Intervening Variable: A Study in the Epistemological History of Psychology. Philosophy of Science 50 (2):268-282.score: 18.0
    E. C. Tolman's 'purposive behaviorism' is commonly interpreted as an attempt to operationalize a cognitivist theory of learning by the use of the 'Intervening Variable' (IV). Tolman would thus be a counterinstance to an otherwise reliable correlation of cognitivism with realism, and S-R behaviorism with operationalism. A study of Tolman's epistemological background, with a careful reading of his methodological writings, shows the common interpretation to be false. Tolman was a cognitivist and a realist. His 'IV' has been systematically misinterpreted (...)
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