In this article, I suggest that moksha (liberation or enlightenment) in Advaita Vedanta is best understood psychologically. A psychological understanding is not only consistent with the Advaita Vedanta articulated by Shankara and Gaudapada, but avoids what will be called the problem of jivan mukti. This article will consist of three main parts. First, I will briefly discuss the metaphysics and ontology of Advaita Vedanta. Next, I will present the problem of jivan mukti, and the Advaitin response to (...) the problem. The problem of jivan mukti will lead to the third portion of the article, which is a presentation of what moksha is. At no point in the article will I be arguing the truth of the Advaitin position. Instead, I will be meeting Advaita on its own terms in order to come to some understanding of moksha. (shrink)
Do you have to be one to know one? Madhvàcàrya, the founder of the thirteenth century school of Vedànta, answered this question with a resounding 'yes!' Madhvàcàrya's insistence that one must be a Màdhva to study Màdhva Vedànta led him to employ various strategies to exclude outsiders and unauthorized readers from accessing the root texts of his tradition and from obtaining oral commentary from living virtuosos. Deepak Sarma explores the degree to which outsiders can understand and interpret the doctrine (...) of the Màdhva school of Vedànta. The school is based on insider epistemology which is so restrictive that few can learn its intricate doctrines. This book reveals the complexity of studying traditions based on insider epistemologies and encourages its audience to ponder both the value and the hazards of granting any outsider the authority and opportunity to derive important insights into a tradition as an insider. The first analysis of the Màdhva tradition, this work contributes to the ongoing controversies regarding epistemic authority and voice in religious studies. (shrink)
Introduction: Experiential deconstructive inquiry -- Foundational philosophies and spiritual methods -- Non-duality in Advaita Vedanta and Zen Buddhism -- Ontological differences and non-duality -- Meditative inquiry, questioning, and dialoguing as a means to spiritual insight -- The undoing or deconstruction of dualistic conceptions -- Advaita Vedanta : philosophical foundations and deconstructive strategies -- Sources of the tradition -- Upaniads that art thou (Tat Tvam Asi) -- Gauapda (c.7th century) : no bondage, no liberation -- Aakara (c.7th-8th century) : (...) there is no apprehender different from this apprehension to apprehend it -- Modern and contemporary masters -- Ramana Maharshi (1879-1950) : who am I? -- H.W.L Poonja (1910-1997) : you have to do nothing to be who you are! -- Gangaji (b. 1942) : you are that! -- Advaita Vedanta summary : nothing ever happens -- Zen Buddhism : philosophical foundations and deconstructive strategies -- Sources of the tradition -- The Lakvatra Sutra and the Vajracchedik Prajñpramit Sutra all things ... are not independent of each other and not two -- Ngrjuna (c.113-213) : Sasra is Nirva -- Eihei Dgen (1200-1253) : if I am already enlightened, why must I practice -- Contemporary masters -- Ekai Korematsu (b. 1948) : return to the spine -- Hgen Yamahata (b. 1935) : why not now -- Zen Buddhism summary : neither being nor non-being is to be taken hold of -- Deconstructive techniques and dynamics of experiential undoing -- Deconstructive techniques common to both traditions -- The teacher-student dynamic -- Key deconstructive techniques -- Unfindability analysis -- Bringing everything back to the here and now -- Paradoxical problems -- Negation -- Dynamics of experiential undoing -- Non-dual experiential space -- Experiential mapping : practitioners in the space -- Experiential undoing in Advaita Vedanta -- Experiential undoing in Zen Buddhism -- Conclusion: Deconstruction of reified awareness. (shrink)
pt. 1. Five schools: Samkara's Kevalādvaitāda. Rāmānuja's Visiṣtādvaitavāda. Nimbārka's Svābhāvika-Dvaitādvaitavāda. Madhva's Dvaita-vāda. Vallabha's Śuddhādvaita-vāda.--pt. 2. Further reflections on the five schools of the Vedanta.--pt. 3. Five remaining schools, together with the unique school of Swami Vivekananda.
The aim of this dissertation is to present a systematic exposition of renunciation (Samnyasa) as a philosophico-religious category within Indian tradition with special reference to Advaita Vedanta of Samkaracarya.
Machine generated contents note: PREFACE -- SCHEME OF TRANSLITERATION -- ABBREVIATIONS -- CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION 1-13 -- 1. Sarvajfiatmamuni, His Date, Life and Works1 -- 2. Scope And Utility of the Present Study 10 -- References11 -- CHAPTER II: ANUBANDHAS 14-24 -- Adhikarin or Competent person 14 -- Prayojanaor Necessity19 -- Necessity of Brahmavicdra20 -- References 22 -- CHAPTER III : THE CONCEPT OF BRAHMAN 25-52 -- 1. Significance of the Upanisads in Brahman25 -- 2. The Nature of Brahman27 -- (...) (1) Svarupalaksana of Brahman28 -- (2) Tatasthalaksana of Brahman35 -- 3. The Problem of Saguna Brahman and37 -- Nirguna Brahman -- 4. The Problem of Pramana about Brahman40 -- 5. References47 -- CHAPTER IV: THE CONCEPT OF AJNANA 53-82 -- 1. The Nature of Ajfinna53 -- 2. Pramana for the Existence of Ajnana56 -- 3. Two Powers of Avidyd57 -- 4. The Object and Locus of Ajhana58 -- (i) The object of Ajhana58 -- (ii) The Locus of Ajhna59 -- 5. Avidya--One or Many64 -- 6. Difference between Maya and Avidya66 -- 7. Cessation of Nescience69 -- 8. References75 -- CHAPTER V: THE CONCEPT OF ADHYASA 83-101 -- 1. The Nature of Adhyasa84 -- 2. Cause of Adhyasa89 -- 3. The Problem of the Material and the Locus -- of Dream 94 -- 4. The Problem of Adhara and Adhisthana96 -- 5, References98 -- CHAPTER VI : THE CONCEPT OF THE JiVA 102-138 -- 1. The Real Nature of the Jiva102 -- 2. The Empirical Jva 102 -- 3. Three States of the Empirical Jva106 -- 4. The Theories of Avaccheda, Pratibimba and108 -- Abhasa Regarding the Nature of the Jiva. -- 5. Number of the Jva114 -- (a) Eka-Sariraika-jiva-vada114 -- (b) Aneka-sariraikajiva-vada 115 -- 6. The Relation between the Jiva and Brahman 122 -- 7. Meaning of Tattvamasi-Akhcandartha 123 -- 8. References 131 -- CHAPTER VII: THE CONCEPT OF THE WORLD 139-165 -- 1. The Cause of the World139 -- 2. Parindmavada and Vivartavada 146 -- 3. Falsity of the World 151 -- 4. Refutation of Vynanavada 155 -- 5. Drstisrstivada and Srstidrstivada 157 -- 6. The Cessation of the World 159 -- 7. References 161 -- CHAPTER VIII: THE PATH TO LIBERATION 166-194 -- 1. Means of Liberation 166 -- 2. Internal and External Means of Liberation170 -- 3. The Final Means of Brahma-Realisation172 -- 4. Problem of Injunction in Sravana 174 -- 5. JThna as the only Means of Liberation 180 -- 6. The place of obligatory and Non-obligatory183 -- Rites in the Path of Liberation -- 7. Refutation ofjfnana-Karma-Samuccaya-vada 187 -- 8. References 189 -- CHAPTER IX: LIBERATION 195-212 -- 1. Nature of Liberation195 -- 2. Jivanmukti and Videhamukti 201 -- (i) Jlvanmukti 201 -- (ii) Videhamukti 206 -- 3. References 210 -- CONCLUSION 213 -- BIBLIOGRAPHY 219 -- INDEX 227. (shrink)