Search results for 'Ventral Stream' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  15
    Albert Postma, Rob van der Lubbe & Sander Zuidhoek (2001). The Ventral Stream Offers More Affordance and the Dorsal Stream More Memory Than Believed. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (1):115-116.
    Opposed to Norman's proposal, processing of affordance is likely to occur not solely in the dorsal stream but also in the ventral stream. Moreover, the dorsal stream might do more than just serve an important role in motor actions. It supports egocentric location coding as well. As such, it would possess a form of representational memory, contrary to Norman's proposal.
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  2.  19
    Digby Elliott, Luc Tremblay & Timothy N. Welsh (2001). A Fast Ventral Stream or Early Dorsal-Ventral Interactions? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (1):105-105.
    Several lines of evidence indicate that rapid target-aiming movements, involving both the eyes and hand, can be biased by the visual context in which the movements are performed. Some of these contextual influences carry-over from trial to trial. This research indicates that dissociation between the dorsal and ventral systems based on speed, conscious awareness, and frame of reference is far from clear.
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  3.  4
    Britt Anderson & David L. Sheinberg (2010). Neurophysiology of Temporal Orienting in Ventral Visual Stream. In Anna C. Nobre & Jennifer T. Coull (eds.), Attention and Time. OUP Oxford 407.
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  4. Y. Rossetti (2010). Why Does the Perception-Action Functional Dichotomy Not Match the Ventral-Dorsal Streams in Anatomical Segregation: Optic Ataxia and the Function of the Dorsal Stream. In Nivedita Gangopadhyay, Michael Madary & Finn Spicer (eds.), Perception, Action, and Consciousness: Sensorimotor Dynamics and Two Visual Systems. OUP Oxford
     
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  5. Berit Brogaard (2011). Conscious Vision for Action Versus Unconscious Vision for Action? Cognitive Science 35 (6):1076-1104.
    David Milner and Melvyn Goodale’s dissociation hypothesis is commonly taken to state that there are two functionally specialized cortical streams of visual processing originating in striate (V1) cortex: a dorsal, action-related “unconscious” stream and a ventral, perception-related “conscious” stream. As Milner and Goodale acknowledge, findings from blindsight studies suggest a more sophisticated picture that replaces the distinction between unconscious vision for action and conscious vision for perception with a tripartite division between unconscious vision for action, conscious vision (...)
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  6. Berit Brogaard (2011). Are There Unconscious Perceptual Processes? Consciousness and Cognition 20 (2):449-63.
    Blindsight and vision for action seem to be exemplars of unconscious visual processes. However, researchers have recently argued that blindsight is not really a kind of uncon- scious vision but is rather severely degraded conscious vision. Morten Overgaard and col- leagues have recently developed new methods for measuring the visibility of visual stimuli. Studies using these methods show that reported clarity of visual stimuli correlates with accuracy in both normal individuals and blindsight patients. Vision for action has also come under (...)
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  7. Robert Briscoe & John Schwenkler (2015). Conscious Vision in Action. Cognitive Science 39 (7):1435-1467.
    It is natural to assume that the fine-grained and highly accurate spatial information present in visual experience is often used to guide our bodily actions. Yet this assumption has been challenged by proponents of the Two Visual Systems Hypothesis , according to which visuomotor programming is the responsibility of a “zombie” processing stream whose sources of bottom-up spatial information are entirely non-conscious . In many formulations of TVSH, the role of conscious vision in action is limited to “recognizing objects, (...)
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  8. Robert Briscoe (2009). Egocentric Spatial Representation in Action and Perception. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 79 (2):423-460.
    Neuropsychological findings used to motivate the "two visual systems" hypothesis have been taken to endanger a pair of widely accepted claims about spatial representation in conscious visual experience. The first is the claim that visual experience represents 3-D space around the perceiver using an egocentric frame of reference. The second is the claim that there is a constitutive link between the spatial contents of visual experience and the perceiver's bodily actions. In this paper, I review and assess three main sources (...)
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  9.  61
    Michael Madary (2011). The Dorsal Stream and the Visual Horizon. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 10 (4):423-438.
    Today many philosophers of mind accept that the two cortical streams of visual processing in humans can be distinguished in terms of conscious experience. The ventral stream is thought to produce representations that may become conscious, and the dorsal stream is thought to handle unconscious vision for action. Despite a vast literature on the topic of the two streams, there is currently no account of the way in which the relevant empirical evidence could fit with basic Husserlian (...)
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  10.  26
    George J. Andersen (2001). Are the Dorsal/Ventral Pathways Sufficiently Distinct to Resolve Perceptual Theory? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (1):96-97.
    The author argues that the theory of a dorsal/ventral stream for visual processing can be used to reconcile the constructivist and direct perception theories. My commentary discusses neurophysiological and psychophysical studies that run counter to the view. In addition, the central issue of debate between the constructionist and direct perception approaches regarding what is visual information is discussed.
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  11.  3
    Gabriele Ferretti (forthcoming). Pictures, Action Properties and Motor Related Effects. Synthese:1-31.
    The most important question concerning picture perception is: what perceptual state are we in when we see an object in a picture? In order to answer this question, philosophers have used the results of the two visual systems model, according to which our visual system can be divided into two streams, a ventral stream for object recognition, allowing one to perceive from an allocentric frame of reference, and a dorsal stream for visually guided motor interaction, thus allowing (...)
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  12.  7
    Gordon Binsted & Les G. Carlton (2001). When is Movement Controlled by the Dorsal Stream? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (1):97-98.
    Our commentary focuses on the functional link between the ventral and dorsal systems implied by Norman, as they relate to overt movement. While issues relating to space perception and size constancy are the primary justification for this dual-process theory, the philosophical extensions of this approach are less consistent with examination of motor control and, in particular, motor learning.
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  13. Wayne Wu (2014). Against Division: Consciousness, Information and the Visual Streams. Mind and Language 29 (4):383-406.
    Milner and Goodale's influential account of the primate cortical visual streams involves a division of consciousness between them, for it is the ventral stream that has the responsibility for visual consciousness. Hence, the dorsal visual stream is a ‘zombie’ stream. In this article, I argue that certain information carried by the dorsal stream likely plays a central role in the egocentric spatial content of experience, especially the experience of visual spatial constancy. Thus, the dorsal (...) contributes to a pervasive feature of consciousness. (shrink)
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  14.  25
    M. Husain & P. Nachev (2007). Space and the Parietal Cortex. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 11 (1):30-36.
    Current views of the parietal cortex have difficulty accommodating the human inferior parietal lobe (IPL) within a simple dorsal versus ventral stream dichotomy. In humans, lesions of the right IPL often lead to syndromes such as hemispatial neglect that are seemingly in accord with the proposal that this region has a crucial role in spatial processing. However, recent imaging and lesion studies have revealed that inferior parietal regions have non-spatial functions, such as in sustaining attention, detecting salient events (...)
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  15.  50
    Henry Railo, Mika Koivisto & Antti Revonsuo (2011). Tracking the Processes Behind Conscious Perception: A Review of Event-Related Potential Correlates of Visual Consciousness. [REVIEW] Consciousness and Cognition 20 (3):972-983.
    Event-related potential studies have attempted to discover the processes that underlie conscious visual perception by contrasting ERPs produced by stimuli that are consciously perceived with those that are not. Variability of the proposed ERP correlates of consciousness is considerable: the earliest proposed ERP correlate of consciousness coincides with sensory processes and the last one marks postperceptual processes. A negative difference wave called visual awareness negativity , typically observed around 200 ms after stimulus onset in occipitotemporal sites, gains strong support for (...)
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  16.  15
    H. Chris Dijkerman, A. David Milner & D. P. Carey (1998). Grasping Spatial Relationships: Failure to Demonstrate Allocentric Visual Coding in a Patient with Visual Form Agnosia. Consciousness and Cognition 7 (3):424-437.
    The cortical visual mechanisms involved in processing spatial relationships remain subject to debate. According to one current view, the ''dorsal stream'' of visual areas, emanating from primary visual cortex and culminating in the posterior parietal cortex, mediates this aspect of visual processing. More recently, others have argued that while the dorsal stream provides egocentric coding of visual location for motor control, the separate ''ventral'' stream is needed for allocentric spatial coding. We have assessed the visual form (...)
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  17.  17
    Melvyn A. Goodale & A. David Milner (2004). Plans for Action. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (1):37-40.
    It is our contention that the concept of planning in Glover's model is too broadly defined, encompassing both action/goal selection and the programming of the constituent movements required to acquire the goal. We argue that this monolithic view of planning is untenable on neuropsychological, neurophysiological, and behavioural grounds. The evidence demands instead that a distinction be made between action planning and the specification of the initial kinematic parameters, with the former depending on processing in the ventral stream and (...)
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  18. Vittorio Gallese, Laila Craighero, Luciano Fadiga & Leonardo Fogassi (1999). Perception Through Action. Psyche 5.
    The Visual Brain in Action by Milner and Goodale provides a new conceptual account of how the brain processes visual information. Milner and Goodale make two major points: The dorsal stream processes visual information for motor purposes; Action and perception are two completely separate domains, the latter being an exclusive property of the ventral stream. In the first part of this review we will summarize some recent neurophysiological data shedding new light on the "pragmatic" role of the (...)
     
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  19.  11
    Duje Tadin, Peiyan Wong, Michael W. Mebane, Michael J. Berkowitz, Hollister Trott & Sohee Park (2005). Believing is Seeing in Schizophrenia: The Role of Top-Down Processing. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (6):775-775.
    The etiology of visual hallucinations is largely undetermined in schizophrenia. Collerton et al.'s PAD model partly concurs with what we know about neurocognition in schizophrenia, but we need to specify the types of perceptual and attentional abnormalities that are implicated in recurrent complex visual hallucinations (RCVH). Available data suggest that abnormal attentional control and top-down processing play a larger role than the ventral stream deficits.
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  20.  15
    Melvyn A. Goodale (2001). Real Action in a Virtual World. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (5):984-985.
    O'Regan & Noë run into some difficulty in trying to reconcile their “seeing as acting” proposal with the perception and action account of the functions of the two streams of visual projections in the primate cerebral cortex. I suggest that part of the problem is their reluctance to acknowledge that the mechanisms in the ventral stream may play a more critical role in visual awareness and qualia than mechanisms in the dorsal stream.
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  21.  20
    Mel Goodale (1997). Pointing the Way to a Unified Theory of Action and Perception. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20 (4):749-750.
    Deictic coding offers a useful model for understanding the interactions between the dorsal and ventral streams of visual processing in the cerebral cortex. By extending Ballard et al.'s ideas on teleassistance, I show how dedicated low-level visuomotor processes in the dorsal stream might be engaged for the services of high-level cognitive operations in the ventral stream.
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  22.  5
    Guy A. Orban (2013). Which Animal Model for Understanding Human Navigation in a Three-Dimensional World? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 36 (5):558-559.
    Single-cell studies of monkey posterior parietal cortex (PPC) have revealed the extensive neuronal representations of three-dimensional subject motion and three-dimensional layout of the environment. I propose that navigational planning integrates this PPC information, including gravity signals, with horizontal-plane based information provided by the hippocampal formation, modified in primates by expansion of the ventral stream.
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  23.  21
    Melvyn A. Goodale & Jonathan S. Cant (2007). Coming to Grips with Vision and Touch. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 30 (2):209-210.
    Dijkerman & de Haan (D&dH) propose a convincing model of somatosensory organization that is inspired by earlier perception-action models of the visual system. In this commentary, we suggest that the dorsal and ventral visual streams both contribute to the control of action, but in different ways. Using the example of grip and load force calibration, we show how the ventral stream can invoke stored information about the material properties of objects originally derived from the somatosensory system.
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  24.  15
    William M. Mace (2001). The Primacy of Ecological Realism. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (1):111-111.
    Whether or not the correspondence of dorsal stream functions to Gibsonian ecological psychology and the ventral stream functions to “constructivism” hold up, the overall goal of capturing a pragmatic realism should not be forgotten.
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  25.  8
    Jonathan Polimeni & Eric Schwartz (2002). Neural Representation of Sensory Data. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (2):207-208.
    In the target article Pylyshyn revives the spectre of the “little green man,” arguing for a largely symbolic representation of visual imagery. To clarify this problem, we provide precise definitions of the key term “picture,” present some examples of our definition, and outline an information-theoretic analysis suggesting that the problem of addressing data in the brain requires a partially analogue and partially symbolic solution. This is made concrete in the ventral stream of object recognition, from V1 to IT (...)
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  26. Guido Gainotti (2012). Brain Structures Playing a Crucial Role in the Representation of Tools in Humans and Non-Human Primates. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 35 (4):224-225.
    The cortical representation of concepts varies according to the information critical for their development. Living categories, being mainly based upon visual information, are bilaterally represented in the rostral parts of the ventral stream of visual processing; whereas tools, being mainly based upon action data, are unilaterally represented in a left-sided fronto-parietal network. The unilateral representation of tools results from involvement in actions of the right side of the body.
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  27. Barry F. Dainton (2000). Stream of Consciousness: Unity and Continuity in Conscious Experience. Routledge.
    Stream of Consciousness is about the phenomenology of conscious experience. Barry Dainton shows us that stream of consciousness is not a mosaic of discrete fragments of experience, but rather an interconnected flowing whole. Through a deep probing into the nature of awareness, introspection, phenomenal space and time consciousness, Dainton offers a truly original understanding of the nature of consciousness.
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  28. Bill Faw (2003). Pre-Frontal Executive Committee for Perception, Working Memory, Attention, Long-Term Memory, Motor Control, and Thinking: A Tutorial Review. Consciousness and Cognition 12 (1):83-139.
    As an explicit organizing metaphor, memory aid, and conceptual framework, the prefrontal cortex may be viewed as a five-member ‘Executive Committee,’ as the prefrontal-control extensions of five sub-and-posterior-cortical systems: the ‘Perceiver’ is the frontal extension of the ventral perceptual stream which represents the world and self in object coordinates; the ‘Verbalizer’ is the frontal extension of the language stream which represents the world and self in language coordinates; the ‘Motivator’ is the frontal cortical extension of a subcortical (...)
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  29. Athanasios Raftopoulos (2009). Reference, Perception, and Attention. Philosophical Studies 144 (3):339 - 360.
    I examine John Campbell’s claim that the determination of the reference of a perceptual demonstrative requires conscious visual object-based selective attention. I argue that although Campbell’s claim to the effect that, first, a complex binding parameter is needed to establish the referent of a perceptual demonstrative, and, second, that this referent is determined independently of, and before, the application of sortals is correct, this binding parameter does not require object-based attention for its construction. If object-based attention were indeed required then (...)
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  30.  64
    Daniel Collerton, Elaine Perry & Ian McKeith (2005). Why People See Things That Are Not There: A Novel Perception and Attention Deficit Model for Recurrent Complex Visual Hallucinations. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (6):737-757.
    As many as two million people in the United Kingdom repeatedly see people, animals, and objects that have no objective reality. Hallucinations on the border of sleep, dementing illnesses, delirium, eye disease, and schizophrenia account for 90% of these. The remainder have rarer disorders. We review existing models of recurrent complex visual hallucinations (RCVH) in the awake person, including cortical irritation, cortical hyperexcitability and cortical release, top-down activation, misperception, dream intrusion, and interactive models. We provide evidence that these can neither (...)
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  31.  67
    Nivedita Gangopadhyay, Michael Madary & Finn Spicer (eds.) (2010). Perception, Action, and Consciousness: Sensorimotor Dynamics and Two Visual Systems. Oxford University Press, Usa.
    Machine generated contents note: -- 1. Introduction -- Consciousness and Sensorimotor Dynamics: Methodological Issues -- 2. Computational consciousness, D. Ballard -- 3. Explaining what people say about sensory qualia, J. Kevin O'Regan -- 4. Perception, action, and experience: unraveling the golden braid, A. Clark -- The Two-Visual Systems Hypothesis -- 5. Cortical visual systems for perception and action, A.D. Milner and M.A. Goodale -- 6. Hermann Lotze's Theory of 'Local Sign': evidence from pointing responses in an illusory figure, (...)
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  32.  27
    Shimon Edelman, Unsupervised Learning of Visual Structure.
    To learn a visual code in an unsupervised manner, one may attempt to capture those features of the stimulus set that would contribute significantly to a statistically efficient representation. Paradoxically, all the candidate features in this approach need to be known before statistics over them can be computed. This paradox may be circumvented by confining the repertoire of candidate features to actual scene fragments, which resemble the “what+where” receptive fields found in the ventral visual stream in primates. We (...)
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  33. Thomas Natsoulas (2001). The Concrete State: The Basic Components of James's Stream of Consciousness. Journal of Mind and Behavior 22 (4):427-449.
    The basic components of James’s stream of consciousness are considered concretely and in a way that tends to be relatively neutral from a theoretical perspective. My ultimate goal is a general description of the states of consciousness, but I try here to be more “observational” than “theoretical” about them. Giving attention to James’s reports of his personal firsthand evidence, I proceed as though I were conversing with this most phenomenological and radically empirical of psychological authors. I disagree with James (...)
     
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  34.  19
    Kristjan Laasik (2014). Constitutive Strata and the Dorsal Stream. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 13 (3):419-435.
    In his paper, “The Dorsal Stream and the Visual Horizon,” Michael Madary argues that “dorsal stream processing plays a main role in the spatiotemporal limits of visual perception, in what Husserl identified as the visual horizon” (Madary 2011, p. 424). Madary regards himself as thereby providing a theoretical framework “sensitive to basic Husserlian phenomenology” (Madary 2011). In particular, Madary draws connections between perceptual anticipations and the experience of the indeterminate spatial margins, on the one hand, and the Husserlian (...)
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  35.  5
    D. Ben Shalom (2005). Autism and the Experience of a Perceptual Object. Consciousness and Cognition 14 (3):641-644.
    Sewards and Sewards argue that while computations necessary for object recognition occur throughout the ventral visual stream, object recognition awareness involves the anterior temporal lobe and the medial orbital prefrontal cortex. The present paper suggests, however, that the medial orbital prefrontal cortex has a unique contribution, namely that of producing a basic experience of a perceptual object. It is further argued that the mechanisms that produce this experience also result in making the object more important than its subparts (...)
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  36. David Bennett & Patrick Foo (2010). Mid-Range Action-Driving Visual Information. Psyche 16 (2):98-116.
    Milner and Goodale have advanced a justly influential theory of the structure of the human visual system. In broad outline, Milner and Goodale hold that the ventral neural pathway is associated with recognition and experiential awareness, and with a kind of indirect control of action. And they hold that, by contrast, the dorsal neural stream is associated with the non-conscious, direct control of visually informed action. Most of the relevant empirical research has focused on the visual control of (...)
     
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  37.  1
    Albert S. Bregman & Jeffrey Campbell (1971). Primary Auditory Stream Segregation and Perception of Order in Rapid Sequences of Tones. Journal of Experimental Psychology 89 (2):244.
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  38.  50
    Richard W. Taylor (1963). The Stream of Thoughts Versus Mental Acts. Philosophical Quarterly 13 (October):311-321.
  39. Sebastian Watzl (2011). Attention as Structuring of the Stream of Consciousness. In Christopher Mole, Declan Smithies & Wayne Wu (eds.), Attention: Philosophical and Psychological Essays. Oxford University Press 145.
    This paper defends and develops the structuring account of conscious attention: attention is the conscious mental process of structuring one’s stream of consciousness so that some parts of it are more central than others. In the first part of the paper, I motivate the structuring account. Drawing on a variety of resources I argue that the phenomenology of attention cannot be fully captured in terms of how the world appears to the subject, as well as against an atomistic conception (...)
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  40. Russell Epstein (2000). The Neural-Cognitive Basis of the Jamesian Stream of Thought. Consciousness and Cognition 9 (4):550-575.
    William James described the stream of thought as having two components: (1) a nucleus of highly conscious, often perceptual material; and (2) a fringe of dimly felt contextual information that controls the entry of information into the nucleus and guides the progression of internally directed thought. Here I examine the neural and cognitive correlates of this phenomenology. A survey of the cognitive neuroscience literature suggests that the nucleus corresponds to a dynamic global buffer formed by interactions between different regions (...)
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  41.  3
    Mikel Burley (2014). Karma and Rebirth in the Stream of Thought and Life. Philosophy East and West 64 (4):965-982.
    Only in the stream of thought and life do words have meaning. The belief in karma and rebirth, according to which actions performed in one lifetime bear fruit in a subsequent one, is widespread, some version of it being common among Hindu, Buddhist, Sikh, Jain, and some other religious traditions. Ethnographic studies sometimes provide examples of how this belief manifests in people’s lives. For instance, fieldwork carried out by Richard and Candy Shweder in the eastern Indian town of Bhubaneswar (...)
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  42. Vittorio Gallese (2007). The "Conscious" Dorsal Stream: Embodied Simulation and its Role in Space and Action Conscious Awareness. Psyche 13.
    The aim of the present article is three-fold. First, it aims to show that perception requires action. This is most evident for some types of visual percept . Second, it aims to show that the distinction of the cortical visual processing into two streams is insufficient and leads to possible misunderstandings on the true nature of perceptual processes. Third, it aims to show that the dorsal stream is not only responsible for the unconscious control of action, but also for (...)
     
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  43.  14
    Marta Jorba (2015). Thoughts, Processive Character and the Stream of Consciousness. International Journal of Philosophical Studies 23 (5):730-753.
    This paper explores the relation of thought and the stream of consciousness in the light of an ontological argument raised against cognitive phenomenology views. I argue that the ontological argument relies on a notion of ‘processive character’ that does not stand up to scrutiny and therefore it is insufficient for the argument to go through. I then analyse two more views on what ‘processive character’ means and argue that the process-part account best captures the intuition behind the argument. Following (...)
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  44.  45
    Markus Werning (2003). Ventral Versus Dorsal Pathway: The Source of the Semantic Object/Event and the Syntactic Noun/Verb Distinction? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (3):299-300.
    Experimental data suggest that the division between the visual ventral and dorsal pathways may indeed indicate that static and dynamical information is processed separately. Contrary to Hurford, it is suggested that the ventral pathway primarily generates representations of objects, whereas the dorsal pathway produces representations of events. The semantic object/event distinction may relate to the morpho-syntactic noun/verb distinction.
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  45.  9
    Gregory Hickok (forthcoming). Rhythms of the Brain – It's Not a ʻStream of Consciousnessʼ. Rhuthmos.
    A version of this op-ed appeared in print on May 10, 2015, on page SR9 of the New York edition of The New York Times with the headline : “Rhythms of the Brain”. It is also online here. IN 1890, the American psychologist William James famously likened our conscious experience to the flow of a stream. “A ‘river' or a ‘stream' are the metaphors by which it is most naturally described,” he wrote. “In talking of it hereafter, let's (...)
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  46.  45
    Theodore R. Schatzki (1993). Wittgenstein + Heidegger on the Stream of Life. Inquiry 36 (3):307 – 328.
    This paper combines views of Wittgenstein and Heidegger into an account of mind/ action. It does this by suggesting that these two philosophers be viewed in part as descendants of Life?philosophy (Lebensphilosophie). Part I describes the conception of life that informs and emerges from these thinkers. Parts Two and Three detail particular aspects of this conception: Wittgenstein on the constitution of states of life and Heidegger on the flow?structure of the stream of life. The Conclusion offers reasons for believing (...)
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  47.  5
    David Wiggins (1976). Locke, Butler and the Stream of Consciousness: And Men as a Natural Kind: David Wiggins. Philosophy 51 (196):131-158.
    Locke defined a person as ‘a thinking intelligent being, that has reason and reflection, and can consider itself as itself, the same thinking thing, in different times and places” . To many who have been excited by the same thought as Locke, continuity of consciousness has seemed to be an integral part of what we mean by a person. The intuitive appeal of the idea that to secure the continuing identity of a person one experience must flow into the next (...)
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  48.  14
    Mary Griffin, Jeffery Sobal & Thomas A. Lyson (2009). An Analysis of a Community Food Waste Stream. Agriculture and Human Values 26 (1-2):67-81.
    Food waste comprises a significant portion of the waste stream in industrialized countries, contributing to ecological damages and nutritional losses. Guided by a systems approach, this study quantified food waste in one U.S. County in 1998–1999. Publications and personal interviews were used to quantify waste from food production, processing, distribution, and consumption. Approximately 10,205 tons of food waste was generated annually in this community food system. Of all food waste, production waste comprised 20%, processing 1%, distribution 19%, and 60% (...)
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  49. Vinod Goel & Oshin Vartanian (2005). Dissociating the Roles of Right Ventral Lateral and Dorsal Lateral Prefrontal Cortex in Generation and Maintenance of Hypotheses in Set-Shift Problems. Cerebral Cortex 15 (8):1170-1177.
    Although patient data have traditionally implicated the left prefrontal cortex in hypothesis generation, recent lesion data implicate right PFC in hypothesis generation tasks that involve set shifts. To test the involvement of the right prefrontal cortex in a hypothesis generation task involving set shifts, we scanned 13 normal subjects with fMRI as they completed Match Problems and a baseline task. In Match Problems subjects determined the number of possible solutions for each trial. Successful solutions are indicative of set shifts. In (...)
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  50. Jerome L. Singer (1978). Experimental Studies of Daydreaming and the Stream of Thought. In K. S. Pope & Jerome L. Singer (eds.), The Stream of Consciousness: Scientific Investigation Into the Flow of Experience. Plenum
     
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