Which form of explanation is adequate for the humans sciences? Mahajan argues that social reality can be perceived in different ways--hermeneutic understanding, narrative, reason action and causal explanation--and each alters our perception of reality. A new chapter on poststructuralist and postmodern theories brings this important book up-to-date with current thinking.
Despite growing evidence of the benefits to a firm of improving corporate social performance (CSP), many firms vary significantly in terms of their CSP activities. This research investigates how the characteristics of the stakeholder landscape influence a firm’s CSP breadth. Using stakeholder theory, we specifically propose that several factors increase the salience and impact of stakeholders’ demands on the firm and that, in response to these factors, a firm’s CSP will have greater breadth. A firm’s CSP breadth is operationalized as (...) the number of different sub-domains of CSR for which a firm has taken positive actions and is captured using a unique dataset from Kinder, Lydenburg, and Domini (KLD). This data set includes positive and negative firm actions across more than 35 different dimensions of socially responsible behavior. Findings based on a longitudinal, multi-industry sample of 447 US firms during the period from 2000 to 2007 demonstrate that firms which: (1) have greater sensitivity to stakeholder needs as a result of the firm’s strategic emphasis on marketing and/or value creation, (2) face greater diversity of stakeholder demands, and (3) encounter a greater degree of scrutiny or risk from stakeholder action have a greater breadth of CSP in response to the stakeholder landscape that they face. (shrink)
The Advaita Vedānta notion of ātman/Brahman presents a serious philosophical challenge to this school-namely, it demands that they explain how all (reality) can be undivided, unchanging, and pure consciousness, yet appear to be everything but nondual, unchanging, and pure consciousness. The Advaita answer is avidyā, ajāna (ignorance). This answer tells us that Brahman does not really change; it is only ignorance that makes it appear to change. This answer has engendered as many questions as it has resolved, and it is (...) possible that they can be boiled down to the following: how can vidyā and avidyā be simultaneous and coterminous? After reviewing the Advaita responses to the debates regarding avidyā, which arose within Advaita and between Advaitins and their opponents, a traditional Advaita path will be followed by offering an analogy to illuminate this quandary. The strength of this contemporary analogy, based on holography, lies in its ability to illuminate the nature of Brahman as being without parts, without duality, without change; yet holography presents us with images that appear to change and be with parts. (shrink)
Comparing the three-form reasoning of new Hetu-vidya with Western logic, scholars have put forward four perspectives. Combining their strengths and shortcomings, and the examples of Hetu-vidya reasoning, we can conclude that the three-form reasoning should have four forms: (1) the affirmative expression of formal implication; (2) the modus ponens of hypothetical reasoning concerning sufficient conditions after universal instantiation; (3) the negative expression of a formal implication; and (4) the modus tollens of hypothetical reasoning concerning sufficient conditions after universal (...) instantiation. (shrink)
This study uses judgment and decision-making (JDM) perspective with the help of framing and schema literature from cognitive psychology to evaluate how managers behave when problems with unethical overtones are presented to them in a managerial frame rather than an ethical frame. In the proposed managerial model, moral judgment of the situation is one of the inputs to managerial judgment, among several other inputs regarding costs and benefits of various alternatives. Managerial judgment results in managerial intent leading to managerial action. (...) The model and the effects of taking an ethics course on ethical and managerial judgment and managerial intent were then indirectly tested in this study, wherein subjects judged the ethical wrongness, managerial badness, and the managerial intent regarding decisions made in a case. Forty-nine MBA students analyzed a case involving budget-based bonuses and production, in which the ethical issue evolved over three stages. It appears from the Path-analysis results that managerial judgment mediated between moral judgment and the judgment of managerial intent as suggested by the proposed model, and that taking an ethics course directly affected managerial judgment but did not affect the moral judgment. Additionally, in the first stage of decision-making (early stage of a developing “ethical slippery slope”), moral judgment did not significantly influence managerial judgment. However, students with ethics course still were more inclined to judge the decision as managerially bad as compared to others, indicating that they were more aware or sensitive to the moral issues involved. (shrink)
Although seldom mentioned in the secondary literature on Vaiśeṣika, the cognitive category of ārṣajñāna (ṛṣi cognition) is accepted as a distinct category of vidyā (knowledge) within both early and later Vaiśeṣika texts. This article deals with how ārṣajñāna is conceptualized in Praśastapādabhāṣya (PBh), Śrīdhara’s Nyāyakandalī (NK), and Vyomaśiva’s Vyomavatī (Vy). The main focus lies on how ṛṣi cognition is treated in these texts and what terms are used in the process. I aim to clarify the analysis of ṛṣi cognition apparent (...) in the above sources and outline the implications this might have for the somewhat grander objective of a mapping of the semantic landscape of cognition and knowledge in Vaiśeṣika texts. The categories of yogic perception (yogipratyakṣa) and siddhic vision (siddhadarśana) are also treated since they are included within a shared discourse. (shrink)
Vijay is a forty-eight-year-old man with profound mental retardation and cerebral palsy. He uses a wheelchair, cannot speak or eat by mouth, and requires constant care. He lived in a group home for twenty-eight years. During the last year, Vijay has required two visits to the emergency room on average per month and has been hospitalized for two hundred days in total. These hospitalizations are the result of a number of painful and dangerous complications related to the gastrostomy tube that (...) provides his nutrition. The last time he was in the hospital, doctors had to give him a peripherally inserted central catheter, or PICC line, to provide nutrition because the gastrostomy tube was no longer effective .. (shrink)
1 The notion of specicity has played a signicant role in linguistic theory both in the elds of semantics and, increasingly, in work on syntax/semantics interface. (For work in the semantics/philosophy of language realm, see, Fodor (1970), Abbott (1976), Kripke (1977), Fodor and Sag (1982), Higginbotham (1988) and Enc (1991) among many others; see also Pesetsky (1987), Szabolcsi and Zwarts (1991), Diesing (1992), Dobrovie- Sorin (1993), E. Kiss (1993), Mahajan (1992), and Chung (1994) for work where specicity is (...) discussed in connection with syntactic matters.) Specicity is interesting for the student of semantics because it is crucially relevant to establishing varieties of reference (and referents). For the syntactician, the notion of specicity comes up when attempting to account for the use of various case markers on DOs in languages as diverse as Romanian, Turkish, and Hindi, or when attempting to account for the full spectrum of judgments concerning weak island violations and the interpretation of multiple wh-questions. The rst point I will argue for is that there are several distinct (though possibly related) notions of specicity that should be kept apart. More specically, I will argue that there are at least three. The discussion inevitably leads to Fodor and Sag's ambiguity claim, which in turn leads to the issue of the possible scopes of indenite (weak) noun phrases versus the possible scope of quanticational (strong) noun phrases. Section 3 will establish the relevant empirical generalizations concerning simple indenites and distributives, and Section 4 captures them within a non-congurational theory of scope proposed in Farkas (1993) and Farkas (1994a). (shrink)
Machine generated contents note: 1. Professor Chattopadhyaya As I Know Him -- Kireet Joshi -- 2. On DP. Chattopadhyaya's Picture of Interdisciplinary -- Rajendra Prasad -- 3. The Humanization of Transcendental Philosophy: Notes -- Towards an Understanding of DP. Chattopadhyaya -- R Sundara Rajan -- 4. Freedom-East and West: A Tribute to -- DP. Chattopadhyaya -- Fred Dallmayr -- 5. Traditional Culture and Secularism -- R Balasubramanian -- 6. Induction and Doubt -- PK Sen -- 7. The Culture of Science (...) -- Jayant V. Narlikar -- 8. An Essay on DP. Chattopadhyaya's Challenge to -- Classical Rationalism -- Ramakant Sinari -- 9. Laws, Theory and Metaphors -- AV. Afonso -- 10. Scepticism, Relativism and Absolutism -- Sibajiban Bhattacharyya -- 11. Reunderstanding Human Rights -- Ioanna Kucuradi & Bhagat:Oinam -- 12. On Relations between Science, Technology, -- Philosophy and Culture -- Evandro Agazzi -- 13. Mathematics and Culture: -- CK Raju -- 14. "Dialectical Dynamism" of DP. Chattopadhyaya -- Marietta Stepaniants -- 15. Social Processes and Creativity: Indian Context -- A. Rahman -- 16. A Constructive Critique of RG. Collingwood -- JS. Grewal -- 17. Narration and Indian Perspective -- Vidya Niwas Misra -- 18. Rethinking the Discourse of History -- Ravinder Kumar -- 19. Some Salient Features in DP. Chattopadhyaya's -- Reflections; on Aesthetics -- Kalyan Bagchi -- 20. The Past Beckons -- B. V. Subbarayappa -- 21. The Critique of Historicism -- JN. Mohanty -- 22. Sri Aurobindo's Philosophy on Culture -- GC. Pande -- 23. The Subjective and the Objective in History: -- Chattopadhyaya's Interpretation Revisited -- Bhuvan Chandel -- 24. Towards Realizing the Right to Development: -- The Elements of a Programme -- Arjun Sengupta -- 25. Time, Truth and Transcendence -- Daya Krishna -- A Short IntelllectualAutobiography ofDP. Chattopadhyaya -- Publications of DP. Chattopadhyaya -- Contributors. (shrink)
Gandhi, M. K. [Answers to three questions]--Tagore, R. The religion of an artist.--Abhedānanda, Swāmi. Hindu philosophy in India.--Bhattacharyya, H. The principle of activism.--Bhattacharyya, K. C. The concept of philosophy.--Chatterji, G. C. Common-sense empiricism.--Coomaraswamy, A. K. On the pertinence of philosophy.--Damle, N. G. The faith of an idealist.--Das, B. Ătma-vidyā, or The science of self.--Das, R. Pursuit of truth through doubt and belief.--Dasgupta, S. Philosophy of dependent emergence.--Datta, D. M. Knowledge, reality and the unknown.--Haldar, H. Realistic idealism.--.