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  1. Vilayanur S. Ramachandran, The Simulating Social Mind: The Role of the Mirror Neuron System and Simulation in the Social and Communicative Deficits of Autism Spectrum Disorders.
    The mechanism by which humans perceive others differs greatly from how humans perceive inanimate objects. Unlike inanimate objects, humans have the distinct property of being “like me” in the eyes of the observer. This allows us to use the same systems that process knowledge about self-performed actions, self-conceived thoughts, and self-experienced emotions to understand actions, thoughts, and emotions in others. The authors propose that internal simulation mechanisms, such as the mirror neuron system, are necessary for normal development of recognition, imitation, (...)
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  2. Vilayanur S. Ramachandran, Apotemnophilia: A Neurological Disorder.
    Apotemnophilia, a disorder that blurs the distinction between neurology and psychiatry, is characterized by the intense and longstanding desire for amputation of a speci¢c limb. Here we present evidence from two individuals suggestive that this condition, long thought to be entirely psychological in origin, actually has a neurological basis. We found heightened skin conductance response..
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  3. Lindsay M. Oberman & Vilayanur S. Ramachandran (2008). How Do Shared Circuits Develop? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 31 (1):34-35.
    The target article discusses a model of how brain circuits mediate social behaviors such as imitation and mindreading. Hurley suggests potential mechanisms for development of shared circuits. We propose that empirical studies can be designed to differentiate the influence of genetic and learning-based factors on the development of shared circuits. We use the mirror neuron system as a model system.
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  4. Edward M. Hubbard, Sanjay Manohar & Vilayanur S. Ramachandran (2006). Contrast Affects the Strength of Synesthetic Colors. Cortex (Special Issue on Synesthesia) 42 (2):184-194.
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  5. Edward M. Hubbard, A. Cyrus Arman, Vilayanur S. Ramachandran & Geoffrey M. Boynton (2005). Individual Differences Among Grapheme-Color Synesthetes: Brain-Behavior Correlations. Neuron 5 (6):975-985.
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  6. Edward M. Hubbard & Vilayanur S. Ramachandran (2005). Neurocognitive Mechanisms of Synesthesia. Neuron 48 (3):509-520.
  7. Edward M. Hubbard & Vilayanur S. Ramachandran (2004). The Size-Weight Illusion, Emulation, and the Cerebellum. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (3):407-408.
    In this commentary we discuss a predictive sensorimotor illusion, the size-weight illusion, in which the smaller of two objects of equal weight is perceived as heavier. We suggest that Grush's emulation theory can explain this illusion as a mismatch between predicted and actual sensorimotor feedback, and present preliminary data suggesting that the cerebellum may be critical for implementing the emulator.
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  8. Vilayanur S. Ramachandran (2004). A Brief Tour of Human Consciousness: From Impostor Poodles to Purple Numbers. Pearson Professional.
  9. Vilayanur S. Ramachandran & Edward M. Hubbard (2003). Hearing Colors, Tasting Shapes. Scientific American (May):52-59.
    Jones and Coleman are among a handful of otherwise normal as a child and the number 5 was red and 6 was green. This the- people who have synesthesia. They experience the ordinary ory does not answer why only some people retain such vivid world in extraordinary ways and seem to inhabit a mysterious sensory memories, however. You might _think _of cold when you no-man’s-land between fantasy and reality. For them the sens- look at a picture of an ice cube, (...)
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  10. Vilayanur S. Ramachandran & Edward M. Hubbard (2003). The Phenomenology of Synaesthesia. Journal of Consciousness Studies 10 (8):49-57.
    This article supplements our earlier paper on synaesthesia published in JCS (Ramachandran & Hubbard, 2001a). We discuss the phenomenology of synaesthesia in greater detail, raise several new questions that have emerged from recent studies, and suggest some tentative answers to these questions.
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  11. Vilayanur S. Ramachandran & Edward M. Hubbard (2001). Psychophysical Investigations Into the Neural Basis of Synaesthesia. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, B 268:979-983.
    We studied two otherwise normal, synaesthetic subjects who `saw' a speci¢c colour every time they saw a speci¢c number or letter. We conducted four experiments in order to show that this was a genuine perceptual experience rather than merely a memory association. (i)The synaesthetically induced colours could lead to perceptual grouping, even though the inducing numerals or letters did not. (ii)Synaesthetically induced colours were not experienced if the graphemes were presented peripherally. (iii)Roman numerals were ine¡ective: the actual number grapheme was (...)
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  12. Vilayanur S. Ramachandran & Edward M. Hubbard (2001). Synaesthesia: A Window Into Perception, Thought and Language. Journal of Consciousness Studies 8 (12):3-34.
    (1) The induced colours led to perceptual grouping and pop-out, (2) a grapheme rendered invisible through ‘crowding’ or lateral masking induced synaesthetic colours — a form of blindsight — and (3) peripherally presented graphemes did not induce colours even when they were clearly visible. Taken collectively, these and other experiments prove conclusively that synaesthesia is a genuine percep- tual phenomenon, not an effect based on memory associations from childhood or on vague metaphorical speech. We identify different subtypes of number–colour synaesthesia (...)
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  13. Vilayanur S. Ramachandran & William Hirstein (1999). The Science of Art: A Neurological Theory of Aesthetic Experience. Journal of Consciousness Studies 6 (6-7):6-7.
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  14. Vilayanur S. Ramachandran & William Hirstein (1998). Three Laws of Qualia: What Neurology Tells Us About the Biological Functions of Consciousness. Journal of Consciousness Studies 4 (4-5):429-57.
  15. Vilayanur S. Ramachandran & William Hirstein (1998). The Perception of Phantom Limbs: The D. O. Hebb Lecture. Brain 121:1603-1630.
  16. J. R. Smythies & Vilayanur S. Ramachandran (1997). An Empirical Refutation of the Direct Realist Theory of Perception. Inquiry 40 (4):437-438.
    There are currently two main philosophical theories of perception - Direct Realism and the Representative Theory. The former is supported by most contemporary philosophers, whereas the latter forms the groundwork for most scientific theories in this area. The paper describes a recent experiment involving retinal and cortical rivalry that provides strong empirical evidence that the Direct Realist theory is incorrect. There are of course a large number of related experiments on visual perception that would tend to lead us to the (...)
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  17. Vilayanur S. Ramachandran & Diane Rogers-Ramachandran (1996). Synaesthesia in Phantom Limbs Induced with Mirrors. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London 263:377-386.
  18. Vilayanur S. Ramachandran (1995). Anosognosia in Parietal Lobe Syndrome. Consciousness and Cognition 4 (1):22-51.
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  19. Vilayanur S. Ramachandran & Steve Cobb (1995). Visual Attention Modulates Metacontrast Masking. Nature 373:66-68.
  20. Why Dennett is Wrong, Patricia Smith Churchland & Vilayanur S. Ramachandran (1994). Filling In. In Antti Revonsuo & Matti Kamppinen (eds.), Consciousness in Philosophy and Cognitive Neuroscience. Lawrence Erlbaum.
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  21. Patricia S. Churchland & Vilayanur S. Ramachandran (1993). Filling In: Why Dennett is Wrong. In B. Dahlbom (ed.), Dennett and His Critics. Blackwell.
     
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  22. Vilayanur S. Ramachandran (1993). Behavioral and Magnetoencephalographic Correlates of Plasticity in the Adult Human Brain. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Usa 90:10413-10420.
  23. Vilayanur S. Ramachandran (1992). Filling in Gaps in Perception: Part I. Current Directions in Psychological Science 1:199-205.
  24. Vilayanur S. Ramachandran, Diane Rogers-Ramachandran & Marni Stewart (1992). Perceptual Correlates of Massive Cortical Reorganization. Science 258:1159-1160.
     
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  25. Vilayanur S. Ramachandran & Richard L. Gregory (1991). Perceptual Filling in of Artificially Induced Scotomas in Human Vision. Nature 350:699-702.