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  1. Virginia Held (forthcoming). Feminism and Moral Theory. Bioethics: An Introduction to the History, Methods, and Practice.
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  2. Virginia Held (2014). The Ethics of Care as Normative Guidance: Comment on Gilligan. Journal of Social Philosophy 45 (1):107-115.
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  3. Virginia Held (2012). Isaacs , Tracy . Moral Responsibility in Collective Contexts . New York: Oxford University Press, 2011. Pp. Xi+204. $65.00 (Cloth). [REVIEW] Ethics 122 (3):598-602.
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  4. Mark Schroeder, Jonathan Way, Gregg Strauss, Tim Willenken, Matthew Talbert, Angela M. Smith, James A. Montmarquet, Nicole Hassoun, Virginia Held & Nicholas Wolterstorff (2012). 10. Robert S. Taylor, Reconstructing Rawls: The Kantian Foundations of Justice as Fairness Robert S. Taylor, Reconstructing Rawls: The Kantian Foundations of Justice as Fairness (Pp. 632-637). [REVIEW] Ethics 122 (3).
     
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  5. Virginia Held (2011). Care, Empathy, and Justice: Comment on Michael Slote's Moral Sentimentalism. Analytic Philosophy 52 (4):312-318.
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  6. Virginia Held (2011). Morality, Care, and International Law. Ethics and Global Politics 4 (3):173-194.
    Whether we should respect international law is in dispute. In the United States, international law is dismissed by the left as merely promoting the interests of powerful states. It is attacked by the right as irrelevant and an interference with the interests and mission of the United States. And it follows from the arguments of many liberals that in the absence of world government the world is in a Hobbesian state of nature and international law inapplicable. This article reviews the (...)
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  7. Virginia Held (2010). Can the Ethics of Care Handle Violence? Ethics and Social Welfare 4 (2):115-129.
    It may be thought that the ethics of care has developed important insights into the moral values involved in the caring practices of family, friendship, and personal caregiving, but that the ethics of care has little to offer in dealing with violence. The violence of crime, terrorism, war, and violence against women in any context may seem beyond the ethics of care. Skepticism is certainly in order if it is suggested that we can deal with violence simply by caring. Violence (...)
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  8. Virginia Held (2010). Précis of How Terrorism is Wrong. Public Affairs Quarterly 24 (3):187-188.
    n the essays in How Terrorism Is Wrong, I aim to provide moral assessments of various forms of political violence, focusing especially on terrorism. Also considered are war, military intervention to protect human rights, and violence to bring about or to prevent political change. Among cases considered are the liberation movement that brought about the ending of apartheid in South Africa, the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, the genocide in Rwanda, the NATO intervention in Kosovo and its antecedents in the breakup of the (...)
     
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  9. Virginia Held (2010). Responses to Symposium Papers. Public Affairs Quarterly 24 (3):247-256.
    I would like first to express my appreciation for how interesting these papers are. Instead of redeveloping previous debates, they launch into territory often unfamiliar to me and very well worth thinking about. I will continue to think about many of the points raised in them and will offer here a preliminary response. I sincerely thank all four of the commentators for their thoughtful discussions. I would like to say at the outset that I have never satisfactorily resolved for myself (...)
     
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  10. Virginia Held (2009). The Ethics of Care. In Steven M. Cahn (ed.), Exploring Philosophy: An Introductory Anthology. Oxford University Press.
     
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  11. Virginia Held (2008). How Terrorism is Wrong: Morality and Political Violence. Oup Usa.
    How Terrorism is Wrong collects essays by Virginia Held that examine terrorism and other forms of political violence. Held assesses popular attitudes that glorify some kinds of violence and vilify others, and discusses the kinds of moral evaluation appropriate for terrorism, war, violent political change, or repression. This collection suggests ways of improving how we understand and deal with violence.
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  12. Virginia Held (2008). Military Intervention and the Ethics of Care. Southern Journal of Philosophy 46 (S1):1-20.
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  13. Lynne S. Arnault, Bat-Ami Bar On, Alyssa R. Bernstein, Victoria Davion, Marilyn Fischer, Virginia Held, Peter Higgins, Sabrina Hom, Audra King, James L. Nelson, Serena Parekh, April Shaw & Joan Tronto (2007). Global Feminist Ethics. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    This volume is fourth in the series of annuals created under the auspices of The Association for Feminist Ethics and Social Theory . The topics covered herein_from peacekeeping and terrorism, to sex trafficking and women's paid labor, to poverty and religious fundamentalism_are vital to women and to feminist movements throughout the world.
     
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  14. Peggy Desautels, James L. Nelson, Sabrina Hom, Virginia Held, Marilyn Fischer & Victoria Davion (2007). Global Feminist Ethics. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc..
    This volume is fourth in the series of annuals created under the auspices of The Association for Feminist Ethics and Social Theory . It includes papers by philosophers offering cutting-edge feminist perspectives on ethical issues of global and transnational significance. Feminist approaches to global issues address a great many questions that grip people who are not philosophers, nor even necessarily feminists. These questions include: What are the obligations of global citizenship? How must our concepts of caring, and of human rights, (...)
     
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  15. Virginia Held (2007). The Ethics of Care: Personal, Political, Global. Oup Usa.
    Virginia Held assesses the ethics of care as a promising alternative to the familiar moral theories that serve so inadequately to guide our lives. The ethics of care is only a few decades old, yet it is by now a distinct moral theory or normative approach to the problems we face. It is relevant to global and political matters as well as to the personal relations that can most clearly exemplify care. This book clarifies just what the ethics of care (...)
     
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  16. Virginia Held (2006). The Ethics of Care: Personal, Political, and Global. Oxford University Press.
    Virginia Held assesses the ethics of care as a promising alternative to the familiar moral theories that serve so inadequately to guide our lives. The ethics of care is only a few decades old, yet it is by now a distinct moral theory or normative approach to the problems we face. It is relevant to global and political matters as well as to the personal relations that can most clearly exemplify care. This book clarifies just what the ethics of care (...)
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  17. Virginia Held (2005). Legitimate Authority in Non-State Groups Using Violence. Journal of Social Philosophy 36 (2):175–193.
  18. Virginia Held (2005). Marilyn Friedman, Autonomy, Gender, Politics:Autonomy, Gender, Politics. Ethics 115 (3):605-608.
  19. Virginia Held (2004). Care and Justice in the Global Context. Ratio Juris 17 (2):141-155.
    . Morality is often dismissed as irrelevant in what is seen as the global anarchy of rival states each pursuing its national interest. When morality is invoked, it is usually the morality of justice with its associated moral conceptions of individual rights, equality, and universal law. In the area of moral theory, an alternative moral approach, the ethics of care, has been developed in recent years. It is beginning to influence how some see their global responsibilities.
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  20. Virginia Held (2004). Terrorism and War. Journal of Ethics 8 (1):59-75.
    There are different kinds of terrorism as there are of war. It is unpersuasive to make the deliberate targeting of civilians a defining feature of terrorism, and states as well as non-state groups can engage in terrorism. In a democracy, voters responsible for a government’s unjustifiable policies are not necessarily innocent, while conscripts are legitimate targets. Rather than being uniquely atrocious, terrorism most resembles small war. It is not always or necessarily more morally unjustifiable than war. All war should be (...)
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  21. Sandra Bartky, Teresa Brennan, Claudia Card, Virginia Held, Alison Jaggar, Stephanie Lewis, Uma Narayan, Martha Nussbaum, Andrea Nye, Kristin Schrader-Frechette, Ofelia Schutte & Karen Warren (2003). Singing in the Fire: Stories of Women in Philosophy. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    This is a unique, groundbreaking collection of autobiographical essays by leading women in philosophy. It provides a glimpse at the experiences of the generation that witnessed, and helped create, the remarkable advances now evident for women in the field.
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  22. Virginia Held (2002). Care and the Extension of Markets. Hypatia 17 (2):19-33.
    : Many activities formerly not in the market are being "marketized," and women's labor is increasingly in the market. I consider the grounds on which to decide what should and what should not be "in" the market. I distinguish work that is paid from work done under "market norms," and argue that market values should not have priority in education, childcare, healthcare, and many other activities. I suggest that a feminist ethics of care is more promising than Kantian ethics or (...)
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  23. Virginia Held (2002). Feminism and Political Theory. In Robert L. Simon (ed.), The Blackwell Guide to Social and Political Philosophy. Blackwell.
  24. Virginia Held (2002). Feminist Moral Inquiry: The Role of Experience. Janus Head 5 (1).
     
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  25. Virginia Held (2002). Group Responsibility for Ethnic Conflict. Journal of Ethics 6 (2):157-178.
    When a group of persons such as a nation orcorporation has a relatively clear structureand set of decision procedures, it is capableof acting and should, it can well be argued, beconsidered morally as well as legallyresponsible. This is not because it is afull-fledged moral person, but becauseassigning responsibility is a human practice,and we have good moral reasons to adopt thepractice of considering such groupsresponsible. From such judgments, however,little follows about the responsibility ofindividual members of such groups; much moreneeds to be (...)
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  26. Virginia Held (2002). Moral Subjects: The Natural and the Normative. Proceedings and Addresses of the American Philosophical Association 76 (2):7 - 24.
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  27. James P. Sterba, Claudia Card, Jane Flax, Virginia Held, Ellen Klein, Janet Kournay, Michael Levin, Martha Nussbaum & Rosemarie Tong (2000). Controversies in Feminism. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    Feminism was born in controversy and it continues to flourish in controversy. The distinguished contributors to this volume provide an array of perspectives on issues including: universal values, justice and care, a feminist philosophy of science, and the relationship of biology to social theory.
     
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  28. Virginia Held (1999). Feminist Ethical Theory. The Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 1:41-49.
    I will treat feminist ethical theory as a distinct type of theory. Although some feminists are skeptical about the need for theory as distinct from cultivating practices of being morally perceptive and sensitive, many others argue for the theory they see as needed. Feminist ethical theory usually includes, but is not limited to, the concerns that have been developed under the heading of ‘the ethics of care’ or ‘care ethics’. Care ethics are usually contrasted with ethics of justice, such as (...)
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  29. Virginia Held (1999). Feminist Interpretations of Social and Political Thought. In Emanuela Bianchi (ed.), Is Feminist Philosophy Philosophy? Northwestern University Press. 89.
  30. Virginia Held (1999). David Braybrooke, Moral Objectives, Rules, and the Forms of Social Change:Moral Objectives, Rules, and the Forms of Social Change. Ethics 110 (1):188-190.
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  31. Anita Allen, Lawrence C. Becker, Deryck Beyleveld, David Cummiskey, David DeGrazia, David M. Gallagher, Alan Gewirth, Virginia Held, Barbara Koziak, Donald Regan, Jeffrey Reiman, Henry Richardson, Beth J. Singer, Michael Slote, Edward Spence & James P. Sterba (1998). Gewirth: Critical Essays on Action, Rationality, and Community. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    As one of the most important ethicists to emerge since the Second World War, Alan Gewirth continues to influence philosophical debates concerning morality. In this ground-breaking book, Gewirth's neo-Kantianism, and the communitarian problems discussed, form a dialogue on the foundation of moral theory. Themes of agent-centered constraints, the formal structure of theories, and the relationship between freedom and duty are examined along with such new perspectives as feminism, the Stoics, and Sartre. Gewirth offers a picture of the philosopher's theory and (...)
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  32. Lawrence Blum, Claudia Card, Marilyn Friedman, Carol C. Gould, Mark S. Halfon, Virginia Held, Eva Feder Kittay, Leo Kittay, John W. Lango, Patricia S. Mann, Larry May, Diana T. Meyers, Kai Nielsen, Nel Noddings, Sara Ruddick, Michael Slote & Sue Weinberg (1998). Norms and Values: Essays on the Work of Virginia Held. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    Virginia Held, best known for her landmark book Rights and Goods, has made an indelible mark on the fields of ethics, feminist philosophy, and social and political thought. Her impact on a generation of feminist thinkers is unrivaled and she has been at the forfront of discussions about the way in which an ethic of care can affect social and political matters. These new essays by leading contemporary philosophers range over all of these areas. While each stands alone, the essays (...)
     
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  33. Virginia Held (1997). ETHICS: Feminist Reconceptualizations in Ethics. In Janet A. Kourany (ed.), Philosophy in a Feminist Voice: Critiques and Reconstructions. Princeton University Press. 92-115.
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  34. Virginia Held (1997). Moral Prejudices. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 57 (3):703-707.
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  35. Virginia Held (1997). Review: Review Essays: Moral Prejudices: Essays on Ethics. [REVIEW] Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 57 (3):703 - 707.
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  36. Virginia Held (1997). The Media and Political Violence. Journal of Ethics 1 (2):187-202.
    The meanings of violence, political violence, and terrorism are briefly discussed. I then consider the responsibilities of the media, especially television, with respect to political violence, including such questions as how violence should be described, and whether the media should cover terrorism. I argue that the media should contribute to decreasing political violence through better coverage of arguments for and against political dissidents'' views, and especially through more and better treatment of nonviolent means of influencing political processes. Since commercial pressures (...)
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  37. Virginia Held (1997). Book Review:The Politics of Presence. Anne Phillips. [REVIEW] Ethics 107 (3):530-.
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  38. W. F. Vallicella, Virginia Held, John Davenport, John J. Stuhr, John McCumber, Celia Wolf-Devine, Albert Cinelli, Henry Simoni-Wastila, Eugene Kelly & Brian Leiter (1997). Letters to the Editor. Proceedings and Addresses of the American Philosophical Association 71 (2):107 - 122.
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  39. Virginia Held (1996). Reply to Moody-Adams. Hypatia 11 (1):168 - 174.
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  40. Virginia Held (1995). Book Reviews. [REVIEW] Mind 104 (416):904-907.
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  41. Virginia Held (1995). Feminist Moral Inquiry and the Feminist Future. In Justice and Care: Essential Readings in Feminist Ethics. Westview Press. 153--176.
     
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  42. Virginia Held (ed.) (1995). Justice and Care: Essential Readings in Feminist Ethics. Westview Press.
    When feminist philosophers first turned their attention to traditional ethical theory, its almost exclusive emphasis upon justice, rights, abstract rationality, and individual autonomy came under special criticism. Women’s experiences seemed to suggest the need for a focus on care, empathetic relations, and the interdependence of persons.The most influential readings of what has become an extremely lively and fruitful debate are reproduced here along with important new contributions by Alison Jaggar and Sara Ruddick. As this volume testifies, there is no agreement (...)
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  43. Virginia Held (1995). The Meshing of Care and Justice. Hypatia 10 (2):128 - 132.
    This essay attempts to work out how justice and care and their related concerns fit together. I suggest that as a basic moral value, care should be the wider moral framework into which justice should be fitted.
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  44. Virginia Held (1994). Reason, Gender and Moral Theory. Ethics 2:686-690.
     
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  45. Virginia Held (1993). Feminist Morality: Transforming Culture, Society, and Politics. University of Chicago Press.
    How is feminism changing the way women and men think, feel, and act? Virginia Held explores how feminist theory is changing contemporary views of moral choice. She proposes a comprehensive philosophy of feminist ethics, arguing persuasively for reconceptualizations of the self of relations between the self and others and of images of birth and death, nurturing and violence. Held shows how social, political, and cultural institutions have traditionally been founded upon masculine ideals of morality. She then identifies a distinct feminist (...)
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  46. Virginia Held (1992). Changing Perspectives in Philosophy. In Sue Rosenberg Zalk & Janice Gordon-Kelter (eds.), Revolutions in Knowledge: Feminism in the Social Sciences. Westview Press. 15--31.
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  47. Virginia Held (ed.) (1991). Justice and Care.
     
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  48. Virginia Held (1990). Feminist Transformations of Moral Theory. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 50:321-344.
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  49. Virginia Held (1989). Birth and Death. Ethics 99 (2):362-388.
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  50. Virginia Held (1989). Liberty and Equality From a Feminist Perspective. In Neil MacCormick & Zenon Bankowski (eds.), Enlightenment, Rights, and Revolution: Essays in Legal and Social Philosophy. Aberdeen University Press. 214--228.
     
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