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  1. Virginia Held (forthcoming). Feminism and Moral Theory. Bioethics: An Introduction to the History, Methods, and Practice.
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  2. Virginia Held (forthcoming). John Locke on Robert Nozick. Social Research.
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  3. Virginia Held (forthcoming). Property Rights and Interests. Social Research.
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  4. Virginia Held (forthcoming). Rationality and Reasonable Cooperation. Social Research.
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  5. Virginia Held (2014). The Ethics of Care as Normative Guidance: Comment on Gilligan. Journal of Social Philosophy 45 (1):107-115.
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  6. Virginia Held (2012). Isaacs , Tracy . Moral Responsibility in Collective Contexts . New York: Oxford University Press, 2011. Pp. Xi+204. $65.00 (Cloth). [REVIEW] Ethics 122 (3):598-602.
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  7. Mark Schroeder, Jonathan Way, Gregg Strauss, Tim Willenken, Matthew Talbert, Angela M. Smith, James A. Montmarquet, Nicole Hassoun, Virginia Held & Nicholas Wolterstorff (2012). 10. Robert S. Taylor, Reconstructing Rawls: The Kantian Foundations of Justice as Fairness Robert S. Taylor, Reconstructing Rawls: The Kantian Foundations of Justice as Fairness (Pp. 632-637). [REVIEW] Ethics 122 (3).
     
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  8. Virginia Held (2011). Care, Empathy, and Justice: Comment on Michael Slote's Moral Sentimentalism. Analytic Philosophy 52 (4):312-318.
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  9. Virginia Held (2011). Morality, Care, and International Law. Ethics and Global Politics 4 (3).
    Whether we should respect international law is in dispute. In the United States, international law is dismissed by the left as merely promoting the interests of powerful states. It is attacked by the right as irrelevant and an interference with the interests and mission of the United States. And it follows from the arguments of many liberals that in the absence of world government the world is in a Hobbesian state of nature and international law inapplicable. This article reviews the (...)
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  10. Virginia Held (2010). Can the Ethics of Care Handle Violence? Ethics and Social Welfare 4 (2):115-129.
    It may be thought that the ethics of care has developed important insights into the moral values involved in the caring practices of family, friendship, and personal caregiving, but that the ethics of care has little to offer in dealing with violence. The violence of crime, terrorism, war, and violence against women in any context may seem beyond the ethics of care. Skepticism is certainly in order if it is suggested that we can deal with violence simply by caring. Violence (...)
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  11. Virginia Held (2009). The Ethics of Care. In Steven M. Cahn (ed.), Exploring Philosophy: An Introductory Anthology. Oxford University Press.
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  12. Virginia Held (2008). How Terrorism Is Wrong: Morality and Political Violence. OUP USA.
    What is terrorism? How is it different from other kinds of political violence? Why exactly is it wrong? Why is war often thought capable of being justified? On what grounds should we judge when the use of violence to be morally acceptable? It is often thought that using violence to uphold and enforce the rule of law can be justified, that violence used in self-defense is acceptable, and that some liberation movements can be excused for using violence--but that terrorism is (...)
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  13. Virginia Held (2008). Military Intervention and the Ethics of Care. Southern Journal of Philosophy 46 (S1):1-20.
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  14. Lynne S. Arnault, Bat-Ami Bar On, Alyssa R. Bernstein, Victoria Davion, Marilyn Fischer, Virginia Held, Peter Higgins, Sabrina Hom, Audra King, James L. Nelson, Serena Parekh, April Shaw & Joan Tronto (2007). Global Feminist Ethics. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
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  15. Virginia Held (2007). The Ethics of Care: Personal, Political, Global. OUP USA.
    Virginia Held assesses the ethics of care as a promising alternative to the familiar moral theories that serve so inadequately to guide our lives. The ethics of care is only a few decades old, yet it is by now a distinct moral theory or normative approach to the problems we face. It is relevant to global and political matters as well as to the personal relations that can most clearly exemplify care. This book clarifies just what the ethics of care (...)
     
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  16. Virginia Held (2006). The Ethics of Care: Personal, Political, and Global. Oxford University Press.
    Virginia Held assesses the ethics of care as a promising alternative to the familiar moral theories that serve so inadequately to guide our lives. The ethics of care is only a few decades old, yet it is by now a distinct moral theory or normative approach to the problems we face. It is relevant to global and political matters as well as to the personal relations that can most clearly exemplify care. This book clarifies just what the ethics of care (...)
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  17. Virginia Held (2005). Legitimate Authority in Non-State Groups Using Violence. Journal of Social Philosophy 36 (2):175–193.
  18. Virginia Held (2005). Marilyn Friedman, Autonomy, Gender, Politics:Autonomy, Gender, Politics. Ethics 115 (3):605-608.
  19. Virginia Held (2004). Care and Justice in the Global Context. Ratio Juris 17 (2):141-155.
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  20. Virginia Held (2004). Terrorism and War. Journal of Ethics 8 (1):59-75.
    There are different kinds of terrorism as there are of war. It is unpersuasive to make the deliberate targeting of civilians a defining feature of terrorism, and states as well as non-state groups can engage in terrorism. In a democracy, voters responsible for a government’s unjustifiable policies are not necessarily innocent, while conscripts are legitimate targets. Rather than being uniquely atrocious, terrorism most resembles small war. It is not always or necessarily more morally unjustifiable than war. All war should be (...)
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  21. Sandra Bartky, Teresa Brennan, Claudia Card, Virginia Held, Alison Jaggar, Stephanie Lewis, Uma Narayan, Martha Nussbaum, Andrea Nye, Kristin Schrader-Frechette, Ofelia Schutte & Karen Warren (2003). Singing in the Fire: Stories of Women in Philosophy. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
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  22. Virginia Held (2002). Care and the Extension of Markets. Hypatia 17 (2):19-33.
    : Many activities formerly not in the market are being "marketized," and women's labor is increasingly in the market. I consider the grounds on which to decide what should and what should not be "in" the market. I distinguish work that is paid from work done under "market norms," and argue that market values should not have priority in education, childcare, healthcare, and many other activities. I suggest that a feminist ethics of care is more promising than Kantian ethics or (...)
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  23. Virginia Held (2002). Feminism and Political Theory. In Robert L. Simon (ed.), The Blackwell Guide to Social and Political Philosophy. Blackwell.
  24. Virginia Held (2002). Group Responsibility for Ethnic Conflict. Journal of Ethics 6 (2):157-178.
    When a group of persons such as a nation orcorporation has a relatively clear structureand set of decision procedures, it is capableof acting and should, it can well be argued, beconsidered morally as well as legallyresponsible. This is not because it is afull-fledged moral person, but becauseassigning responsibility is a human practice,and we have good moral reasons to adopt thepractice of considering such groupsresponsible. From such judgments, however,little follows about the responsibility ofindividual members of such groups; much moreneeds to be (...)
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  25. Virginia Held (2002). Moral Subjects: The Natural and the Normative. Proceedings and Addresses of the American Philosophical Association 76 (2):7 - 24.
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  26. James P. Sterba, Claudia Card, Jane Flax, Virginia Held, Ellen Klein, Janet Kournay, Michael Levin, Martha Nussbaum & Rosemarie Tong (2000). Controversies in Feminism. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
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  27. Virginia Held (1999). Feminist Ethical Theory. The Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 1:41-49.
    I will treat feminist ethical theory as a distinct type of theory. Although some feminists are skeptical about the need for theory as distinct from cultivating practices of being morally perceptive and sensitive, many others argue for the theory they see as needed. Feminist ethical theory usually includes, but is not limited to, the concerns that have been developed under the heading of ‘the ethics of care’ or ‘care ethics’. Care ethics are usually contrasted with ethics of justice, such as (...)
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  28. Virginia Held (1999). Feminist Interpretations of Social and Political Thought. In Emanuela Bianchi (ed.), Is Feminist Philosophy Philosophy? Northwestern University Press. 89.
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  29. Virginia Held (1999). David Braybrooke, Moral Objectives, Rules, and the Forms of Social Change:Moral Objectives, Rules, and the Forms of Social Change. Ethics 110 (1):188-190.
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  30. Anita Allen, Lawrence C. Becker, Deryck Beyleveld, David Cummiskey, David DeGrazia, David M. Gallagher, Alan Gewirth, Virginia Held, Barbara Koziak, Donald Regan, Jeffrey Reiman, Henry Richardson, Beth J. Singer, Michael Slote, Edward Spence & James P. Sterba (1998). Gewirth: Critical Essays on Action, Rationality, and Community. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
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  31. Lawrence Blum, Claudia Card, Marilyn Friedman, Carol C. Gould, Mark S. Halfon, Virginia Held, Eva Feder Kittay, Leo Kittay, John W. Lango, Patricia S. Mann, Larry May, Diana T. Meyers, Kai Nielsen, Nel Noddings, Sara Ruddick, Michael Slote & Sue Weinberg (1998). Norms and Values: Essays on the Work of Virginia Held. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
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  32. Virginia Held (1997). Moral Prejudices. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 57 (3):703-707.
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  33. Virginia Held (1997). Review: Review Essays: Moral Prejudices: Essays on Ethics. [REVIEW] Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 57 (3):703 - 707.
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  34. Virginia Held (1997). The Media and Political Violence. Journal of Ethics 1 (2):187-202.
    The meanings of violence, political violence, and terrorism are briefly discussed. I then consider the responsibilities of the media, especially television, with respect to political violence, including such questions as how violence should be described, and whether the media should cover terrorism. I argue that the media should contribute to decreasing political violence through better coverage of arguments for and against political dissidents'' views, and especially through more and better treatment of nonviolent means of influencing political processes. Since commercial pressures (...)
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  35. Virginia Held (1997). Book Review:The Politics of Presence. Anne Phillips. [REVIEW] Ethics 107 (3):530-.
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  36. W. F. Vallicella, Virginia Held, John Davenport, John J. Stuhr, John McCumber, Celia Wolf-Devine, Albert Cinelli, Henry Simoni-Wastila, Eugene Kelly & Brian Leiter (1997). Letters to the Editor. Proceedings and Addresses of the American Philosophical Association 71 (2):107 - 122.
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  37. Virginia Held (1996). Reply to Moody-Adams. Hypatia 11 (1):168 - 174.
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  38. Virginia Held (1995). Book Reviews. [REVIEW] Mind 104 (416):904-907.
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  39. Virginia Held (1995). Feminist Moral Inquiry and the Feminist Future. In , Justice and Care: Essential Readings in Feminist Ethics. Westview Press. 153--176.
     
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  40. Virginia Held (ed.) (1995). Justice and Care: Essential Readings in Feminist Ethics. Westview Press.
    When feminist philosophers first turned their attention to traditional ethical theory, its almost exclusive emphasis upon justice, rights, abstract rationality, and individual autonomy came under special criticism. Women’s experiences seemed to suggest the need for a focus on care, empathetic relations, and the interdependence of persons.The most influential readings of what has become an extremely lively and fruitful debate are reproduced here along with important new contributions by Alison Jaggar and Sara Ruddick. As this volume testifies, there is no agreement (...)
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  41. Virginia Held (1995). The Meshing of Care and Justice. Hypatia 10 (2):128 - 132.
    This essay attempts to work out how justice and care and their related concerns fit together. I suggest that as a basic moral value, care should be the wider moral framework into which justice should be fitted.
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  42. Virginia Held (1994). Reason, Gender and Moral Theory. Ethics 2:686-690.
     
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  43. Virginia Held (1993). Feminist Morality: Transforming Culture, Society, and Politics. University of Chicago Press.
    How is feminism changing the way women and men think, feel, and act? Virginia Held explores how feminist theory is changing contemporary views of moral choice. She proposes a comprehensive philosophy of feminist ethics, arguing persuasively for reconceptualizations of the self of relations between the self and others and of images of birth and death, nurturing and violence. Held shows how social, political, and cultural institutions have traditionally been founded upon masculine ideals of morality. She then identifies a distinct feminist (...)
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  44. Virginia Held (1992). Changing Perspectives in Philosophy. In Sue Rosenberg Zalk & Janice Gordon-Kelter (eds.), Revolutions in Knowledge: Feminism in the Social Sciences. Westview Press. 15--31.
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  45. Virginia Held (ed.) (1991). Justice and Care.
     
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  46. Virginia Held (1990). Feminist Transformations of Moral Theory. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 50:321-344.
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  47. Virginia Held (1989). Birth and Death. Ethics 99 (2):362-388.
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  48. Virginia Held (1989). Liberty and Equality From a Feminist Perspective. In Neil MacCormick & Zenon Bankowski (eds.), Enlightenment, Rights, and Revolution: Essays in Legal and Social Philosophy. Aberdeen University Press. 214--228.
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  49. Virginia Held (1989). Philosophy and the Media. Journal of Social Philosophy 20 (1-2):116-124.
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  50. Eva Feder Kittay, Carol Gilligan, Annette C. Baier, Michael Stocker, Christina H. Sommers, Kathryn Pyne Addelson, Virginia Held, Thomas E. Hill Jr, Seyla Benhabib, George Sher, Marilyn Friedman, Jonathan Adler, Sara Ruddick, Mary Fainsod, David D. Laitin, Lizbeth Hasse & Sandra Harding (1989). Women and Moral Theory. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
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