Search results for 'Voluntary' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Benjamin W. Libet (1985). Unconscious Cerebral Initiative and the Role of Conscious Will in Voluntary Action. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 8 (4):529-66.score: 24.0
    Voluntary acts are preceded by electrophysiological (RPs). With spontaneous acts involving no preplanning, the main negative RP shift begins at about200 ms. Control experiments, in which a skin stimulus was timed (S), helped evaluate each subject's error in reporting the clock times for awareness of any perceived event.
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  2. Lene Bomann-Larsen (2013). Voluntary Rehabilitation? On Neurotechnological Behavioural Treatment, Valid Consent and (In)Appropriate Offers. Neuroethics 6 (1):65-77.score: 24.0
    Criminal offenders may be offered to participate in voluntary rehabilitation programs aiming at correcting undesirable behaviour, as a condition of early release. Behavioural treatment may include direct intervention into the central nervous system (CNS). This article discusses under which circumstances voluntary rehabilitation by CNS intervention is justified. It is argued that although the context of voluntary rehabilitation is a coercive circumstance, consent may still be effective, in the sense that it can meet formal criteria for informed consent. (...)
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  3. Jukka Varelius (2013). Voluntary Euthanasia, Physician-Assisted Suicide, and the Right to Do Wrong. HEC Forum 25 (3):1-15.score: 24.0
    It has been argued that voluntary euthanasia (VE) and physician-assisted suicide (PAS) are morally wrong. Yet, a gravely suffering patient might insist that he has a moral right to the procedures even if they were morally wrong. There are also philosophers who maintain that an agent can have a moral right to do something that is morally wrong. In this article, I assess the view that a suffering patient can have a moral right to VE and PAS despite the (...)
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  4. Paul E. Tibbetts (2004). The Concept of Voluntary Motor Control in the Recent Neuroscientific Literature. Synthese 141 (2):247-76.score: 24.0
    ~~The concept of voluntary motor control(VMC) frequently appears in the neuroscientific literature, specifically in the context of cortically-mediated, intentional motor actions. For cognitive scientists, this concept of VMC raises a number of interesting questions:(i) Are there dedicated, modular-like structures within the motor system associated with VMC? Or (ii) is it the case that VMC is distributed over multiple cortical as well as subcortical structures?(iii) Is there any one place within the so-calledhierarchy of motor control where voluntary movements could (...)
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  5. Edmund Henden (2013). Heroin Addiction and Voluntary Choice: The Case of Informed Consent. Bioethics 27 (7):395-401.score: 24.0
    Does addiction to heroin undermine the voluntariness of heroin addicts' consent to take part in research which involves giving them free and legal heroin? This question has been raised in connection with research into the effectiveness of heroin prescription as a way of treating dependent heroin users. Participants in such research are required to give their informed consent to take part. Louis C. Charland has argued that we should not presume that heroin addicts are competent to do this since heroin (...)
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  6. Martin Klein (2004). Voluntary Active Euthanasia and the Doctrine of Double Effect: A View From Germany. Health Care Analysis 12 (3):225-240.score: 24.0
    This paper discusses physician-assisted suicide (PAS) and voluntary active euthanasia (VAE), supplies a short history and argues in favour of permitting both once rigid criteria have been set and the cases retro-reviewed. I suggest that among these criteria should be that VAE should only be permitted with one more necessary criterion: that VAE should only be allowed when physician assisted suicide is not a possible option. If the patient is able to ingest and absorb the medication there is no (...)
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  7. Robert Sharp (2012). The Dangers of Euthanasia and Dementia: How Kantian Thinking Might Be Used to Support Non-Voluntary Euthanasia in Cases of Extreme Dementia. Bioethics 26 (5):231-235.score: 24.0
    Some writers have argued that a Kantian approach to ethics can be used to justify suicide in cases of extreme dementia, where a patient lacks the rationality required of Kantian moral agents. I worry that this line of thinking may lead to the more extreme claim that euthanasia is a proper Kantian response to severe dementia (and similar afflictions). Such morally treacherous thinking seems to be directly implied by the arguments that lead Dennis Cooley and similar writers to claim that (...)
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  8. Dayna Simpson, Damien Power & Robert Klassen (2012). When One Size Does Not Fit All: A Problem of Fit Rather Than Failure for Voluntary Management Standards. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 110 (1):85-95.score: 24.0
    Voluntary management standards for social and environmental performance ideally help to define and improve firms’ related capabilities. These standards, however, have largely failed to improve such performance as intended. Over-emphasis on institutional factors leading to adoption of these standards has neglected the role of firms’ existing capabilities. External pressures can drive firms to adopt standards more than their technical capacity to employ them. This can lead to problems of “fit” between institutional requirements and a firm’s existing capabilities . We (...)
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  9. Benjamin Gray (2010). The Rise of Voluntary Work in Higher Education and Corporate Social Responsibility in Business: Perspectives of Students and Graduate Employees. [REVIEW] Journal of Academic Ethics 8 (2):95-109.score: 24.0
    The Higher Education and Employment strand of the Learning for Life project focused on exploring some of the values of 169 students and graduate employees (Arthur et al. 2009a , b ). A major theme suggested by participants, which arose naturally from the data and emerged from people’s accounts during in-depth interviews, involved the close relationship they felt existed between voluntary work and core values. It is this aspect of the project that is reported. There are several important and (...)
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  10. Danny Frederick (2014). Voluntary Slavery. Las Torres de Lucca 4:115-37.score: 24.0
    The permissibility of actions depends upon facts about the flourishing and separateness of persons. Persons differ from other creatures in having the task of discovering for themselves, by conjecture and refutation, what sort of life will fulfil them. Compulsory slavery impermissibly prevents some persons from pursuing this task. However, many people may conjecture that they are natural slaves. Some of these conjectures may turn out to be correct. In consequence, voluntary slavery, in which one person welcomes the duty to (...)
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  11. Ivan Montiel & Bryan W. Husted (2009). The Adoption of Voluntary Environmental Management Programs in Mexico: First Movers as Institutional Entrepreneurs. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 88 (2):349 - 363.score: 24.0
    This article analyzes the adoption of voluntary environmental management programs by firms operating in Mexico. Mexican firms can obtain national certification (Clean Industry) and/or international certification (ISO 14001). Based on institutional entrepreneurship theory, we posit that the role played by first movers as institutional entrepreneurs is crucial if these programs are to become established with sufficient strength and appeal. This understanding is especially important in an environment where more than one program can be adopted. We tested several hypotheses on (...)
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  12. Alex G. H. Chu, Xingqiang du & Guohua Jiang (2011). Buy, Lie, or Die: An Investigation of Chinese ST Firms' Voluntary Interim Audit Motive and Auditor Independence. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 102 (1):135-153.score: 24.0
    In the Chinese stock market, special treatment (ST) firms are the firms listed as facing imminent danger of delisting, unless they return to profitability after reporting two consecutive annual losses. Some ST firms voluntarily pay substantial fees to their external auditors to conduct interim audits, which are not required by regulations. In this study, we investigate and find that ST firms that pay for voluntary interim audits report greater discretionary accrued earnings, higher non-operating earnings, and higher returns on assets (...)
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  13. John D. Neill, O. Scott Stovall & Darryl L. Jinkerson (2005). A Critical Analysis of the Accounting Industry's Voluntary Code of Conduct. Journal of Business Ethics 59 (1-2):101 - 108.score: 24.0
    The public accounting industry’s voluntary code of conduct in the United States is the American Institute of CPA’s Code of Professional Conduct. Based on our analysis, we conclude that the accounting industry’s current code is limited in its ability to serve the public interest in three respects. Specifically, the code is input-based, requires no third-party attestation of compliance with the code, and contains no public reporting process of code compliance/noncompliance at the accounting firm level. We propose that the accounting (...)
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  14. S. Prakash Sethi, David B. Lowry, Emre A. Veral, H. Jack Shapiro & Olga Emelianova (2011). Freeport-McMoRan Copper & Gold, Inc.: An Innovative Voluntary Code of Conduct to Protect Human Rights, Create Employment Opportunities, and Economic Development of the Indigenous People. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 103 (1):1-30.score: 24.0
    Environmental degradation and extractive industry are inextricably linked, and the industry’s adverse impact on air, water, and ground resources has been exacerbated with increased demand for raw materials and their location in some of the more environmentally fragile areas of the world. Historically, companies have managed to control calls for regulation and improved, i.e., more expensive, mining technologies by (a) their importance in economic growth and job creation or (b) through adroit use of their economic power and bargaining leverage against (...)
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  15. Dickens S. Omondi Aduda & Nhlanhla Mkhize (2014). Ethical Issues Evolving From Patients' Perspectives on Compulsory Screening for Syphilis and Voluntary Screening for Cervical Cancer in Kenya. BMC Medical Ethics 15 (1):27.score: 24.0
    Public health aims to provide universal safety and progressive opportunities to populations to realise their highest level of health through prevention of disease, its progression or transmission. Screening asymptomatic individuals to detect early unapparent conditions is an important public health intervention strategy. It may be designed to be compulsory or voluntary depending on the epidemiological characteristics of the disease. Integrated screening, including for both syphilis and cancer of the cervix, is a core component of the national reproductive health program (...)
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  16. Karl Widerquist (2010). The Physical Basis of Voluntary Trade. Human Rights Review 11 (1):83-103.score: 24.0
    The article discusses the conditions under which can we say that people enter the economic system voluntarily. “The Need for an Exit Option” briefly explains the philosophical argument that voluntary interaction requires an exit option—a reasonable alternative to participation in the projects of others. “The Treatment of Effective Forced Labor in Economic and Political Theory” considers the treatment of effectively forced interaction in economic and political theory. “Human Need” discusses theories of human need to determine the capabilities a person (...)
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  17. Andrew Botterell (2012). Understanding the Voluntary Act Principle. In François Tanguay-Renaud & James Stribopoulos (eds.), Rethinking Criminal Law Theory: New Canadian Perspectives in the Philosophy of Domestic, Transnational, and International Criminal Law. Hart Publishing.score: 24.0
    In broad outline, the chapter proceeds as follows. As indicated above, the Voluntary Act Principle has two components. The first part, the act component, claims that criminal liability can be imposed on an accused only for the performance of an act. The second part, the voluntariness component, claims that criminal liability can be imposed on an accused only for the voluntary performance of an act. I will argue that both components of the Voluntary Act Principle are in (...)
     
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  18. Stef Van den Branden & Bert Broeckaert (2011). Living in the Hands of God. English Sunni E-Fatwas on (Non-)Voluntary Euthanasia and Assisted Suicide. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 14 (1):29-41.score: 24.0
    Ever since the start of the twentieth century, a growing interest and importance of studying fatwas can be noted, with a focus on Arabic printed fatwas (Wokoeck 2009). The scholarly study of end-of-life ethics in these fatwas is a very recent feature, taking a first start in the 1980s (Anees 1984; Rispler-Chaim 1993). Since the past two decades, we have witnessed the emergence of a multitude of English fatwas that can easily be consulted through the Internet (‘e-fatwas’), providing Muslims worldwide (...)
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  19. Matthew J. C. Crump Julie M. Bugg (2012). In Support of a Distinction Between Voluntary and Stimulus-Driven Control: A Review of the Literature on Proportion Congruent Effects. [REVIEW] Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 24.0
    Cognitive control is by now a large umbrella term referring collectively to multiple processes that plan and coordinate actions to meet task goals. A common feature of paradigms that engage cognitive control is the task requirement to select relevant information despite a habitual tendency (or bias) to select goal-irrelevant information. At least since the 70s, researchers have employed proportion congruent manipulations to experimentally establish selection biases and evaluate the mechanisms used to control attention. Proportion congruent manipulations vary the frequency with (...)
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  20. Gordon Liu & Wai-Wai Ko (2011). Social Alliance and Employee Voluntary Activities: A Resource-Based Perspective. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 104 (2):251-268.score: 24.0
    The corporate social responsibility literature devotes relatively little attention to the strategic role played by employee voluntary activities (EVAs) in social alliances. Using the resource-based perspective of the organization to frame the data collection and the analyses, this article investigates: (1) the role of EVAs in the development of corporate and non-profit organizations (NPOs) competitive assets and (2) the management approaches to how both parties can develop their own resources by combining them with the shared resources with the purpose (...)
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  21. Tapan K. Sarker (2013). Voluntary Codes of Conduct and Their Implementation in the Australian Mining and Petroleum Industries: Is There a Business Case for CSR? [REVIEW] Asian Journal of Business Ethics 2 (2):205-224.score: 24.0
    The design and development of appropriate regulatory mechanisms have attracted renewed attention in recent years. In particular, a shift towards voluntary self-regulatory mechanisms has been witnessed within many industries, such as the Australian mining and petroleum industries which have developed voluntary codes of conduct. This paper analyses the development of different regulatory forms and provides a brief comparative analysis of the two main voluntary codes of conduct used by the Australian mining and petroleum industries. In particular, the (...)
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  22. Cedric E. Dawkins & John W. Fraas (2011). Erratum To: Beyond Acclamations and Excuses: Environmental Performance, Voluntary Environmental Disclosure and the Role of Visibility. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 99 (3):383 - 397.score: 24.0
    Some researchers have argued that firms with favorable environmental performance are more likely to provide voluntary environmental disclosure, while others have argued that firms with poor environmental performance are most likely to disclose. The authors propose a curvilinear relation between environmental performance and environmental disclosure that is moderated by visibility. Data were obtained from S&P 500 firms queried by Ceres' Climate Disclosure Project. Results show a U-shaped environmental performance—environmental disclosure relation and a main effect for visibility but no moderating (...)
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  23. Philippe Chuard & Nicholas Southwood (2009). Epistemic Norms Without Voluntary Control. Noûs 43 (4):599-632.score: 21.0
    William Alston’s argument against the deontological conception of epistemic justification is a classic—and much debated—piece of contemporary epistemology. At the heart of Alston’s argument, however, lies a very simple mistake which, surprisingly, appears to have gone unnoticed in the vast literature now devoted to the argument. After having shown why some of the standard responses to Alston’s argument don’t work, we elucidate the mistake and offer a hypothesis as to why it has escaped attention.
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  24. David Albert Jones (2011). Is There a Logical Slippery Slope From Voluntary to Nonvoluntary Euthanasia? Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 21 (4):379-404.score: 21.0
    Slippery slope arguments have been important in the euthanasia debate for at least half a century. In 1957 the Cambridge legal scholar Glanville Williams wrote a controversial book, The Sanctity of Life and the Criminal Law, in which he presented the decriminalizing of euthanasia as a modern liberal proposal taking its rightful place alongside proposals to decriminalize contraception, sterilization, abortion, and attempted suicide (all of which the book also advocated).1 Opposition to these reforms was in turn presented as exclusively religious (...)
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  25. John Ladd (1952). Free Will and Voluntary Action. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 12 (March):392-405.score: 21.0
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  26. Jukka Varelius (2007). Illness, Suffering and Voluntary Euthanasia. Bioethics 21 (2):75–83.score: 21.0
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  27. H. Jasper & C. Shagass (1941). Conscious Time Judgments Related to Conditioned Time Intervals and Voluntary Control of the Alpha Rhythm. Journal of Experimental Psychology 28 (6):503-508.score: 21.0
  28. L. S. Krause (1937). Relation of Voluntary Motor Pressure Disorganization (Luria) to Two Other Alleged Complex Indicators. Journal of Experimental Psychology 21 (6):653.score: 21.0
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  29. P. E. Roland (1978). Sensory Feedback to the Cerebral Cortex During Voluntary Movement in Man. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 1 (1):129.score: 21.0
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  30. C. W. Telford (1931). The Refractory Phase of Voluntary and Associative Responses. Journal of Experimental Psychology 14 (1):1.score: 21.0
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  31. Robert F. Boldt & Douglas S. Ellis (1954). Voluntary Rest Pause Behavior in a Block-Turning Task as a Function of Wrist-Cuff Weight. Journal of Experimental Psychology 47 (2):84.score: 21.0
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  32. R. M. Collier (1937). A Technique for the Kymographic Registration of Certain Associated Voluntary Movements. Journal of Experimental Psychology 21 (2):181.score: 21.0
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  33. R. C. Davis (1943). The Genetic Development of Patterns of Voluntary Activity. Journal of Experimental Psychology 33 (6):471.score: 21.0
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  34. E. R. Hilgard & L. G. Humphreys (1938). The Effect of Supporting and Antagonistic Voluntary Instructions on Conditioned Discrimination. Journal of Experimental Psychology 22 (4):291.score: 21.0
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  35. Y. Baumstimler & J. Parrot (1971). Stimulus Generalization and Spontaneous Blinking in Man Involved in a Voluntary Activity. Journal of Experimental Psychology 88 (1):95.score: 21.0
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  36. R. F. Becker & H. N. Glick (1940). An Adaptation of the Smedley Hand Dynamometer for Use in Measuring Voluntary Fatigue. Journal of Experimental Psychology 27 (4):453.score: 21.0
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  37. Judson S. Brown, Frank R. Clarke & Larry Stein (1958). A New Technique for Studying Spatial Generalization with Voluntary Responses. Journal of Experimental Psychology 55 (4):359.score: 21.0
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  38. S. D. Cann (1939). The Effect of Voluntary Leg Activity Upon the Knee-Jerk; Further Experiment. Journal of Experimental Psychology 25 (1):18.score: 21.0
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  39. Bryan D. Dixon & Delos D. Wickens (1961). Supplementary Report: Spatial Generalization of Voluntary Responses Under Two Techniques of Study and Two Levels of Anxiety. Journal of Experimental Psychology 61 (6):508.score: 21.0
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  40. G. L. Freeman (1938). Postural Accompaniments of the Voluntary Inhibition of Micturition. Journal of Experimental Psychology 23 (1):45.score: 21.0
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  41. E. J. Gibson (1939). Sensory Generalization with Voluntary Reactions. Journal of Experimental Psychology 24 (3):237.score: 21.0
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  42. Thomas F. Hartman & Leonard E. Ross (1961). An Alternative Criterion for the Elimination of "Voluntary" Responses in Eyelid Conditioning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 61 (4):334.score: 21.0
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  43. D. G. Marquis & J. M. Porter Jr (1939). Differential Characteristics of Conditioned Eyelid Responses Established by Reflex and Voluntary Reinforcement. Journal of Experimental Psychology 24 (4):347.score: 21.0
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  44. C. Shagass (1942). Conditioning the Human Occipital Alpha Rhythm to a Voluntary Stimulus. A Quantitative Study. Journal of Experimental Psychology 31 (5):367.score: 21.0
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  45. L. E. Travis & M. Patterson (1933). Rate and Direction of the Contraction Wave in Muscle During Voluntary and Reflex Movement. Journal of Experimental Psychology 16 (2):208.score: 21.0
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  46. L. W. Allison (1932). An Experimental Study of Reflex and Voluntary Eyelid Responses. Journal of Experimental Psychology 15 (1):56.score: 21.0
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  47. Fred Attneave & Kathleen W. Reid (1968). Voluntary Control of Frame of Reference and Slope Equivalence Under Head Rotation. Journal of Experimental Psychology 78 (1):153.score: 21.0
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  48. Judson S. Brown, Edward A. Bilodeau & Martin R. Baron (1951). Bidirectional Gradients in the Strength of a Generalized Voluntary Response to Stimuli on a Visualspatial Dimension. Journal of Experimental Psychology 41 (1):52.score: 21.0
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  49. R. M. Collier (1938). The Crossed Effects Upon Voluntary Movement of Unilaterally Induced Fatigue. Journal of Experimental Psychology 23 (1):26.score: 21.0
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  50. R. C. Davis (1942). The Pattern of Muscular Action in Simple Voluntary Movement. Journal of Experimental Psychology 31 (5):347.score: 21.0
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