Rogers, C. R. and Skinner, B. F. Some issues concerning the control of human behavior.--Broudy, H. S. Didactics, heuristics, and philetics.--Craig, R. An analysis of the psychology of moral development of Lawrence Kohlberg.--Scudder, J. R., Jr. Freedom with authority: a Buber model for teaching.--Hook, S. Some educational attitudes and poses.--Strike, K. A. Freedom, autonomy, and teaching.--Elkind, D. Piaget and Montessori.--Raywid, M. A. Irrationalism and the new reformism.--Doll, W. E., Jr. A methodology of experience: the process of inquiry.--Neff, F. C. (...) Competency-based teaching and trained fleas.--Brown, A. "What could be bad?" Some reflections on the accountability movement. (shrink)
Bribery is a frequently discussed problem in international business. This article looks at the problem from the North American and from the developing country perspective. It describes and analyses specific cases and highlights recurring patterns of behavior.The article is based on the experiences of the authors who have been promoting business in the developing world. In addition to ethical considerations involved with bribery there are some very practical reasons for not engaging in the practice. There are also real barriers to (...) establishing the relationships necessary to avoid the practice yet continue doing business. (shrink)
We have synthesized a 582,970-base pair Mycoplasma genitalium genome. This synthetic genome, named M. genitalium JCVI-1.0, contains all the genes of wild-type M. genitalium G37 except MG408, which was disrupted by an antibiotic marker to block pathogenicity and to allow for selection. To identify the genome as synthetic, we inserted "watermarks" at intergenic sites known to tolerate transposon insertions. Overlapping "cassettes" of 5 to 7 kilobases (kb), assembled from chemically synthesized oligonucleotides, were joined by in vitro recombination to produce intermediate (...) assemblies of approximately 24 kb, 72 kb ("1/8 genome"), and 144 kb ("1/4 genome"), which were all cloned as bacterial artificial chromosomes in Escherichia coli. Most of these intermediate clones were sequenced, and clones of all four 1/4 genomes with the correct sequence were identified. The complete synthetic genome was assembled by transformation-associated recombination cloning in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, then isolated and sequenced. A clone with the correct sequence was identified. The methods described here will be generally useful for constructing large DNA molecules from chemically synthesized pieces and also from combinations of natural and synthetic DNA segments. 10.1126/science.1151721. (shrink)
Debate over the curricula of Black colleges and universities dates back to before the turn of the century and involved such noted Black leaders as Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. DuBois. The 1890 Land-Grant Colleges eventually established in 17 southern and border states were created to provide institutions for the teaching of the agricultural and mechanical arts to African-Americans. However, due to their being chronically underfunded and understaffed during the early decades of their existence, they focused mainly on teacher training (...) and to a large extent became state normal schools or teacher colleges for Blacks. I argue that the improvements in public education of southern Blacks at the primary and secondary levels during the 1920s and 1930s induced many graduates of the 1890 institutions to become teachers. At the same time the growing numbers and higher quality of these individuals lead to an increase in the returns to time spent in school and induced increasing numbers of Black parents to send their children to school. During the 1930s expenditures per pupil in Black public schools increased, as did the real wages of Black teachers, while average classroom size fell. At the same time both literacy and school attendance of southern Blacks rose. In no small part these changes were due to 1890 colleges and their students. (shrink)
In this paper we critically evaluate an argument put forward by William LaneCraig for the existence of God based on the assumption that if there were no God, there could be no objective morality. Contrary to Craig, we show that there are some necessary moral truths and objective moral reasoning that holds up whether there is a God or not. We go on to argue that religious faith, when taken alone and without reason or evidence, actually (...) risks undermining morality and is an unreliable source of moral truths. We recommend a viewpoint on morality that is based on reason and public consensus, that is compatible with science, and that cuts across the range of religious and nonreligious positions. (shrink)
The kalām cosmological argument for the existence of God proposed by W. L. Craig (in 1970’s) has been subject to much debate on all sorts of issues related to the existence of God and the beginning of the universe. The goal of the paper is to briefly evaluate several complex questions embraced in the argument in order to show the depth and strength of the argument, and to avoid oversimplification, which one can find in some recent publications. The argument (...) as such does not rely on a single thesis or a theory proposed by a single author. The argument has such a support from different fields that its opponents would need to elaborate a theory with much more explanatory power than the most recent cosmological theories. (shrink)
This note criticises an argument used by W. L. Craig against an actual infinity of past events. He argues that if Russell's use of the story of Tristram Shandy, who took a year to recount each day of his life, is extended into an infinite past, then Cantor's principle of correspondence leads to the absurd conclusion that Tristram Shandy has already written his last page. I show that no such conclusion can be drawn, and that a ‘past’ version of (...) the story which does allow this principle to be applied leads to no paradox. (shrink)
The Truth of the Future Conditionals of Freedom (A Polemic of Větrovský with Goudin)The article deals with the problem of the future contingents from the logical point of view, i.e. whether the propositions about (conditional) future contingents have a determinate truth-value. The author attemps to show how the problem was discussed both in the 17. century between a Prague’s Jesuit M. Větrovský and a French Dominican A. Goudin, as well as how the discussion has progressed through contemporary analytical philosophy. Firstly (...) the history of the problem is explored to provide the sources for the discussion. Secondly the polemic of Větrovský with Goudin is examined and finally how A. J. Freddoso and W. L. Craig discuss the problem in contemporary analytical philosophy. The essential aspect of the argument is whether the propositions about (conditional) future contingents might have a determinate truth-value if the causal grounding (futuritio causalis) is being detached.De propositionum de futuribiliis liberis veritate (Wietrowskii cum Goudinio disceptatio)In articulo de problematibus futurorum contingentium agitur sub specie logicae, i. e. utrum propositiones de futuris contingentibus aut futuribilibus sint determinate verae vel falsae. Conatur auctor ostendere, primo quomodo problema illud solvebatur saeculo XVII: a Pragensi M. Wietrowski de Societate Iesu atque ab eiusdem obloquente, Francogallo A. Goudin de Ordine praedicatorum; secundo quomodo disceptatio illa continuet in philosophia analytica contemporanea. In exordio historia problematum illustratur, i. e. ubi orta sint et quibuscum rebus nexum habeant. Porro argumenta ponderantur, quibus tunc Wietrowski et Goudin, nunc philosophi analytici J. A. Freddoso et W. L. Craig rem suam defendunt. Praesumitur ad problema solvendum necessitas decernendi, utrum futuritio causalis sit conditio necessaria necne, ut propositio de futuris contingentibus aut futuribilibus vera vel falsa aestimetur. (shrink)
Al-Fbs title of Second Teacher after Aristotle is well-warranted. Al-Fbs work serves to illuminate the writings of the First Teacher in interesting and overlooked ways that go beyond the parameters of Aristotelian logic. Credence is lent to this assessment through the analysis of a specific topic, namely, authentic prophetic vision. At first glance, this seems like a strange assertion to make given Aristotler recognizes and completes in a way that is, in large part, faithful to and consistent with the corpus (...) of Aristotle as we read it today. In the end, al-Fbī provides insight into how a properly Aristotelian theory of authentic prophetic vision could be realized. (shrink)
The Interpolation Theorem, first formulated and proved by W. Craig fifty years ago for predicate logic, has been extended to many other logical frameworks and is being applied in several areas of computer science. We give a short overview, and focus on the theory of software systems and modules. An algebra of theories TA is presented, with a nonstandard interpretation of the existential quantifier . In TA, the interpolation property of the underlying logic corresponds with the quantifier combination property (...) . It is shown how the Modularization Theorem, the Factorization Lemma and the Normal Form Theorem for module expressions can be proved in TA. (shrink)
Andrews et al. attempt to clarify the standards for determining whether traits are adaptations. The authors argue that tests of adaptationist hypotheses best proceed by assessing the consistency of the traits with the proposed standards. Critical tests of such standards must assess inconsistency – hypotheses must be falsifiable. To fully understand trait evolution, we must consider both adaptive and nonadaptive hypotheses.
A photoaffinity analog of cGMP has been used to biochemically identify a new ligand-binding subunit of the retinal rod cGMP-activated ion channel, as well as amino acids in contact with cGMP in the original subunit. Covalent tethering of this probe to channels in excised menbrane patches has revealed a functional heteogeneity in the ligand-binding sites that may arise from the two biochemically identified subunits.