The re-energizers of the civic republican tradition claim that its ideas can enhance contemporary political theory as well as politics. This essay focuses on the benchmark of the republican tradition, the notion of citizenship, and explores the viability of such claims. I argue that serious limitations make the republican conception of citizenship unable to satisfy the stipulations of the ongoing global transition. The models of “the republican citizen” and “the citizen of the world” are essentially inconsistent. Some traditional ideas of (...) civic republicanism—the high demands of public service and strong patriotic identity, the rhetorical approach to individual rights, and the multiple functions of the republican state—are not adjustable to the global reality. When new republicans attempt to incorporate the elements of contemporary political theory into republican thought, their hybrid concepts fly in the face of the old tradition. (shrink)
This is an interpretation of the experiential/religious meaning of Japanese Shrine Shinto as taught us primarily by the priests at Tsubaki Grand Shrine, Suzuka, Mie Prefecture. As a heuristic device, we suggest lines of comparison between the thought and practice of the Tsubaki priests and two Western thinkers: the Jewish philosopher Martin Buber and the French philosopher Georges Bataille. This in turn allows the construction of three interpretive categories that we believe illuminate both the Shintō worldview and Shintō ritual practice.
An increasing number of drugs removed from the market because of unacceptable toxicity raises concerns regarding preapproval testing of drug safety. In the present paper it is postulated that the non-inferiority type of trial should be abandoned in favor of the superiority trial with active controls and less stringent (p<0.1, both for efficacy and toxicity) statistics. This approach will increase sensitivity of detection of drug-induced adverse effects at the expense of increasing false positive results regarding the difference in efficacy between (...) the tested and reference drug. Such a move will increase the protection of future patients. In addition, the proposed design is far more acceptable from the clinical (e.g. no need to specify the statistically expected “unimportant” number of deaths) and ethical points of view, as well as being favored by the strong incentive of involved parties. In the second part of this paper arguments are presented in favor of the hypothesis that placebo (still used in some superiority trials) does not induce adverse effects. The assertion that placebo may induce adverse effects is probably biased by the nature of the clinical experiment. Such a conclusion is supported by studies indicating that placebo-induced adverse effects are disease — and treatment — specific. The modification of clinical trials according to the proposed changes may increase the trials’ sensitivity at detecting adverse effects of drugs. (shrink)
Artykuł ma na celu ukazać złożoność problemu, jakim jest prawne usankcjonowanie klauzuli sumienia dla farmaceutów. Żywa dyskusja na ten temat toczy się obecnie nie tylko w Polsce. Autor omawia wydaną przez Comitato Nazionale per la Bioetica opinię w sprawie sprzeciwu sumienia wobec sprzedaży środków antykoncepcji awaryjnej. Analiza dokumentu odsłania argumenty zwolenników i przeciwników przyznania aptekarzom prawa odmowy sprzedaży takich preparatów. Sam dokument zawiera również wskazania etyczne użyteczne dla odpowiednich władz i instytucji, których zadaniem jest zabezpieczenie dostępności leków dla pacjenta. Wskazania (...) te zachowują swoją aktualność w przypadku ewentualnej legalizacji klauzuli sumienia dla farmaceutów w Polsce. (shrink)
The paper is intended as a contribution to historical materialism. The authors are not interested in any historical-philosophical, still less in exegetical, problems. They believe that this intellectual tradition is relevant for understanding the social (civilizational, cultural) transformations ongoing contemporarily and for coping with practical problems to which these transformations give rise. Among the most important changes there are those labeled as “globalization“ and the rise and development of “knowledge society“ and “information civilization.“ If one adopts this stance, one should (...) admit that the problems of space and culture (which have been much overlooked in the Marxist tradition) deserve special attention. Discussing the ways these problems could be tackled in historical materialism, the authors use the ideas of Leszek Nowak (non-Marxian historical materialism) and Immanuel Wallerstein (world-system theory). (shrink)