1. Wayne Backman (1992). Epistemically-Qualified Judgment. Journal of Philosophical Research 17:1-27.
    The author describes a formal system for interpreting and generating epistemically-qualified judgments, that is, judgments qualified by phrases like “it is certain that,” “it is almost certain that,” “it is plausible that,” and “it is doubtful that.” The system has two noteworthy properties. First, the system’s qualifiers are purely qualitative. Second, the system is based on epistemic warranting conditions, not truth conditions. The first property is noteworthy because it makes the system an alternative to systems that use numerical certainty factors (...)
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  2. Wayne Backman (1983). Practical and Scientific Rationality: A Difficulty for Levi's Epistemology. Synthese 57 (3):269 - 276.
    Traditionally scientific rationality has been distinguished from mere practical rationality. It has seemed that it is sometimes rational to accept statements for the purposes of particular practical deliberations even though it would not be rational to count them as having been confirmed by science. Isaac Levi contends that this traditional view is mistaken. He thinks that there should be a single standard of acceptance for all purposes, scientific and practical. The author contends that Levi has given no good reason for (...)
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  3. Wayne Backman (1980). Possible Worlds. Teaching Philosophy 3 (3):375-379.
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