Search results for 'Weak' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Gemma Robles (2008). Extensions of the Basic Constructive Logic for Weak Consistency BKc1 Defined with a Falsity Constant. Logic and Logical Philosophy 16 (4):311-322.
    The logic BKc1 is the basic constructive logic for weak consistency in the ternary relational semantics without a set of designated points. In this paper, a number of extensions of B Kc1 defined with a propositional falsity constant are defined. It is also proved that weak consistency is not equivalent to negation-consistency or absolute consistency in any logic included in positive contractionless intermediate logic LC plus the constructive negation of BKc1 and the contraposition axioms.
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  2. Mark A. Bedau (2008). Is Weak Emergence Just in the Mind? Minds and Machines 18 (4):443-459.
    Weak emergence is the view that a system’s macro properties can be explained by its micro properties but only in an especially complicated way. This paper explains a version of weak emergence based on the notion of explanatory incompressibility and “crawling the causal web.” Then it examines three reasons why weak emergence might be thought to be just in the mind. The first reason is based on contrasting mere epistemological emergence with a form of ontological emergence that (...)
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  3.  44
    Dennis Dieks & Marijn Versteegh (2008). Identical Quantum Particles and Weak Discernibility. Foundations of Physics 38 (10):923-934.
    Saunders has recently claimed that “identical quantum particles” with an anti-symmetric state (fermions) are weakly discernible objects, just like irreflexively related ordinary objects in situations with perfect symmetry (Black’s spheres, for example). Weakly discernible objects have all their qualitative properties in common but nevertheless differ from each other by virtue of (a generalized version of) Leibniz’s principle, since they stand in relations an entity cannot have to itself. This notion of weak discernibility has been criticized as question begging, but (...)
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  4.  48
    Louis Derosset (2014). On Weak Ground. Review of Symbolic Logic 7 (4):713-744.
    Though the study of grounding is still in the early stages, Kit Fine, in ”The Pure Logic of Ground”, has made a seminal attempt at formalization. Formalization of this sort is supposed to bring clarity and precision to our theorizing, as it has to the study of other metaphysically important phenomena, like modality and vagueness. Unfortunately, as I will argue, Fine ties the formal treatment of grounding to the obscure notion of a weak ground. The obscurity of weak (...)
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  5.  29
    Scott Aikin & John Casey (2011). Straw Men, Weak Men, and Hollow Men. Argumentation 25 (1):87-105.
    Three forms of the straw man fallacy are posed: the straw, weak, and hollow man. Additionally, there can be non-fallacious cases of any of these species of straw man arguments.
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  6.  12
    Emiliano Lorini (2013). On the Epistemic Foundation for Iterated Weak Dominance: An Analysis in a Logic of Individual and Collective Attitudes. [REVIEW] Journal of Philosophical Logic 42 (6):863-904.
    This paper proposes a logical framework for representing static and dynamic properties of different kinds of individual and collective attitudes. A complete axiomatization as well as a decidability result for the logic are given. The logic is applied to game theory by providing a formal analysis of the epistemic conditions of iterated deletion of weakly dominated strategies (IDWDS), or iterated weak dominance for short. The main difference between the analysis of the epistemic conditions of iterated weak dominance given (...)
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  7.  2
    Stephen H. Webb (2014). Toward a Weak Anthropocentrism. Zygon 49 (3):761-763.
    In his work on the moral status of nonhuman animals, David Clough rejects the theory of anthropocentrism while accepting its practical importance. He thus leaves theology in a dilemma: reflection on animals should not support the very concept that practical approaches to animals require. An alternative is a “weak anthropocentrism” along the line of Gianni Vattimo's “weak ontology.” A weak anthropocentrism is better suited to a Neoplatonic theory of participation, not the traditional framework of creation out of (...)
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  8.  64
    Anja Matschuck (2011). Non-Local Correlations in Therapeutic Settings? A Qualitative Study on the Basis of Weak Quantum Theory and the Model of Pragmatic Information. Axiomathes 21 (2):249-261.
    Weak Quantum Theory (WQT) and the Model of Pragmatic Information (MPI) are two psychophysical concepts developed on the basis of quantum physics. The present study contributes to their empirical examination. The issue of the study is whether WQT and MPI can not only explain ‘psi’-phenomena theoretically but also prove to be consistent with the empirical phenomenology of extrasensory perception (ESP). From the main statements of both models, 33 deductions for psychic readings are derived. Psychic readings are defined as (...)
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  9. Pierre Pica & William Snyder (1995). Weak Crossover, Scope, and Agreement in a Minimalist Framework. In Susanne Preuss, Martha Senturia, Raul Aranovich & William Byrne (eds.), Proceedings of the 13th West Coast Conference in Linguistics. Cambridge University Press
    Our paper presents a novel theory of weak crossover effects, based entirely on quantifier scope preferences and their consequences for variable binding. The structural notion of 'crossover' play no role. We develop a theory of scope preferences which ascribes a central role to the AGR-P System.
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  10.  69
    S. E. Spence & A. D. Parks (2012). Experimental Evidence for a Dynamical Non-Locality Induced Effect in Quantum Interference Using Weak Values. Foundations of Physics 42 (6):803-815.
    The quantum theoretical concepts of modular momentum and dynamical non-locality, which were introduced four decades ago, have recently been used to explain single particle quantum interference phenomena. Although the non-local exchange of modular momentum associated with such phenomena cannot be directly observed, it has been suggested that effects induced by this exchange can be measured experimentally using weak measurements of pre- and post-selected ensembles of particles. This paper reports on such an optical experiment that yielded measured weak values (...)
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  11.  17
    Mark A. Bedau (2013). Weak Emergence Drives the Science, Epistemology, and Metaphysics of Synthetic Biology. Biological Theory 8 (4):334-345.
    Top-down synthetic biology makes partly synthetic cells by redesigning simple natural forms of life, and bottom-up synthetic biology aims to make fully synthetic cells using only entirely nonliving components. Within synthetic biology the notions of complexity and emergence are quite controversial, but the imprecision of key notions makes the discussion inconclusive. I employ a precise notion of weak emergent property, which is a robust characteristic of the behavior of complex bottom-up causal webs, where a complex causal web is one (...)
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  12.  4
    B. E. Y. Svensson (2015). Non-Representative Quantum Mechanical Weak Values. Foundations of Physics 45 (12):1645-1656.
    The operational definition of a weak value for a quantum mechanical system involves the limit of the weak measurement strength tending to zero. I study how this limit compares to the situation for the undisturbed system. Under certain conditions, which I investigate, this limit is discontinuous in the sense that it does not merge smoothly to the Hilbert space description of the undisturbed system. Hence, in these discontinuous cases, the weak value does not represent the (...)
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  13.  35
    Bengt E. Y. Svensson (2013). What Is a Quantum-Mechanical “Weak Value” the Value Of? Foundations of Physics 43 (10):1193-1205.
    A so called “weak value” of an observable in quantum mechanics (QM) may be obtained in a weak measurement + post-selection procedure on the QM system under study. Applied to number operators, it has been invoked in revisiting some QM paradoxes (e.g., the so called Three-Box Paradox and Hardy’s Paradox). This requires the weak value to be interpreted as a bona fide property of the system considered, a par with entities like operator mean values and (...)
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  14.  10
    Carles Noguera, Francesc Esteva & Joan Gispert (2008). On Triangular Norm Based Axiomatic Extensions of the Weak Nilpotent Minimum Logic. Mathematical Logic Quarterly 54 (4):387-409.
    In this paper we carry out an algebraic investigation of the weak nilpotent minimum logic and its t-norm based axiomatic extensions. We consider the algebraic counterpart of WNM, the variety of WNM-algebras and prove that it is locally finite, so all its subvarieties are generated by finite chains. We give criteria to compare varieties generated by finite families of WNM-chains, in particular varieties generated by standard WNM-chains, or equivalently t-norm based axiomatic extensions of WNM, and we study (...)
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  15.  20
    Joel David Hamkins & Justin Palumbo (2012). The Rigid Relation Principle, a New Weak Choice Principle. Mathematical Logic Quarterly 58 (6):394-398.
    The rigid relation principle, introduced in this article, asserts that every set admits a rigid binary relation. This follows from the axiom of choice, because well-orders are rigid, but we prove that it is neither equivalent to the axiom of choice nor provable in Zermelo-Fraenkel set theory without the axiom of choice. Thus, it is a new weak choice principle. Nevertheless, the restriction of the principle to sets of reals is provable without the axiom of choice.
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  16.  8
    Sakaé Fuchino, Stefan Geschke & Lajos Soukupe (2001). On the Weak Freese–Nation Property of ?(Ω). Archive for Mathematical Logic 40 (6):425-435.
    Continuing [6], [8] and [16], we study the consequences of the weak Freese-Nation property of (?(ω),⊆). Under this assumption, we prove that most of the known cardinal invariants including all of those appearing in Cichoń's diagram take the same value as in the corresponding Cohen model. Using this principle we could also strengthen two results of W. Just about cardinal sequences of superatomic Boolean algebras in a Cohen model. These results show that the weak Freese-Nation property of (?(ω),⊆) (...)
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  17.  10
    Omar De la Cruz, Eric Hall, Paul Howard, Kyriakos Keremedis & Eleftherios Tachtsis (2005). Properties of the Real Line and Weak Forms of the Axiom of Choice. Mathematical Logic Quarterly 51 (6):598-609.
    We investigate, within the framework of Zermelo-Fraenkel set theory ZF, the interrelations between weak forms of the Axiom of Choice AC restricted to sets of reals.
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  18.  16
    Christoph Jäger (2009). Why to Believe Weakly in Weak Knowledge: Goldman on Knowledge as Mere True Belief. Grazer Philosophische Studien 79 (1):19-40.
    In a series of influential papers and in his groundbreaking book Knowledge in a Social World Alvin Goldman argues that sometimes “know” just means “believe truly” (Goldman 1999; 2001; 2002b; Goldman & Olsson 2009). I argue that Goldman's (and Olsson's) case for “weak knowledge”, as well as a similar argument put forth by John Hawthorne, are unsuccessful. However, I also believe that Goldman does put his finger on an interesting and important phenomenon. He alerts us to the fact that (...)
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  19.  8
    Vera Bergelson (2009). The Case of Weak Will and Wayward Desire. Criminal Law and Philosophy 3 (1):19-28.
    In this article, I confront Garvey’s argument that a weak-willed individual deserves partial excuse for trying to resist a strong desire that pushes him toward commission of a criminal act even though in the end he unreasonably abandons his resistance and commits the crime. I attempt to refute Garvey’s argument on two counts: one, I question whether the law should indeed provide mitigation to such an offender; and two, I argue that, even if it should, this mitigation may not (...)
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  20.  63
    John Bell (2008). The Axiom of Choice and the Law of Excluded Middle in Weak Set Theories. Mathematical Logic Quarterly 54 (2):194-201.
    A weak form of intuitionistic set theory WST lacking the axiom of extensionality is introduced. While WST is too weak to support the derivation of the law of excluded middle from the axiom of choice, we show that bee.ng up WST with moderate extensionality principles or quotient sets enables the derivation to go through.
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  21.  16
    Hajime Ishihara (2006). Weak König's Lemma Implies Brouwer's Fan Theorem: A Direct Proof. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 47 (2):249-252.
    Classically, weak König's lemma and Brouwer's fan theorem for detachable bars are equivalent. We give a direct constructive proof that the former implies the latter.
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  22.  14
    Mark Purdon (2013). Land Acquisitions in Tanzania: Strong Sustainability, Weak Sustainability and the Importance of Comparative Methods. [REVIEW] Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 26 (6):1127-1156.
    This paper distinguished different analytical approaches to the evaluation of the sustainability of large-scale land acquisitions—at both the conceptual and methodological levels. First, at the conceptual level, evaluation of the sustainability of land acquisitions depends on what definition of sustainability is adopted—strong or weak sustainability. Second, a lack of comparative empirical methods in many studies has limited the identification of causal factors affecting sustainability. An empirical investigation into the sustainability of land acquisitions in Tanzania that employs these existing concepts (...)
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  23.  6
    Moti Gitik & Saharon Shelah (2001). On Some Configurations Related to the Shelah Weak Hypothesis. Archive for Mathematical Logic 40 (8):639-650.
    We show that some cardinal arithmetic configurations related to the negation of the Shelah Weak Hypothesis and natural from the forcing point of view are impossible.
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  24.  9
    Klaus Ambos-Spies, Peter A. Fejer, Steffen Lempp & Manuel Lerman (1996). Decidability of the Two-Quantifier Theory of the Recursively Enumerable Weak Truth-Table Degrees and Other Distributive Upper Semi-Lattices. Journal of Symbolic Logic 61 (3):880-905.
    We give a decision procedure for the ∀∃-theory of the weak truth-table (wtt) degrees of the recursively enumerable sets. The key to this decision procedure is a characterization of the finite lattices which can be embedded into the r.e. wtt-degrees by a map which preserves the least and greatest elements: a finite lattice has such an embedding if and only if it is distributive and the ideal generated by its cappable elements and the filter generated by its cuppable elements (...)
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  25.  1
    Alfred Dolich (2004). Weak Dividing, Chain Conditions, and Simplicity. Archive for Mathematical Logic 43 (2):265-283.
    We study the properties of the independence relation given by weak dividing in simple theories. We also analyze abstract independence notions satisfying various axioms and relate these to the simple case.
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  26.  17
    David William Harker (2013). Discussion Note: McCain on Weak Predictivism and External World Scepticism. Philosophia 41 (1):195-202.
    In a recent paper McCain (2012) argues that weak predictivism creates an important challenge for external world scepticism. McCain regards weak predictivism as uncontroversial and assumes the thesis within his argument. There is a sense in which the predictivist literature supports his conviction that weak predictivism is uncontroversial. This absence of controversy, however, is a product of significant plasticity within the thesis, which renders McCain’s argument worryingly vague. For McCain’s argument to work he either needs a stronger (...)
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  27.  17
    Giovanna Devetag, Hykel Hosni & Giacomo Sillari (2013). You Better Play 7: Mutual Versus Common Knowledge of Advice in a Weak-Link Experiment. Synthese 190 (8):1351-1381.
    This paper presents the results of an experiment on mutual versus common knowledge of advice in a two-player weak-link game with random matching. Our experimental subjects play in pairs for thirteen rounds. After a brief learning phase common to all treatments, we vary the knowledge levels associated with external advice given in the form of a suggestion to pick the strategy supporting the payoff-dominant equilibrium. Our results are somewhat surprising and can be summarized as follows: in all our treatments (...)
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  28.  3
    Norman Danner & Chris Pollett (2006). The Weak Pigeonhole Principle for Function Classes in S12. Mathematical Logic Quarterly 52 (6):575-584.
    It is well known that S12 cannot prove the injective weak pigeonhole principle for polynomial time functions unless RSA is insecure. In this note we investigate the provability of the surjective weak pigeonhole principle in S12 for provably weaker function classes.
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  29.  7
    Morteza Moniri (2003). Independence Results for Weak Systems of Intuitionistic Arithmetic. Mathematical Logic Quarterly 49 (3):250.
    This paper proves some independence results for weak fragments of Heyting arithmetic by using Kripke models. We present a necessary condition for linear Kripke models of arithmetical theories which are closed under the negative translation and use it to show that the union of the worlds in any linear Kripke model of HA satisfies PA. We construct a two-node PA-normal Kripke structure which does not force iΣ2. We prove i∀1 ⊬ i∃1, i∃1 ⊬ i∀1, iΠ2 ⊬ iΣ2 and iΣ2 (...)
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  30.  1
    Douglas Bridges & Luminita Dediu (1999). Weak-Operator Continuity and the Existence of Adjoints. Mathematical Logic Quarterly 45 (2):203-206.
    It is shown, within constructive mathematics, that the unit ball B1 of the set of bounded operators on a Hilbert space H is weak-operator totally bounded. This result is then used to prove that the weak-operator continuity of the mapping T → AT on B1 is equivalent to the existence of the adjoint of A.
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  31.  3
    Victor N. Krivtsov (2015). Semantical Completeness of First-Order Predicate Logic and the Weak Fan Theorem. Studia Logica 103 (3):623-638.
    Within a weak system \ of intuitionistic analysis one may prove, using the Weak Fan Theorem as an additional axiom, a completeness theorem for intuitionistic first-order predicate logic relative to validity in generalized Beth models as well as a completeness theorem for classical first-order predicate logic relative to validity in intuitionistic structures. Conversely, each of these theorems implies over \ the Weak Fan Theorem.
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  32.  17
    Wang-Yen Lee (2012). Hitchcock and Sober on Weak Predictivism. Philosophia 40 (3):553-562.
    According to Hitchcock and Sober’s argument from overfitting for weak predictivism, the fact that a theory accurately predicts a portion of its data is evidence that it has been formulated by balancing simplicity and goodness-of-fit rather than overfitting data. The core argument consists of two likelihood inequalities. In this paper I show that there is a surprising accommodation-friendly implication in their argument, and contend that it is beset by a substantial difficulty, namely, there is no good reason to think (...)
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  33.  1
    Andrea Sorbi & Sebastiaan A. Terwijn (2015). Generalizations of the Weak Law of the Excluded Middle. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 56 (2):321-331.
    We study a class of formulas generalizing the weak law of the excluded middle and provide a characterization of these formulas in terms of Kripke frames and Brouwer algebras. We use these formulas to separate logics corresponding to factors of the Medvedev lattice.
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  34.  8
    C. R. Leavens (2005). Weak Measurements From the Point of View of Bohmian Mechanics. Foundations of Physics 35 (3):469-491.
    The theory of weak measurements developed by Aharonov and coworkers has been applied by them and others to several interesting problems in which the system of interest is both pre- and post-selected. When the probability of successful post-selection is very small the prediction for the weak value of the measured quantity is often “bizarre” and sometimes controversial, lying outside the range of possibility for a classical system or for a quantum system in the absence of post-selection (e.g. negative (...)
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  35.  2
    R. Rettinger & X. Zheng (2004). Weak Computability and Representation of Reals. Mathematical Logic Quarterly 50 (4):431.
    The computability of reals was introduced by Alan Turing [20] by means of decimal representations. But the equivalent notion can also be introduced accordingly if the binary expansion, Dedekind cut or Cauchy sequence representations are considered instead. In other words, the computability of reals is independent of their representations. However, as it is shown by Specker [19] and Ko [9], the primitive recursiveness and polynomial time computability of the reals do depend on the representation. In this paper, we explore how (...)
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  36.  6
    Boaz Tamir & Sergei Masis (2012). Weak Measurement and Weak Information. Foundations of Physics 42 (4):531-543.
    Weak measurement devices resemble band pass filters: they strengthen average values in the state space or equivalently filter out some ‘frequencies’ from the conjugate Fourier transformed vector space. We thereby adjust a principle of classical communication theory for the use in quantum computation. We discuss some of the computational benefits and limitations of such an approach, including complexity analysis, some simple examples and a realistic not-so-weak approach.
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  37.  4
    Ernest Schimmerling (2005). A Question About Suslin Trees and the Weak Square Hierarchy. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 46 (3):373-374.
    We present a question about Suslin trees and the weak square hierarchy which was contributed to the list of open problems of the BIRS workshop.
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  38.  5
    Norihiro Kamide (2013). A Hierarchy of Weak Double Negations. Studia Logica 101 (6):1277-1297.
    In this paper, a way of constructing many-valued paraconsistent logics with weak double negation axioms is proposed. A hierarchy of weak double negation axioms is addressed in this way. The many-valued paraconsistent logics constructed are defined as Gentzen-type sequent calculi. The completeness and cut-elimination theorems for these logics are proved in a uniform way. The logics constructed are also shown to be decidable.
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  39.  12
    Jiří Hanika (2008). Lévy Hierarchy in Weak Set Theories. Journal of Philosophical Logic 37 (2):121 - 140.
    We investigate the interactions of formula complexity in weak set theories with the axioms available there. In particular, we show that swapping bounded and unbounded quantification preserves formula complexity in presence of the axiom of foundation weakened to an arbitrary set base, while it does not if the axiom of foundation is further weakened to a proper class base. More attention is being paid to the necessary axioms employed in the positive results, than to the combinatorial strength of the (...)
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  40.  1
    David R. Belanger (2015). Weak Truth Table Degrees of Structures. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 56 (2):263-285.
    We study the weak truth table degree spectra of first-order relational structures. We prove a dichotomy among the possible wtt degree spectra along the lines of Knight’s upward-closure theorem for Turing degree spectra. We prove new results contrasting the wtt degree spectra of finite- and infinite-signature structures. We show that, as a method of defining classes of reals, the wtt degree spectrum is, except for some trivial cases, strictly more expressive than the Turing degree spectrum.
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  41.  1
    M. R. Feyereisen (2015). How the Weak Variance of Momentum Can Turn Out to Be Negative. Foundations of Physics 45 (5):535-556.
    Weak values are average quantities, therefore investigating their associated variance is crucial in understanding their place in quantum mechanics. We develop the concept of a position-postselected weak variance of momentum as cohesively as possible, building primarily on material from Moyal and Sonego :1135, 1991) . The weak variance is defined in terms of the Wigner function, using a standard construction from probability theory. We show this corresponds to a measurable quantity, which is not itself a weak (...)
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  42.  1
    Jānis Cīrulis (2015). On Some Classes of Commutative Weak BCK-Algebras. Studia Logica 103 (3):479-490.
    Formally, a description of weak BCK-algebras can be obtained by replacing the first BCK axiom \ - \le z - y}\) by its weakening \. It is known that every weak BCK-algebra is completely determined by the structure of its initial segments. We consider weak BCK-algebras with De Morgan complemented, orthocomplemented and orthomodular sections, as well as those where sections satisfy a certain compatibility condition, and characterize each of these classes of algebras by an equation or quasi-equation. (...)
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  43.  3
    Ioan Biris (2012). Religious Violence and the Logic of Weak Thinking: Between R. Girard and G. Vattimo. Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies 11 (32):171-189.
    C ontemporary religious terrorism propels in the forefront of philosophical, sociological, anthropological and political discussions and analysis the issue of religious violence. The violence belongs to the nature itself of religion? If so, what mechanisms can be activated to reduce violence? How to reconcile Christianity's central idea - the love of our neighbor - with the sacred violence thesis? How can the idea of religious violence be reconciled with the idea of religious love? Weak thinking, that is the logic (...)
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  44.  3
    Rajeev Goré & Revantha Ramanayake (2014). Cut-Elimination for Weak Grzegorczyk Logic Go. Studia Logica 102 (1):1-27.
    We present a syntactic proof of cut-elimination for weak Grzegorczyk logic Go. The logic has a syntactically similar axiomatisation to Gödel–Löb logic GL (provability logic) and Grzegorczyk’s logic Grz. Semantically, GL can be viewed as the irreflexive counterpart of Go, and Grz can be viewed as the reflexive counterpart of Go. Although proofs of syntactic cut-elimination for GL and Grz have appeared in the literature, this is the first proof of syntactic cut-elimination for Go. The proof is technically interesting, (...)
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  45.  1
    Sergei Odintsov & Vladimir Rybakov (2015). Inference Rules in Nelson’s Logics, Admissibility and Weak Admissibility. Logica Universalis 9 (1):93-120.
    Our paper aims to investigate inference rules for Nelson’s logics and to discuss possible ways to determine admissibility of inference rules in such logics. We will use the technique offered originally for intuitionistic logic and paraconsistent minimal Johannson’s logic. However, the adaptation is not an easy and evident task since Nelson’s logics do not enjoy replacement of equivalences rule. Therefore we consider and compare standard admissibility and weak admissibility. Our paper founds algorithms for recognizing weak admissibility and admissibility (...)
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  46.  1
    Andrzej Pietruszczak (2010). Simplified Kripke Style Semantics for Some Very Weak Modal Logics. Logic and Logical Philosophy 18 (3-4):271-296.
    In the present paper we examine very weak modal logics C1, D1, E1, S0.5◦, S0.5◦+(D), S0.5 and some of their versions which are closed under replacement of tautological equivalents (rte-versions). We give semantics for these logics, formulated by means of Kripke style models of the form , where w is a «distinguished» world, A is a set of worlds which are alternatives to w, and V is a valuation which for formulae and worlds assigns the truth-vales such that: (...)
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  47.  42
    Alex Silk (2014). Evidence Sensitivity in Weak Necessity Deontic Modals. Journal of Philosophical Logic 43 (4):691-723.
    Kolodny and MacFarlane have made a pioneering contribution to our understanding of how the interpretation of deontic modals can be sensitive to evidence and information. But integrating the discussion of information-sensitivity into the standard Kratzerian framework for modals suggests ways of capturing the relevant data without treating deontic modals as “informational modals” in their sense. I show that though one such way of capturing the data within the standard semantics fails, an alternative does not. Nevertheless I argue that we have (...)
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  48.  6
    Pierre Matet (2011). Weak Saturation of Ideals on Pκ(Λ). Mathematical Logic Quarterly 57 (2):149-165.
    We show that if κ is an infinite successor cardinal, and λ > κ a cardinal of cofinality less than κ satisfying certain conditions, then no ideal on Pκ is weakly λ+-saturated. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
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  49.  9
    G. Doyen & D. Drakova (2015). Copenhagen Quantum Mechanics Emerges From a Deterministic Schrödinger Theory in 11 Dimensional Spacetime Including Weak Field Gravitation. Foundations of Physics 45 (8):959-999.
    We construct a world model consisting of a matter field living in 4 dimensional spacetime and a gravitational field living in 11 dimensional spacetime. The seven hidden dimensions are compactified within a radius estimated by reproducing the particle–wave characteristics of diffraction experiments. In the presence of matter fields the gravitational field develops localized modes with elementary excitations called gravonons which are induced by the sources. The final world model treated here contains only gravonons and a scalar matter field. The gravonons (...)
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    Aaron Simmons (2007). A Critique of Mary Anne Warren's Weak Animal Rights View. Environmental Ethics 29 (3):267-278.
    In her book, Moral Status, Mary Anne Warren defends a comprehensive theory of the moral status of various entities. Under this theory, she argues that animals may have some moral rights but that their rights are much weaker in strength than the rights of humans, who have rights in the fullest, strongest sense. Subsequently, Warren believes that our duties to animals are far weaker than our duties to other humans. This weakness is especially evident from the fact that Warren (...)
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