Search results for 'Wildness' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Martin Drenthen (2005). Wildness as Critical Border Concept; Nietzsche and the Debate on Wilderness Restoration. Environmental Values 14 (3):317-337.
    How can environmental philosophy benefit from Friedrich Nietzsche's radical critique of morality? In this paper, it is argued that Nietzsche's account of nature provides us with a challenging diagnosis of the modern crisis in our relationship with nature. Moreover, his interpretation of wildness can elucidate our concern with the value of wilderness as a place of value beyond the sphere of human intervention. For Nietzsche, wild nature is a realm where moral valuations are out of order. In his work, (...)
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  2. R. Edward Grumbine (1994). Wildness, Wise Use, and Sustainable Development. Environmental Ethics 16 (3):227-249.
    Ideas of wilderness in North America are evolving toward some new configuration. Current wilderness ideology, among other weaknesses, has been charged with encouraging a radical separation between people and nature and with being inadequate to serve the protection of biodiversity. Sustainable development and “wise use” privatization of wildlands have been offered as alternatives to the Western wilderness concept. I review this wilderness debate and argue that critical distinctions between wildness and wilderness and self and other must be settled before (...)
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  3. R. Edward Grumbine (1994). Wildness, Wise Use, and Sustainable Development. Environmental Ethics 16 (3):227-249.
    Ideas of wilderness in North America are evolving toward some new configuration. Current wilderness ideology, among other weaknesses, has been charged with encouraging a radical separation between people and nature and with being inadequate to serve the protection of biodiversity. Sustainable development and “wise use” privatization of wildlands have been offered as alternatives to the Western wilderness concept. I review this wilderness debate and argue that critical distinctions between wildness and wilderness and self and other must be settled before (...)
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  4. Thomas H. Birch (1990). The Incarceration of Wildness: Wilderness Areas as Prisons. Environmental Ethics 12 (1):3-26.
    Even with the very best intentions , Western culture’s approach to wilderness and wildness, the otherness of nature, tends to be one of imperialistic domination and appropriation. Nevertheless, in spite of Western culture’s attempt to gain total control over nature by imprisoning wildness in wilderness areas, which are meant to be merely controlled “simulations” of wildness, a real wildness, a real otherness, can still be found in wilderness reserves . This wildness can serve as the (...)
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  5.  38
    Isis Brook (2008). Wildness in the English Garden Tradition: A Reassessment of the Picturesque From Environmental Philosophy. Ethics and the Environment 13 (1):pp. 105-119.
    The picturesque is usually interpreted as an admiration of 'picture-like,' and thus inauthentic, nature. In contrast, this paper sets out an interpretation that is more in accord with the contemporary love of wildness. This paper will briefly cover some garden history in order to contextualize the discussion and proceed by reassessing the picturesque through the eighteenth century works of Price and Watelet. It will then identify six themes in their work (variety, intricacy, engagement, time, chance, and transition) and show (...)
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  6.  19
    Kate Booth (2011). In Wilderness and Wildness. Environmental Ethics 33 (3):283-293.
    There is a complexity of entities and happenings embodied within the pillars that frame the doorways in our homes and support the broad flat spaces that form supermarkets and department stores. Each pillar speaks to the mythology encircling the origins of Gothic architecture; the ideas surrounding the shift from the trunks and boughs of the sacred grove toward the columns, arches, and vaults of church and cathedral. Each pillar embodies the evolution of life and the history of the Earth. Awakening (...)
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  7.  17
    Kate Booth (2011). In Wilderness and Wildness: Recognizing and Responding Within the Agency of Relational Memory. Environmental Ethics 33 (3):283-293.
    There is a complexity of entities and happenings embodied within the pillars that frame the doorways in our homes and support the broad flat spaces that form supermarkets and department stores. Each pillar speaks to the mythology encircling the origins of Gothic architecture; the ideas surrounding the shift from the trunks and boughs of the sacred grove toward the columns, arches, and vaults of church and cathedral. Each pillar embodies the evolution of life and the history of the Earth. Awakening (...)
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  8.  12
    Jim Cheney (1996). The Dusty World: Wildness and Higher Laws in Thoreau's Walden. Ethics and the Environment 1 (2):75 - 90.
    To the attentive reader, the high contrast between Thoreau's depiction of a life in conformity to "Higher Laws" and his depiction of Wildness can seem to be yet another endorsement of nature/culture dualism. I argue that while such a dualism frames much of Thoreau's "experiment" at Walden Pond, a deeper understanding of the relationship between Higher Laws and Wildness emerges which is decidedly nondualistic, an understanding for which I invoke the Buddhist image of the Dusty World. I conclude (...)
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  9.  10
    Kingsley Goodwin (2007). Postmodernism, Deep Ecology and the Idea of Wildness. Ethical Perspectives 14 (4):501-512.
    Martin Drenthen has made a strong case for his interpretation of Nietzsche’s potential contribution to environmental ethics but he does not do justice to deep ecology. The problematic he identifies is essentially the difficulty of asserting a meaningful basis for action while being aware of the contingency of all meanings.This tension can be seen running through deep ecology, at least as described by its main theorist, Arne Naess, who is not the moral realist that Drenthen would have him. Key differences (...)
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  10.  7
    Sean Williams (2006). Chiasmic Wildness. Environmental Philosophy 3 (1):6-12.
    Whether one’s attention lies with the big wilderness outside or the wild people and places that survive amidst our ecologically impoverished cities and towns, a thorough and rigorous reflection on wildness remains as a task for environmental philosophy. The political and literary movements concerned with the wilderness have sparked passion, insight, and moments of brilliance, but by and large leave us today at best confused, and at worst naïve, with respect to our thinking of wildness. The attempts at (...)
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  11. Martin Drenthen (2005). Wildness as a Critical Border Concept: Nietzsche and the Debate on Wilderness Restoration. Environmental Values 14 (3):317-337.
    How can environmental philosophy benefit from Friedrich Nietzscheʼs radical critique of morality? In this paper, it is argued that Nietzscheʼs account of nature provides us with a challenging diagnosis of the modern crisis in our relationship with nature. Moreover, his interpretation of wildness can elucidate our concern with the value of wilderness as a place of value beyond the sphere of human intervention. For Nietzsche, wild nature is a realm where moral valuations are out of order. In his work, (...)
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  12.  86
    Boria Sax (1997). What is a "Jewish Dog"? Konrad Lorenz and the Cult of Wildness. Society and Animals 5 (1):3-21.
    This paper explores the Nazi view of nature as violent but orderly, contrasted with what the Nazis took to be the chaos and confusion of human society. In imposing strict authoritarian controls, the Nazis strove to emulate what they viewed as the natural discipline of instinct. They saw this as embodied in wild animals, especially large predators such as wolves, while the opposite were domesticated mongrels whose instincts, like those of overly civilized peoples, had been ruined through careless breeding. Those (...)
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  13.  15
    Douglas R. Anderson (1998). Wildness as Political Act. The Personalist Forum 14 (1):65-72.
  14.  22
    Kenneth H. Simonsen (1981). The Value of Wildness. Environmental Ethics 3 (3):259-263.
    In his article, “The Nature and Possibility of an Environmental Ethics,” Tom Regan says that the fitting attitude toward nature “is one of admiring respect.” What folIows is an attempt to discover what in nature should impel us to respond in this way. Ultimately I argue that the value of wild nature is found in the fact that it has emerged spontaneously, independent of human designs.
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  15. Mark Halsey (2009). Deleuze and Deliverance : Body, Wildness, Ethics. In Bernd Herzogenrath (ed.), Deleuze/Guattari & Ecology. Palgrave Macmillan
  16.  17
    Paul F. Schmidt (1987). Freedom and Wildness in Thoreau's “Walking”. Tulane Studies in Philosophy 35:11-15.
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  17.  8
    Glen Wunderlich (2001). David Peterson, Heartsblood: Hunting, Spirituality, and Wildness in America. [REVIEW] Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 14 (3):354-358.
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  18.  2
    J. Th Leerssen (1995). Wildness, Wilderness and Ireland: Medieval and Early-Modern Patterns in the Demarcation of Civility. Journal of the History of Ideas 56:25-39.
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  19.  2
    Carlo Toffalori (1997). Wildness Implies Undecidability for Lattices Over Group Rings. Journal of Symbolic Logic 62 (4):1429-1447.
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  20. Charles A. Coburn (1923). Heredity of Wildness and Savageness in Mice. Journal of Philosophy 20 (6):166-167.
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  21. Crispin Sartwell (1996). Wildness, Language, and Solitude. Reason Papers 21:5-14.
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  22. Christopher Thacker (1983). The Wildness Pleases: The Origins of Romanticism. St. Martin's Press.
     
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  23. Martin Drenthen (2009). Fatal Attraction. Wildnes in Contemporary Film. Environmental Ethics 31 (3):297-315.
    The concept of wildness not only plays a role in philosophical debates, but also in popular culture. Wild nature is often seen as a place outside the cultural sphere where one can still encounter instances of transcendence. Some writers and moviemakers contest the dominant romanticized view of wild nature by telling stories that somehow show a different harsher face of nature. In encounters with the wild and unruly, humans can sometimes experience the misfit between their well-ordered, human-centered, self-created world (...)
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  24.  3
    Clare Palmer & Brendon M. H. Larson (2014). Should We Move the Whitebark Pine? Assisted Migration, Ethics and Global Environmental Change. Environmental Values 23 (6):641-662.
    Some species face extinction if they are unable to keep pace with climate change. Yet proposals to assist threatened species’ poleward or uphill migration (‘assisted migration’) have caused significant controversy among conservationists, not least because assisted migration seems to threaten some values, even as it protects others. To date, however, analysis of ethical and value questions about assisted migration has largely remained abstract, removed from the ultimately pragmatic decision about whether or not to move a particular species. This paper uses (...)
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  25. Martin Drenthen (2009). Fatal Attraction. Environmental Ethics 31 (3):297-315.
    The concept of wildness not only plays a role in philosophical debates, but also in popular culture. Wild nature is often seen as a place outside the cultural sphere where one can still encounter instances of transcendence. Some writers and moviemakers contest the dominant romanticized view of wild nature by telling stories that somehow show a different harsher face of nature. In encounters with the wild and unruly, humans can sometimes experience the misfit between their well-ordered, human-centered, self-created world (...)
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  26.  24
    Henry David Thoreau, Walking.
    I wish to speak a word for Nature, for absolute freedom and wildness, as contrasted with a freedom and culture merely civil,—to regard man as an inhabitant, or a part and parcel of Nature, rather than a member of society. I wish to make an extreme statement, if so I may make an emphatic one, for there are enough champions of civilization: the minister and the school committee and every one of you will take care of that.
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  27. Nivedita Gangopadhyay (2011). The Extended Mind: Born to Be Wild? A Lesson From Action-Understanding. [REVIEW] Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 10 (3):377-397.
    The extended mind hypothesis (Clark and Chalmers in Analysis 58(1):7–19, 1998; Clark 2008) is an influential hypothesis in philosophy of mind and cognitive science. I argue that the extended mind hypothesis is born to be wild. It has undeniable and irrepressible tendencies of flouting grounding assumptions of the traditional information-processing paradigm. I present case-studies from social cognition which not only support the extended mind proposal but also bring out its inherent wildness. In particular, I focus on cases of action-understanding (...)
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  28.  25
    Ned Hettinger & Bill Throop (1999). Refocusing Ecocentrism. Environmental Ethics 21 (1):3-21.
    Traditional ecocentric ethics relies on an ecology that emphasizes the stability and integrity of ecosystems. Numerous ecologists now focus on natural systems that are less clearly characterized by these properties. We use the elimination and restoration of wolves in Yellowstone to illustrate troubles for traditional ecocentric ethics caused by ecological models emphasizing instability in natural systems. We identify several other problems for a stability-integrity based ecocentrism as well. We show how an ecocentric ethic can avoid these difficulties by emphasizing the (...)
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  29.  66
    Bryan E. Bannon (2011). Flesh and Nature: Understanding Merleau-Pontys Relational Ontology. Research in Phenomenology 41 (3):327-357.
    In this paper I attempt to develop several ways Merleau-Ponty's ontology might contribute to an environmental ethic through a redefinition of his concept of flesh in terms of a general theory of affectivity. Currently accepted interpretations of the concept such as those in Abram, Toadvine, Barbaras, and Dastur rely upon conceiving flesh as a perceptual experience. I contest this interpretation and argue that a more productive conception of flesh emerges when understood in terms of Heidegger's philosophy. The paper concludes with (...)
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  30.  38
    Eric Katz (1992). The Call of the Wild: The Struggle Against Domination and the Technological Fix of Nature. Environmental Ethics 14 (3):265-273.
    In this essay, I use encounters with the white-tailed deer of Fire Island to explore the “call of the wild”—the attraction to value that exists in a natural world outside of human control. Value exists in nature to the extent that it avoids modification by human technology. Technology “fixes” the natural world by improving it for human use or by restoring degraded ecosystems. Technology creates a “new world,” an artifactual reality that is far removed from the “wildness” of nature. (...)
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  31.  19
    Albert W. Musschenga (2002). Naturalness: Beyond Animal Welfare. [REVIEW] Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 15 (2):171-186.
    There is an ongoing debate in animalethics on the meaning and scope of animalwelfare. In certain broader views, leading anatural life through the development of naturalcapabilities is also headed under the conceptof animal welfare. I argue that a concern forthe development of natural capabilities of ananimal such as expressed when living freelyshould be distinguished from the preservationof the naturalness of its behavior andappearance. However, it is not always clearwhere a plea for natural living changes overinto a plea for the preservation (...)
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  32.  19
    Christian Gamborg, Bart Gremmen, Stine B. Christiansen & Peter Sandøe (2010). De-Domestication: Ethics at the Intersection of Landscape Restoration and Animal Welfare. Environmental Values 19 (1):57 - 78.
    De-domestication is the deliberate establishment of a population of domesticated animals or plants in the wild. In time, the population should be able to reproduce, becoming self-sustainable and incorporating 'wild' animals. Often de-domestication is part of a larger nature restoration scheme, aimed at creating landscapes anew, or re-creating former habitats . De-domestication is taken up in this paper because it both engages and raises questions about the major norms governing animals and nature. The debate here concerns whether animals undergoing de-domestication (...)
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  33.  28
    Bernice Bovenkerk, Frans Stafleu, Ronno Tramper, Jan Vorstenbosch & Frans W. A. Brom (2003). To Act or Not to Act? Sheltering Animals From the Wild: A Pluralistic Account of a Conflict Between Animal and Environmental Ethics. Ethics, Place and Environment 6 (1):13 – 26.
    The leading question of this article is whether it is acceptable, from a moral point of view, to take wild animals that are ill out of their natural habitat and temporarily bring them under human control with the purpose of curing them. To this end the so-called 'seal debate' was examined. In the Netherlands, seals that are lost or ill are rescued and taken into shelters, where they are cured and afterwards reintroduced into their natural environment. Recently, this practice has (...)
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  34.  31
    J. Baird Callicott (2003). Wetland Gloom and Wetland Glory. Philosophy and Geography 6 (1):33 – 45.
    Mountains were once no less feared and loathed than wetlands. Mountains, however, were aesthetically rehabilitated (in part by modern landscape painting), but wetlands remain aesthetically reviled. The three giants of American environmental philosophy--Thoreau, Muir, and Leopold--all expressed aesthetic appreciation of wetlands. For Thoreau and Muir--both of whom were a bit misanthropic and contrarian--the beauty of wetlands was largely a matter of their floral interest and wildness (freedom from human inhabitation and economic exploitation). Leopold's aesthetic appreciation of wetlands was better (...)
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  35.  14
    Joel MacClellan (2013). "What the Wild Things Are: A Critique on Clare Palmer's" What Do We Owe Animals?". Between the Species: An Electronic Journal for the Study of Philosophy and Animals 16 (1):6.
    This paper critiques Clare Palmer’s “What do we owe wild animals?” on three grounds. First, it is argued that, Palmer’s opening case study notwithstanding, there are good empirical reasons to think that we should assist domesticated horses and not wild deer. Then, Palmer’s claim that “wildness is not a capacity” is brought into question, and it is argued that wildness connotes certain capacities which wild animals generally have and which domesticated animals generally lack. Lastly, the “supererogation problem” is (...)
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  36.  15
    Bill Throop (1999). Refocusing Ecocentrism. Environmental Ethics 21 (1):3-21.
    Traditional ecocentric ethics relies on an ecology that emphasizes the stability and integrity of ecosystems. Numerous ecologists now focus on natural systems that are less clearly characterized by these properties. We use the elimination and restoration of wolves in Yellowstone to illustrate troubles for traditional ecocentric ethics caused by ecological models emphasizing instability in natural systems. We identify several other problems for a stability-integrity based ecocentrism as well. We show how an ecocentric ethic can avoid these difficulties by emphasizing the (...)
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  37.  31
    T. R. Kover (2007). The Beastly Familiarity of Wild Alterity. Ethical Perspectives 14 (4):431-456.
    This article discusses the ‘nature’ of our contemporary fascination with wildness, in light of the popular documentary “Grizzly Man.”Taking as its central point of departure the film’s central protagonist Timothy Treadwell’s fascination with wild grizzlies and director Werner Herzog’s condemnation of it as gross anthropomorphism, this paper will explore the context and basis of our contemporary fascination with wildness in terms of the current debate raging within environmental philosophy between the social constructivist or postmodern position as exemplified by (...)
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  38.  26
    Eileen O'Rourke (2000). The Reintroduction and Reinterpretation of the Wild. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 13 (1):144-165.
    This paper is concerned with changing social representations of the ``wild,'' in particular wild animals. We argue that within a contemporary Western context the old agricultural perception of wild animals as adversarial and as a threat to domestication, is being replaced by an essentially urban fascination with certain emblematic wild animals, who are seen to embody symbols of naturalness and freedom. On closer examination that carefully mediatized ``naturalness'' may be but another form of domestication. After an historical overview of the (...)
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  39.  5
    Robert Chapman (2004). Crowded Solitude. Environmental Philosophy 1 (1):58-72.
    Wilderness and wildness are not related isomorphically. Wildness is the broader category; all instances of wilderness express wildness while all instances of wildness do not express wilderness. There is more than a logical distinction between wildness and wilderness, and what begins as an analytic distinction ends as an ontological one. A more rhetorical representation of this confusion is captured by the notion of synecdoche, where, in this case, wilderness the narrower term is used for (...) the more expansive term. Although this might seem obvious at first glance, I contend that the two concepts are often misused taken as synonyms thus equivocally, setting back the cause of conceptual clarity in environmental philosophy in general, and environmental restoration in particular. One notable outcome has been the unfortunate dichotomy between preservation and conservation resulting in policy choices that needlessly deny integrated alternatives by illicit exclusion. This paper will clarify this confusion by demonstrating instances where the two concepts have been systematically abused—conflated—and show how Henry David Thoreau saw them as importantly separable. Finally, a clearer understanding of the distinctions between the two concepts provides the basis for a viable program of restoration based on an ethics of place. (shrink)
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  40.  17
    Anthony Skillen (1985). Rousseau and the Fall of Social Man. Philosophy 60 (231):105-121.
    As ideas and feelings succeeded one another, and heart and head were brought into play, men continued to lay aside their natural wildness; their private connections became ever more intimate as their limits extended. They accustomed themselves to assemble before their huts round a large tree; singing and dancing, the true offspring of love and leisure, became the amusement, or rather the occupation, of men and women thus assembled together with nothing else to do. Each one began to consider (...)
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  41.  18
    Ullrich Melle (2007). Reflections on the Meaning of Nature. Ethical Perspectives 14 (4):513-529.
    The ecological crisis is more than a threat to our physical survival. It is also a metaphysical or moral crisis. With the human imprint on the natural environment growing ever larger and deeper, we face the prospect of a world without true non-human otherness. Maybe as Bill McKibben argues, we have crossed the threshold already and, without being fully aware of it, live already in a postnatural world. Nature, then, is not only exhausted as a physical but also as a (...)
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  42.  4
    I. I. I. Rolston (1983). Values Gone Wild. Inquiry 26 (2):181 – 207.
    Wilderness valued as mere resource for human?interest satisfaction is challenged in favor of wilderness as a productive source, in which humans have roots, but which also yields wild neighbors and aliens with intrinsic value. Wild value is storied achievement in an evolutionary ecosystem, with instrumental and intrinsic, organismic and systemic values intermeshed. Survival value is reconsidered in this light. Changing cultural appreciations of values in wilderness can transform and relativize our judgments about appropriate conduct there. A final valued element in (...)
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  43.  12
    Brian Schroeder (2012). Reterritorializing Subjectivity. Research in Phenomenology 42 (2):251-266.
    Abstract The philosophies of Deleuze, Guattari and Levinas are taken up in an effort to advance the ethical, political, and technological implications of how we interpret, inhabit, and territorialize the Earth. The difference between their views on the relation between immanence and transcendence and their respective analyses of the face and faciality are brought to bear in addressing the questions of ethics, politics, and values in relation to the constitution and liberation, or resingularization, of subjectivity. The contemporary world has produced (...)
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  44.  15
    Nathan Kowalsky (2007). Wilderness, Wasteland, and Homeland. Ethical Perspectives 14 (4):457-478.
    Judging a place as wasteland or homeland is a matter of perspective: presupposed values, knowledge through acquaintance, and comportment. Therefore, contra Martin Drenthen, the value of wilderness is a judgement call, not a conceptual necessity. I show this by first distinguishing wilderness from “wildness,” then culture from civilization, and finally, by situating Nietzsche’s teachings of the will to power in the context of a devalued world-view.Nevertheless, I agree with Drenthen that some understandings of wilderness are more appropriate than others. (...)
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  45.  11
    Mark A. Michael (2002). Why Not Interfere with Nature? Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 5 (1):89-112.
    Advocates of an environmental ethic frequently claim that what makes an ethical theory truly and uniquely environmental is its commitment to the principle that environmental wholes such as species, ecosystems, and biotic communities are morally considerable. The prevailing view is that our primary duty towards these wholes is to respect their integrity, stability, and beauty, and that the best way to do this is to leave them alone, not interfere with them, and let nature follow its own course. But is (...)
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  46.  12
    Ullrich Melle (2007). Introduction. Ethical Perspectives 14 (4):361-370.
    IntroductionIn May 2006, the small group of doctoral students working on ecophilosophy at the Higher Institute of Philosophy at K.U.Leuven invited the Dutch environmental philosopher Martin Drenthen to a workshop to discuss his writings on the concept of wilderness, its metaphysical and moral meaning, and the challenge social constructivism poses for ecophilosophy and environmental protection. Drenthen’s publications on these topics had already been the subject of intense discussions in the months preceding the workshop. His presentation on the workshop and the (...)
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  47.  8
    Robert C. Neville (2008). A Letter of Grateful and Affectionate Response to David Ray Griffin's Whitehead's Radically Different Postmodern Philosophy. Process Studies 37 (1):7-38.
    David R. Griffin’s new Whitehead’s Radically Different Postmodern Philosophy: An Argument for Its Contemporary Relevance (Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 2007) contains a chapterlong Whiteheadian response to several criticisms I have leveled against process theology. While encouraging his attempt to promote Whitehead as a preferred alternative to foundationalist modernism and postmodernism, I undertake to rebut Griffin’s arguments through discussions of the following topics: the one and the many (which Whitehead does not treat adequately), the finite versus infinite (...)
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  48.  4
    Henning Trüper (2013). Wild Archives Unsteady Records of the Past in the Travels of Enno Littmann. History of the Human Sciences 26 (4):128-148.
    The article examines the scholarly travels of Enno Littmann (1875–1958) in Syria and Ethiopia as providing an alternative model for understanding ‘the archive’ as a theoretical topos in connection with the production of historical knowledge in the 19th century. The argument seeks to dismantle the nexus between classification and modern European statehood – here discussed with the help of Derrida’s Mal d’archive – that has come to dominate debates on the epistemological place of the archive. Instead, the article seeks to (...)
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  49.  8
    Martin Drenthen (2007). New Wilderness Landscapes as Moral Criticism. Ethical Perspectives 14 (4):371-403.
    In moral debates about human’s relationship with nature, one often hears references to nature’s wildness. Apparently, postmodern city dwellers seem to be deeply fascinated by wild nature; for them, wildness somehow seems to have strong moral significance. How should we interpret this fascination? Moral meanings of nature come into play as soon as we start articulating our relationship with the world.In this process, we transform the neutrality of space into a meaningful place, that is, through interpretation we make (...)
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  50.  3
    Christine M. Reed (2012). Enriching the Lives of Wild Horses: Designing Opportunities for Them to Flourish. Environmental Values 21 (3):317 - 329.
    Wild horses are becoming dependent on transitional environments between domesticity and wildness. In Dutch new nature areas they are learning to perform roles as ecological surrogates for their extinct ancestors. In the U.S. wild horses are 'feral' and exist in numbers deemed to be in excess of the carrying capacity of semi-arid public range lands. The federal government is removing and relocating thousands to long-term holding pastures. The capabilities approach of Nussbaum (2006) allows us to evaluate this transitional environment (...)
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