Search results for 'Wilhelm Gaus' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Franz Porzsolt, Nicole Scholtz-Gorton, Nikola Biller-Andorno, Anke Thim, Karin Meissner, Irmgard Roeckl-Wiedmann, Barbara Herzberger, Renatus Ziegler, Wilhelm Gaus & Ernst Pöppel (2004). Applying Evidence to Support Ethical Decisions: Is the Placebo Really Powerless? Science and Engineering Ethics 10 (1):119-132.score: 240.0
    Using placebos in day-to-day practice is an ethical problem. This paper summarises the available epidemiological evidence to support this difficult decision. Based on these data we propose to differentiate between placebo and “knowledge framing”. While the use of placebo should be confined to experimental settings in clinical trials, knowledge framing — which is only conceptually different from placebo — is a desired, expected and necessary component of any doctor-patient encounter. Examples from daily practice demonstrate both, the need to investigate the (...)
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  2. Prof Dr Franz Porzsolt, Nicole Scholtz-Gorton, Nikola Biller-Andorno, Anke Thim, Karin Meissner, Irmgard Roeckl-Wiedmann, Barbara Herzberger, Renatus Ziegler, Wilhelm Gaus & Ernst Pöppel (2004). Applying Evidence to Support Ethical Decisions: Is the Placebo Really Powerless? [REVIEW] Science and Engineering Ethics 10 (1):119-132.score: 240.0
    Using placebos in day-to-day practice is an ethical problem. This paper summarises the available epidemiological evidence to support this difficult decision. Based on these data we propose to differentiate between placebo and “knowledge framing”. While the use of placebo should be confined to experimental settings in clinical trials, knowledge framing — which is only conceptually different from placebo — is a desired, expected and necessary component of any doctor-patient encounter. Examples from daily practice demonstrate both, the need to investigate the (...)
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  3. Hellmut Wilhelm & Richard Wilhelm (1995). Understanding the "I Ching": The Wilhelm Lectures on the Book of Changes. Princeton University Press.score: 210.0
    The West's foremost translator of the I Ching, Richard Wilhelm thought deeply about how contemporary readers could benefit from this ancient work and its perennially valid insights into change and chance.
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  4. Gerald Gaus, What is Deontology?, Part Two: Reasons to Act Gerald F. Gaus.score: 180.0
    Part One of this essay considered familiar ways of characterizing deontology, which focus on the notions of the good and the right. Here we will take up alternative approaches, which stress the type of reasons for actions that are generated by deontological theories. Although some of these alternative conceptualizations of deontology also employ a distinction between the good and the right, all mark the basic contrast between deontology and teleology in terms of reasons to act.
     
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  5. Gerald Gaus, What is Deontology?, Part One: Orthodox Viewsa Gerald F. Gaus.score: 180.0
    Current moral philosophy is often seen as essentially a debate between the two great traditions of consequentialism and deontology. Although there has been considerable work clarifying consequentialism, deontology is more often attacked or defended than analyzed. Just how we are to understand the very idea of a deontological ethic? We shall see that competing conceptions of deontology have been advanced in recent ethical thinking, leading to differences in classifying ethical theories. If we do not focus on implausible versions, the idea (...)
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  6. Gerald Gaus, The Diversity of Comprehensive Liberalisms.score: 60.0
    The distinction between ‘comprehensive’ and ‘political’ liberalisms, explored in the previous chapter, has become central to contemporary political theory. My aim in this chapter is to examine various ‘comprehensive’ liberalisms, with particular care to identifying in what sense they are comprehensive. As I have argued elsewhere (Gaus, 2003: chap. 7), the distinction between political and comprehensive liberalisms is elusive. Rawls repeatedly describes as ‘comprehensive’ ‘philosophical’, ‘moral’ and ‘religious’ ‘doctrines’ (1996: xxv, 4, 36, 38, 160) or ‘beliefs’ (1996: 63). Indeed, (...)
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  7. Gerald Gaus (2008). The (Severe) Limits of Deliberative Democracy as the Basis for Political Choice. Theoria 55 (117):26-53.score: 30.0
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  8. Gerald F. Gaus (1999). Reasonable Pluralism and the Domain of the Political: How the Weaknesses of John Rawls's Political Liberalism Can Be Overcome by a Justificatory Liberalism. Inquiry 42 (2):259 – 284.score: 30.0
    Under free institutions the exercise of human reason leads to a plurality of reasonable, yet irreconcilable doctrines. Rawls's political liberalism is intended as a response to this fundamental feature of modern democratic life. Justifying coercive political power by appeal to any one (or sample) of these doctrines is, Rawls believes, oppressive and illiberal. If we are to achieve unity without oppression, he tells us, we must all affirm a public political conception that is supported by these diverse reasonable doctrines. The (...)
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  9. Gerald Gaus, Respect for Persons and the Evolution of Morality.score: 30.0
    Let me begin with a stylized contrast between two ways of thinking about morality. On the one hand, morality can be understood as the dictate of, or uncovered by, impartial reason. That which is (truly) moral must be capable of being verified by everyone’s reasoning from a suitably impartial perspective. If we are to respect the free and equal nature of each person, each must (in some sense) rationally validate the requirements of morality. If we take this view, the genuine (...)
     
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  10. Gerald Gaus, Liberal Neutrality: A Compelling and Radical Principle.score: 30.0
    Compared to other debates in contemporary political philosophy, the light-to-heat ratio of discussions of neutrality has been somewhat dismal. Although most political philosophers seem to know whether they are for it or against it, there is considerable confusion about what “it” is. To be sure, some of this ambiguity has been noted, and at least partially dealt with, in the literature. Neutrality understood as a constraint on the sorts of reasons that may be advanced to justify state action is regularly (...)
     
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  11. Gerald Gaus, State Neutrality and Controversial Values in On Liberty.score: 30.0
    In an important essay Charles Larmore tells us that Kant and Mill sought to justify the principle of political neutrality by appealing to ideals of autonomy and individuality. By remaining neutral with regard to controversial views of the good life, constitutional principles will express, according to them, what ought to be of supreme value throughout the whole of our life.1 On Larmore’s influential reading, Mill defended what we might call first-level neutrality: Millian principles determining justified legal (and, we might add, (...)
     
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  12. Gerald Gaus, The Place of Religious Belief in Public Reason Liberalism.score: 30.0
    In the few decades a new conception of liberalism has arisen—the “public reason view” — which developed out of contractualist approaches to justifying liberalism. The social contract theories of Hobbes, Locke and Rousseau all stressed that the justification of the state depended on showing that everyone would, in some way, consent to it. By relying on consent, social contract theory seemed to suppose a voluntarist conception of political justice: what is just depends on what people choose to agree to — (...)
     
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  13. Gerald Gaus, The Place of Autonomy Within Liberalism.score: 30.0
    My concern in this chapter is the place of autonomy within liberalism, understood as a public morality.1 To what extent is liberal morality necessarily committed to some doctrine of autonomy, and what is the nature of this doctrine? I begin (§2) by briefly explicating my understanding of liberalism, which is based the fundamental liberal principle—that all interferences with action stand in need of justification. Section 3 then defends my first core claim: given a certain compelling view of the nature of (...)
     
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  14. Gerald Gaus & Kevin Vallier (2009). The Roles of Religious Conviction in a Publicly Justified Polity: The Implications of Convergence, Asymmetry and Political Institutions. Philosophy and Social Criticism 35 (1-2):51-76.score: 30.0
    Our concern in this essay are the roles of religious conviction in what we call a “publicly justified polity” — one in which the laws conform to the Principle of Public Justification, according to which (in a sense that will become clearer) each citizen must have conclusive reason to accept each law as binding. According to “justificatory liberalism,”1 this public justification requirement follows from the core liberal commitment of respect for the freedom and equality of all citizens.2 To respect each (...)
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  15. Gerald Gaus (2003). Backwards Into the Future: Neorepublicanism as a Postsocialist Critique of Market Society. Social Philosophy and Policy 20 (1):59-91.score: 30.0
    A. Two conceptions of moral legitimacy Socialism, understood as the rejection of markets based on private property in favor of comprehensive centralized economic planning, is no longer a serious political option. If the core of capitalism is the organization of the economy primarily through market competition based on private property, then capitalism has certainly defeated socialism. Markets have been accepted—and central planning abandoned—throughout most of the “third world” and the formerly Communist states. In the advanced industrial states of the West, (...)
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  16. Gerald Gaus (1997). Does Democracy Reveal the Voice of the People? Four Takes on Rousseau. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 75 (2):141 – 162.score: 30.0
  17. Gerald F. Gaus (1995). The Rational, the Reasonable and Justification. Journal of Political Philosophy 3 (3):234–258.score: 30.0
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  18. Gerald Gaus (2009). Recognized Rights as Devices of Public Reason. Philosophical Perspectives 23 (1):111-136.score: 30.0
    My concern in this essay is a family of liberal theories that I shall call “public reason liberalism,” which arose out of the social contract theories of Hobbes, Locke and Rousseau. These social contract accounts stressed that the justification of the state depended on showing that everyone would, in some way, consent to it. However, by relying on consent, social contract theory seemed to suppose a voluntarist conception of political obligation and authority: I am only bound by political authority if (...)
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  19. Gerald Gaus (2010). Coercion, Ownership, and the Redistributive State: Justificatory Liberalism's Classical Tilt. Social Philosophy and Policy 27 (01):233-.score: 30.0
    Justificatory liberalism1 rests on a conception of members of the public as free and equal. To say that each is free implies that each has a fundamental claim to act as she sees fit on the basis of her own reasoning. To say that each is equal is to insist that members of the public are symmetrically placed insofar as no one has a natural right to command others, nor does anyone have a natural duty to defer to the reasoning (...)
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  20. Fred D'Agostino, John Thrasher & Gerald Gaus, Contemporary Approaches to the Social Contract. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.score: 30.0
  21. Gerald Gaus (2009). Is the Public Incompetent? Compared to Whom? About What? Critical Review 20 (3):291-311.score: 30.0
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  22. Gerald F. Gaus (2007). On Justifying the Moral Rights of the Moderns: A Case of Old Wine in New Bottles. Social Philosophy and Policy 24 (1):84-119.score: 30.0
    In this essay I sketch a philosophical argument for classical liberalism based on the requirements of public reason. I argue that we can develop a philosophical liberalism that, unlike so much recent philosophy, takes existing social facts and mores seriously while, at the same time, retaining the critical edge characteristic of the liberal tradition. I argue that once we develop such an account, we are led toward a vindication of “old” (qua classical) liberal morality—what Benjamin Constant called the “liberties of (...)
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  23. Paul G. Wilhelm (2002). International Validation of the Corruption Perceptions Index: Implications for Business Ethics and Entrepreneurship Education. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 35 (3):177 - 189.score: 30.0
    International government and corporate corruption is increasingly under siege. Although various groups of researchers have quantified and documented world-wide corruption, apparently no one has validated the measures. This study finds a very strong significant correlation of three measures of corruption with each other, thereby indicating validity. One measure was of Black Market activity, another was of overabundance of regulation or unnecessary restriction of business activity. The third measure was an index based on interview perceptions of corruption (Corruption Perceptions Index or (...)
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  24. Gerald F. Gaus (2001). What is Deontology? Part One: Orthodox Views. [REVIEW] Journal of Value Inquiry 35 (1):27-42.score: 30.0
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  25. Gerald Gaus, The Evolution of Society and Mind: Hayek's System of Ideas.score: 30.0
    As a rule, Hayek has not been treated kindly by scholars. One would expect that a political theorist and economist of his stature would be charitably, if not sympathetically, read by commentators; instead, Hayek often elicits harsh dismissals. This is especially true of his fundamental ideas about the evolution of society and reason. A reader will find influential discussions in which his analysis is described as “dogmatic,” “unsophisticated,” and “crude.” In this chapter I propose to take a fresh start, sketching (...)
     
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  26. Paul G. Wilhelm (1993). Application of Distributive Justice Theory to the CEO Pay Problem: Recommendations for Reform. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 12 (6):469 - 482.score: 30.0
    An ethical analysis of chief executive officer (CEO) salaries can be approached via theory on distributive justice and an examination of some corporate codes of ethics. U.S. CEO salaries are compared with their Japanese and European counterparts, and factors behind the high U.S. CEO salaries are reviewed. The negative repercussions of high pay are discussed, including feelings of unfairness, declining morale and greater cynicism found in lower level employees. Reduced research and development budgets, and downsized organizations are related to the (...)
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  27. Gerald F. Gaus (1980). Mill's Theory of Moral Rules. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 58 (3):265 – 279.score: 30.0
    David lyons has recently argued that mill's ethics is an alternative to both act and rule utilitarianism. In the first part of this paper I argue that lyons makes mill out to be far too much of a rule utilitarian. The second part of the article then provides an account of mill's theory of moral rules based on an analysis of the four functions rules serve in his ethics. On this reading mill's theory is a hybrid of act and rule (...)
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  28. Gerald Gaus (2003). Review of Christopher Eberle, Religious Convictions in Liberal Politics. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2003 (3).score: 30.0
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  29. Gerald F. Gaus (2001). Truth, Politics, Morality: Pragmatism and Deliberation. Cheryl Misak. Mind 110 (439):796-799.score: 30.0
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  30. Gerald F. Gaus (2001). What is Deontology? Part Two: Reasons to Act. [REVIEW] Journal of Value Inquiry 35 (2):179-193.score: 30.0
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  31. Gerald Gaus, Social Complexity and Evolved Moral Principles.score: 30.0
    A central theme in F. A. Hayek’s work is the contrast between principles and expediency, and the insistence that governments follow abstract general principles rather than pursue apparently expedient social and economic policies that seek to make us better off.2 This is a radical and striking thesis, especially from an economist: governments should abjure the pursuit of social and economic policies that aim to improve welfare and, instead, adhere to moral principles. In this chapter I defend this radical claim. I (...)
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  32. Gerald Gaus (1997). On the Difficult Virtue of Minding One's Own Business: Towards the Political Rehabilitation of Ebenezer Scrooge. The Philosopher: A Magazine for Free Spirits 5:24-28.score: 30.0
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  33. Gerald Gaus (2008). Reasonable Utility Functions and Playing the Cooperative Way. Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 11 (2):215-234.score: 30.0
    In this essay I dispute the widely held view that utility theory and decision theory are formalizations of instrumental rationality. I show that the decision theoretic framework has no deep problems accommodating the ?reasonable? qua a preference to engage in fair cooperation as such. All evaluative criteria relevant to choice can be built into a von Neumann?Morgenstern utility function. I focus on the claim that, while rational choice?driven agents are caught in the Pareto?inferior outcome, reasonable agents could ?solve? the PD (...)
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  34. Gerald F. Gaus (1990). Value and Justification: The Foundations of Liberal Theory. Cambridge University Press.score: 30.0
    This important new book takes as its points of departure two questions: What is the nature of valuing? and What morality can be justified in a society that deeply disagrees on what is truly valuable? In Part One, the author develops a theory of value that attempts to reconcile reason with passions. Part Two explores how this theory of value grounds our commitment to moral action. The author argues that rational moral action can neither be seen as a way of (...)
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  35. Klaus Oberauer, Oliver Wilhelm & Ricardo Rosas Diaz (1999). Bayesian Rationality for the Wason Selection Task? A Test of Optimal Data Selection Theory. Thinking and Reasoning 5 (2):115 – 144.score: 30.0
    Oaksford and Chater (1994) proposed to analyse the Wason selection task as an inductive instead of a deductive task. Applying Bayesian statistics, they concluded that the cards that participants tend to select are those with the highest expected information gain. Therefore, their choices seem rational from the perspective of optimal data selection. We tested a central prediction from the theory in three experiments: card selection frequencies should be sensitive to the subjective probability of occurrence for individual cards. In Experiment 1, (...)
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  36. Gerald Gaus (1989). Practical Reason and Moral Persons. Ethics 100 (1):127-148.score: 30.0
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  37. Gerald F. Gaus (1981). The Convergence of Rights and Utility: The Case of Rawls and Mill. Ethics 92 (1):57-72.score: 30.0
  38. Gerald F. Gaus (2005). Louis Kaplow and Steven Shavell, Fairness Versus Welfare (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2002), Pp. XXII + 544. Utilitas 17 (2):233-236.score: 30.0
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  39. Gerald F. Gaus (2002). Review of Christopher McMahon, Collective Rationality and Collective Reasoning. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2002 (6).score: 30.0
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  40. Gerald Gaus, Liberalism. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.score: 30.0
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  41. Gerald Gaus (2006). The Rights Recognition Thesis : Defending and Extending Green. In Maria Dimova-Cookson & W. J. Mander (eds.), T.H. Green: Ethics, Metaphysics, and Political Philosophy. Oxford University Press.score: 30.0
    In his Lectures on the Principles of Political Obligation, T. H. Green characterizes a right as ‘a power claimed and recognized as contributory to a common good’ (LPPO §99). Scholars such as Rex Martin have noted that Green’s characterization of a right has multiple elements: it includes social recognition and the common good,1 as well as the idea of a power. More formally, it seems that Green wants to say that R is a right if and only if R is (...)
     
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  42. Gerald F. Gaus (2003). Once More Unto the Breach, My Dear Friends, Once More. Philosophical Studies 116 (2):159-170.score: 30.0
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  43. Gerald Gaus, Taking the Bad with the Good: Some Misplaced Worries About Pure Retribution.score: 30.0
    ∗ This paper has been presented to the Philosophy Departments of Tulane University and the University of Arizona and, originally, to the 1999 Sociedad Filosofica Ibero Americana (SOFIA) Conference on Legal and Political Philosophy, in Mazatlan, Mexico. I am most thankful to all the participants. I am especially grateful for discussions with Julia Annes, Tom Christiano, Eric Mack, Geoff Sayre-McCord, David Schmidtz and Michael Smith.
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  44. Gerald Gaus, The Legal Coordination Game.score: 30.0
    Jeremy Waldron tells us that “the felt need among members of a certain group for a common framework or decision or course of action on some matter, even in the face of disagreement about what the framework, decision or action should be, are the circumstances of politics.”2 Political authority and the law, Waldron insists, presuppose the circumstances of politics. We reasonably disagree not only about conceptions of the good life and value, but about justice and the common good. However, because (...)
     
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  45. Robert J. Deltete (2008). Wilhelm Ostwald's Energetics 3: Energetic Theory and Applications, Part II. [REVIEW] Foundations of Chemistry 10 (3):187-221.score: 24.0
    This is the third of a series of essays on the development and reception of Wilhelm Ostwald’s energetics. The first essay described the chemical origins of Ostwald’s interest in the energy concept and his motivations for seeking a comprehensive science of energy. The second essay and the present one discuss his various attempts, beginning in 1891 and extending over almost 3 years, to develop a consistent and coherent energetic theory. A final essay will consider reactions to this work and (...)
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  46. Matthew Lister (2011). Review of Gerald Gaus, The Order of Public Reason. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Review.score: 24.0
  47. Enzo Rossi (2013). Legitimacy, Democracy and Public Justification: Rawls' Political Liberalism Versus Gaus' Justificatory Liberalism. Res Publica (1):1-17.score: 24.0
    Public justification-based accounts of liberal legitimacy rely on the idea that a polity’s basic structure should, in some sense, be acceptable to its citizens. In this paper I discuss the prospects of that approach through the lens of Gerald Gaus’ critique of John Rawls’ paradigmatic account of democratic public justification. I argue that Gaus does succeed in pointing out some significant problems for Rawls’ political liberalism; yet his alternative, justificatory liberalism, is not voluntaristic enough to satisfy the desiderata (...)
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  48. Amnon Marom (2014). Universality, Particularity, and Potentiality: The Sources of Human Divergence as Arise From Wilhelm Dilthey's Writings. [REVIEW] Human Studies 37 (1):1-13.score: 24.0
    This study examines the sources of human divergence as arise from Wilhelm Dilthey’s writings. While Dilthey assigns a central role to the human subject, he never synthesizes his major ideas on subjectivity into a unified theory of subjective uniqueness. I will show that such a theory can be derived from his writings through the combination of three ideas that appear in them. These ideas are: (1) the thesis that human understanding is possible because of psychological content that is shared (...)
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  49. Thomas Uebel (2012). But is It Sociology of Knowledge? Wilhelm Jerusalem's “Sociology of Cognition” in Context. Studies in East European Thought 64 (1-2):5-37.score: 24.0
    This paper considers the charge that—contrary to the current widespread assumption accompanying the near-universal neglect of his work—Wilhelm Jerusalem (1854–1923) cannot count as one of the founders of the sociology of (scientific) knowledge. In order to elucidate the matter, Jerusalem’s “sociology of cognition” is here reconstructed in the context of his own work in psychology and philosophy as well as in the context of the work of some predecessors and contemporaries. It is argued that while it shows clear discontinuities (...)
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  50. Sheila Faith Weiss (2006). Human Genetics and Politics as Mutually Beneficial Resources: The Case of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Anthropology, Human Heredity and Eugenics During the Third Reich. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 39 (1):41 - 88.score: 24.0
    This essay analyzes one of Germany's former premier research institutions for biomedical research, the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Anthropology, Human Heredity and Eugenics (KWIA) as a test case for the way in which politics and human heredity served as resources for each other during the Third Reich. Examining the KWIA from this perspective brings us a step closer to answering the questions at the heart of most recent scholarship concerning the biomedical community under the swastika: (1) How do we (...)
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