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Profile: William Harper (University of Western Ontario)
  1. William L. Harper (2014). Isaac Newton's Scientific Method: Turning Data Into Evidence About Gravity and Cosmology. Oxford University Press Uk.
    Isaac Newton's Scientific Method examines Newton's argument for universal gravity and his application of it to resolve the problem of deciding between geocentric and heliocentric world systems by measuring masses of the sun and planets. William L. Harper suggests that Newton's inferences from phenomena realize an ideal of empirical success that is richer than prediction. Any theory that can achieve this rich sort of empirical success must not only be able to predict the phenomena it purports to explain, but also (...)
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  2. Allan Gibbard & William Harper (1978). Counterfactuals and Two Kinds of Expected Utility. In A. Hooker, J. J. Leach & E. F. McClennen (eds.), Foundations and Applications of Decision Theory. D. Reidel 125-162.
  3. William Harper (2002). Newton's Argument for Universal Gravitation. In I. Bernard Cohen & George E. Smith (eds.), The Cambridge Companion to Newton. Cambridge University Press 174--201.
     
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  4. William Harper & Gregory Wheeler (2007). Probability and Inference: Essays in Honour of Henry E. Kyburg, Jr. College Publications.
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  5.  34
    William L. Harper (1975). Rational Belief Change, Popper Functions and Counterfactuals. Synthese 30 (1-2):221 - 262.
    This paper uses Popper's treatment of probability and an epistemic constraint on probability assignments to conditionals to extend the Bayesian representation of rational belief so that revision of previously accepted evidence is allowed for. Results of this extension include an epistemic semantics for Lewis' theory of counterfactual conditionals and a representation for one kind of conceptual change.
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  6.  47
    Wayne C. Myrvold & William L. Harper (2002). Model Selection, Simplicity, and Scientific Inference. Proceedings of the Philosophy of Science Association 2002 (3):S135-S149.
    The Akaike Information Criterion can be a valuable tool of scientific inference. This statistic, or any other statistical method for that matter, cannot, however, be the whole of scientific methodology. In this paper some of the limitations of Akaikean statistical methods are discussed. It is argued that the full import of empirical evidence is realized only by adopting a richer ideal of empirical success than predictive accuracy, and that the ability of a theory to turn phenomena into accurate, agreeing measurements (...)
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  7. William L. Harper & Henry E. Kyburg (1968). The Jones Case. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 19 (3):247-251.
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  8. William Harper & Robert DiSalle (1996). Inferences From Phenomena in Gravitational Physics. Philosophy of Science 63 (3):54.
    Newton's methodology emphasized propositions "inferred from phenomena." These rest on systematic dependencies that make phenomena measure theoretical parameters. We consider the inferences supporting Newton's inductive argument that gravitation is proportional to inertial mass. We argue that the support provided by these systematic dependencies is much stronger than that provided by bootstrap confirmation; this kind of support thus avoids some of the major objections against bootstrapping. Finally we examine how contemporary testing of equivalence principles exemplifies this Newtonian methodological theme.
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  9.  20
    William Leonard Harper, Robert Stalnaker & Glenn Pearce (eds.) (1981). Ifs. Dordrecht: D. Reidel.
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  10.  53
    William Harper (1986). Mixed Strategies and Ratifiability in Causal Decision Theory. Erkenntnis 24 (1):25 - 36.
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  11.  24
    William Harper (1996). Knowledge and Luck. Southern Journal of Philosophy 34 (3):273-283.
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  12.  13
    William L. Harper (1976). Rational Conceptual Change. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1976:462 - 494.
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  13.  4
    William L. Harper & Ralf Meerbote (eds.) (1984). Kant on Causality, Freedom, and Objectivity. Univ of Minnesota Press.
    The eight papers in this book are drawn from two conferences that honored Lewis White Beck, an influential Kant scholar.
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  14.  8
    William L. Harper (2002). Howard Stein on Isaac Newton: Beyond Hypotheses. In David B. Malament (ed.), Reading Natural Philosophy: Essays in the History and Philosophy of Science and Mathematics. Open Court 71--112.
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  15.  8
    William Harper (1997). Isaac Newton on Empirical Success and Scientific Method. In John Earman & John Norton (eds.), The Cosmos of Science. University of Pittsburgh Press 55--86.
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  16.  64
    William Harper (1978). Bayesian Learning Models with Revision of Evidence. Philosophia 7 (2):357-367.
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  17.  43
    William Harper (2007). Newton's Methodology and Mercury's Perihelion Before and After Einstein. Philosophy of Science 74 (5):932-942.
    Newton's methodology is significantly richer than the hypothetico-deductive model. It is informed by a richer ideal of empirical success that requires not just accurate prediction but also accurate measurement of parameters by the predicted phenomena. It accepts theory-mediated measurements and theoretical propositions as guides to research. All of these enrichments are exemplified in the classical response to Mercury's perihelion problem. Contrary to Kuhn, Newton's method endorses the radical transition from his theory to Einstein's. The richer themes of Newton's method are (...)
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  18.  44
    William Harper (2000). Michael Friedman on Kant and Newton. Dialogue 39 (02):279-.
  19.  67
    William L. Harper & Henry E. Kyburg (1968). Discussions: The Jones Case. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 19 (3):247-251.
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  20. William Harper (1988). Causal Decision Theory and Game Theory. In William Harper & Brian Skyrms (eds.), Causation in Decision, Belief Change, and Statistics. Springer Netherlands 25-48.
     
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  21.  25
    William Harper (1990). Newton's Classic Deductions From Phenomena. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1990:183 - 196.
    I take Newton's arguments to inverse square centripetal forces from Kepler's harmonic and areal laws to be classic deductions from phenomena. I argue that the theorems backing up these inferences establish systematic dependencies that make the phenomena carry the objective information that the propositions inferred from them hold. A review of the data supporting Kepler's laws indicates that these phenomena are Whewellian colligations-generalizations corresponding to the selection of a best fitting curve for an open-ended body of data. I argue that (...)
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  22. S. L. Zabell, Brian Skyrms, Elliott Sober, Malcolm R. Forster, Wayne C. Myrvold, William L. Harper, Rob Clifton, Itamar Pitowsky, Robyn M. Dawes & David Faust (2002). 10. It All Adds Up: The Dynamic Coherence of Radical Probabilism It All Adds Up: The Dynamic Coherence of Radical Probabilism (Pp. S98-S103). [REVIEW] Philosophy of Science 69 (S3).
  23.  33
    William Harper & Alan Hajek (1997). Full Belief and Probability: Comments on Van Fraassen. Dialogue 36 (01):91-.
  24.  25
    Ellery Eells & William L. Harper (1991). Ratifiability, Game Theory, and the Principle of Independence of Irrelevant Alternatives. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 69 (1):1 – 19.
  25.  44
    William Harper, Sheldon J. Chow & Gemma Murray (2012). Bayesian Chance. Synthese 186 (2):447-474.
    This paper explores how the Bayesian program benefits from allowing for objective chance as well as subjective degree of belief. It applies David Lewis’s Principal Principle and David Christensen’s principle of informed preference to defend Howard Raiffa’s appeal to preferences between reference lotteries and scaling lotteries to represent degrees of belief. It goes on to outline the role of objective lotteries in an application of rationality axioms equivalent to the existence of a utility assignment to represent preferences in Savage’s famous (...)
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  26.  63
    William Harper (1984). Kant on Space, Empirical Realism and the Foundations of Geometry. Topoi 3 (2):143-161.
  27.  35
    William Harper (1981). Kant's Empirical Realism and the Second Analogy of Experience. Synthese 47 (3):465 - 480.
  28.  24
    Nick Huggett, George E. Smith, David Marshall Miller & William Harper (2013). On Newton's Method. Metascience 22 (2):215-246.
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  29.  10
    William Harper (1998). Reply to Isham. Faith and Philosophy 15 (2):223-228.
    In “On Calling God ‘Mother’” (this journal), I argued that the practice of referring to God exclusively in male terms is morally acceptable. Isham claims that I have argued that “God should be referred to exclusively in male terms.” He claims that the Bible refers to God in female terms. He hints that I may have engaged in “gender devaluation.” He claims that there is a “need for a deity with which women can both relate and identify.” The first of (...)
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  30.  46
    William Harper (1998). Papier Mâché Problems in Epistemology: A Defense of Strong Internalism. Synthese 116 (1):27-49.
    I attempt to persuade the reader that externalism admits of no plausible interpretation. I argue that reliability is a concept with very different contours from epistemic justification, and that attempts to explicate justification in terms of reliability must fail. I address several other forms of externalism, and also mixed forms of justification. I then argue that externalist theories of justification cannot close the gap between mere true belief and knowledge. I suggest that a fourth condition on knowledge is required, regardless (...)
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  31.  17
    William Harper (1998). Judging Who Should Live: Schneiderman and Jecker on the Duty Not to Treat. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 23 (5):500 – 515.
    In this paper, I consider the thesis advanced by Lawrence J. Schneiderman and Nancy S. Jecker that physicians should be forbidden from offering futile treatments to patients. I distinguish between a version of this thesis that is trivially true and Schneiderman and Jecker's more substantive version of the thesis. I find that their positive arguments for their thesis are unsuccessful, and sometimes quite misleading. I advance an argument against their thesis, and find that, on balance, their thesis should be rejected. (...)
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  32.  7
    William Harper (1984). Ratifiability and Causal Decision Theory: Comments on Eells and Seidenfeld. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1984:213 - 228.
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  33.  11
    William L. Harper, Kent W. Staley, Henk W. de Regt & Peter Achinstein (2014). Objective Evidence and Rules of Strategy: Achinstein on Method. Metascience 23 (3):413-442.
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  34.  5
    William L. Harper (1983). The Enterprise of Knowledge: An Essay on Knowledge, Credal Probability and Chance by Isaac Levi. Journal of Philosophy 80 (6):367-376.
  35.  5
    William Harper (1995). Kant and the Exact Sciences. Philosophical Review 104 (4):587-589.
  36.  2
    William L. Harper, Robert Stalnaker, Glenn Pearce, Robert C. Stalnaker, David Lewis & D. Hockney (1984). A Sketch of Some Recent Developments in the Theory of Conditionals. Journal of Symbolic Logic 49 (4):1411-1413.
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  37.  13
    William Harper (2010). Response to Kent Staley's Comments on William Harper's “Isaac Newton's Scientific Method”. Modern Schoolman 87 (3-4):315-319.
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  38.  6
    William Harper (2009). Newton's Methodology. In Wayne C. Myrvold & Joy Christian (eds.), Quantum Reality, Relativistic Causality, and Closing the Epistemic Circle. Springer 43--61.
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  39.  15
    William Harper (1988). Decisions, Games and Equilibrium Solutions. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1988:344 - 362.
    This paper includes a survey of decision theories directed toward exploring the adequacy of alternative approaches for application to game theoretic reasoning, a review of the classic results of von Neumann and Morgenstern and Nash about equilibrium solutions, an account of a recent challenge to the idea that solutions should be equilibria, and, finally, an explicit reconstruction and defense (using the resources of causal decision theory) of the classic indirect argument for equilibrium solutions.
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  40.  6
    William Harper (1991). Kant on Incongruent Counterparts. In James Van Cleve & Robert E. Frederick (eds.), The Philosophy of Right and Left. Kluwer 263-313.
    Consider your right hand and a mirror image duplicate of it. Kant calls such pairs incongruent counterparts. According to him they have the following puzzling features. The relation and situation of the parts of your hand with respect to one another are not sufficient to distinguish it from its mirror duplicate. Nevertheless, there is a spatial difference between the two. Turn and twist them how you will, you cannot make one of them occupy the exact boundaries now occupied by the (...)
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  41.  4
    William Harper (1993). Causal and Evidential Expectations in Strategic Settings. Philosophical Topics 21 (1):79-97.
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  42.  21
    William Harper (1974). A Note on Universal Instantiation in the Stalnaker Thomason Conditional Logic and M Type Modal Systems. Journal of Philosophical Logic 3 (4):373 - 379.
  43. William A. Harper & Elwood Craig Davis (eds.) (1977). The Philosophic Process in Physical Education. Lea & Febiger.
  44.  3
    William Harper (2000). Review: Michael Woods, David Wiggins, Conditionals; Dorothy Edgington, Commentary. [REVIEW] Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 6 (3):358-360.
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  45.  13
    Sandra Lee Bartky, Marilyn Friedman, William Harper, Alison M. Jaggar, Richard H. Miller, Abigail L. Rosenthal, Naomi Scheman, Nancy Tuana, Steven Yates, Christina Sommers, Philip E. Devine, Harry Deutsch, Michael Kelly & Charles L. Reid (1992). Letters to the Editor. Proceedings and Addresses of the American Philosophical Association 65 (7):55 - 90.
  46.  3
    William Harper (2013). The Main Business of Natural Philosophy: Isaac Newton's Natural-Philosophical Methodology. [REVIEW] Isis: A Journal of the History of Science 104 (3):614-615.
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  47.  16
    William L. Harper (2007). Comments on Westphal. Dialogue 46 (4):729-736.
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  48.  13
    William L. Harper (1975). Comments on I. J. Good. Synthese 30 (1-2):75 - 78.
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  49.  7
    William Harper (1994). On Calling God 'Mother'. Faith and Philosophy 11 (2):290-297.
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  50. William Harper (2000). David Johnson, Hume, Holism, and Miracles. [REVIEW] Philosophy in Review 20 (6):420-421.
     
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