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Profile: Jon Williamson (University of Kent at Canterbury)
Profile: John P Williamson
Profile: Maria Williamson (University of Houston)
Profile: Rachel Williamson (Montreat College)
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  1. Jon Williamson, Causality and Probability in the Biomedical Sciences.
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  2. Jon Williamson, Enough of Enough.
    This is a short critique of sufficiency views.
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  3. Jon Williamson, Randomness is Unpredictability.
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  4. Jon Williamson, Causality: Metaphysics and Methods.
    How ought we learn causal relationships? While Popper advocated a hypothetico-deductive logic of causal discovery, inductive accounts are currently in vogue. Many inductive approaches depend on the causal Markov condition as a fundamental assumption. This condition, I maintain, is not universally valid, though it is justifiable as a default assumption. In which case the results of the inductive causal learning procedure must be tested before they can be accepted. This yields a synthesis of the hypothetico-deductive and inductive accounts, which forms (...)
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  5. Jon Williamson, From Bayesian Epistemology to Inductive Logic.
    Inductive logic admits a variety of semantics (Haenni et al., 2011, Part 1). This paper develops semantics based on the norms of Bayesian epistemology (Williamson, 2010, Chapter 7). §1 introduces the semantics and then, in §2, the paper explores methods for drawing inferences in the resulting logic and compares the methods of this paper with the methods of Barnett and Paris (2008). §3 then evaluates this Bayesian inductive logic in the light of four traditional critiques of inductive logic, arguing (i) (...)
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  6. Jon Williamson, Keywords.
    Machamer, Darden and Craver: ‘Mechanisms are entities and activities organized such that they are productive of regular changes from start or set-up to finish or termination conditions.’ (Machamer, Darden and Craver 2000 p3.) Glennan: ‘A mechanism for a behavior is a complex system that produces that behavior by the interaction of a number of parts, where the interactions between parts can be characterized by direct, invariant, change-relating generalizations.’ (Glennan 2002b pS344.) Bechtel and Abrahamsen: ‘A mechanism is a structure performing a (...)
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  7. Jon Williamson, Probability Logic.
    Practical reasoning requires decision—making in the face of uncertainty. Xenelda has just left to go to work when she hears a burglar alarm. She doesn’t know whether it is hers but remembers that she left a window slightly open. Should she be worried? Her house may not be being burgled, since the wind or a power cut may have set the burglar alarm off, and even if it isn’t her alarm sounding she might conceivably be being burgled. Thus Xenelda can (...)
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  8. Jon Williamson, Recursive Bayesian Nets for Prediction, Explanation and Control in Cancer Science.
    this paper we argue that the formalism can also be applied to modelling the hierarchical structure of physical mechanisms. The resulting network contains quantitative information about probabilities, as well as qualitative information about mechanistic structure and causal relations. Since information about probabilities, mechanisms and causal relations are vital for prediction, explanation and control respectively, a recursive Bayesian net can be applied to all these tasks. We show how a Recursive Bayesian Net can be used to model mechanisms in cancer science. (...)
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  9. Jon Williamson, The Philosophy of Science and its Relation to Machine Learning.
    In this chapter I discuss connections between machine learning and the philosophy of science. First I consider the relationship between the two disciplines. There is a clear analogy between hypothesis choice in science and model selection in machine learning. While this analogy has been invoked to argue that the two disciplines are essentially doing the same thing and should merge, I maintain that the disciplines are distinct but related and that there is a dynamic interaction operating between the two: a (...)
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  10. Jon Williamson, Why Look at Causality in the Sciences? A Manifesto.
    This introduction to the volume begins with a manifesto that puts forward two theses: first, that the sciences are the best place to turn in order to understand causality; second, that scientifically-informed philosophical investigation can bring something to the sciences too. Next, the chapter goes through the various parts of the volume, drawing out relevant background and themes of the chapters in those parts. Finally, the chapter discusses the progeny of the papers and identifies some next steps for research into (...)
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  11. Jon Williamson & D. M. Gabbay, Recursive Causality in Bayesian Networks and Self-Fibring Networks.
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  12. Timothy Williamson, Reply to John Hawthorne and Maria Lasonen-Aarnio.
    1. As John Hawthorne and Maria Lasonen-Aarnio appreciate, some of the central issues raised in their ‘Knowledge and Objective Chance’ arise for all but the most extreme theories of knowledge. In a wide range of cases, according to very plausible everyday judgments, we know something about the future, even though, according to quantum mechanics, our belief has a small but nonzero chance (objective probability) of being untrue. In easily constructed examples, we are in that position simultaneously with respect to many (...)
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  13. Timothy Williamson, Scepticism and Sensitivity.
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  14. Jon Williamson, Abstract.
    by living organisms to process chemical comchemical reactions. Understanding metabolism is an impounds in order to take energy and eliminate portant problem for biology, pharmacology (in particular..
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  15. Jon Williamson, Aggregating Judgements by Merging Evidence.
    The theory of belief revision and merging has recently been applied to judgement aggregation. In this paper I argue that judgements are best aggregated by merging the evidence on which they are based, rather than by directly merging the judgements themselves. This leads to a threestep strategy for judgement aggregation. First, merge the evidence bases of the various agents using some method of belief merging. Second, determine which degrees of belief one should adopt on the basis of this merged evidence (...)
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  16. Jon Williamson, A Note on Probabilistic Logics and Probabilistic Networks.
    ϕ1, . . . , ϕn |≈ ψ? Here ϕ1, . . . , ϕn, ψ are premisses of some formal language, such as a propositional language or a predicate language. |≈ is an entailment relation: the entailment holds if all models of the premisses also satisfy the conclusion, where the logic provides some suitable notion of ‘model’ and ‘satisfy’. Proof theory is normally invoked to answer a question of this form: one tries to prove the conclusion from the premisses (...)
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  17. Jon Williamson, Bayesian Nets and Causality.
    How should we reason with causal relationships? Much recent work on this question has been devoted to the theses (i) that Bayesian nets provide a calculus for causal reasoning and (ii) that we can learn causal relationships by the automated learning of Bayesian nets from observational data. The aim of this book is to..
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  18. Jon Williamson, Bayesian Networks for Logical Reasoning.
    By identifying and pursuing analogies between causal and logical influence I show how the Bayesian network formalism can be applied to reasoning about logical deductions.
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  19. Jon Williamson, Causality.
    This chapter addresses two questions: what are causal relationships? how can one discover causal relationships? I provide a survey of the principal answers given to these questions, followed by an introduction to my own view, epistemic causality, and then a comparison of epistemic causality with accounts provided by Judea Pearl and Huw Price.
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  20. Jon Williamson, Editorial.
    How is probability related to logic? Should probability and logic be combined? If so, how? Bayesianism tells us we ought to reason probabilistically. In that sense, probability theory is logic. How then does probability theory relate to classical logic and the various non-classical logics that also stake a claim on normative reasoning? Is probability theory to be preferred over other logics or vice versa? Is probability theory to be used in some situations, and the other logics in other situations? Or (...)
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  21. Jon Williamson, Epistemic Complexity From an Objective Bayesian Perspective.
    Evidence can be complex in various ways: e.g., it may exhibit structural complexity, containing information about causal, hierarchical or logical structure as well as empirical data, or it may exhibit combinatorial complexity, containing a complex combination of kinds of information. This paper examines evidential complexity from the point of view of Bayesian epistemology, asking: how should complex evidence impact on an agent’s degrees of belief? The paper presents a high-level overview of an objective Bayesian answer: it presents the objective Bayesian (...)
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  22. Jon Williamson, Evidential Probability, Objective Bayesianism, Non-Monotonicity and System P.
    This paper is a comparison of how first-order Kyburgian Evidential Probability (EP), second-order EP, and objective Bayesian epistemology compare as to the KLM system-P rules for consequence relations and the monotonic / non-monotonic divide.
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  23. Jon Williamson, Intervention, Underdetermination, and Theory Generation.
    We consider the use of intervention data for eliminating the underdetermination in statistical modelling, and for guiding extensions of the statistical models. The leading example is factor analysis, a major statistical tool in the social sciences. We first relate indeterminacy in factor analysis to the problem of underdetermination. Then we draw a parallel between factor analysis models and Bayesian networks with hidden nodes, which allows us to clarify the use of intervention data for dealing with indeterminacy. It will be shown (...)
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  24. Jon Williamson, Learning Causal Relationships.
    How ought we learn causal relationships? While Popper advocated a hypothetico-deductive logic of causal discovery, inductive accounts are currently in vogue. Many inductive approaches depend on the causal Markov condition as a fundamental assumption. This condition, I maintain, is not universally valid, though it is justifiable as a default assumption. In which case the results of the inductive causal learning procedure must be tested before they can be accepted. This yields a synthesis of the hypothetico-deductive and inductive accounts, which forms (...)
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  25. Jon Williamson, Maximising Entropy Efficiently.
    Recommended citation: . . Link¨ oping Electronic Articles in Computer and Information Science, Vol. 7(2002): nr 0. http://www.ep.liu.se/ea/cis/2002/00/. September 18, 2002. </div><div class="catsCon" id="ecats-con-WILMEE">No categories</div><div class="options"><img class="texticon" src="/assets/raw/icons/tango-full/16x16/actions/go-down.png"><a rel="nofollow" href="http://philpapers.org/go.pl?id=WILMEE&proxyId=&u=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.kent.ac.uk%2Fsecl%2Fphilosophy%2Fjw%2F2002%2Fmaxenteffic.pdf" target='_blank' >Direct download</a> (<a href='/rec/WILMEE'>3 more</a>)  <div id="ml-WILMEE" class="yui-skin-sam ldiv"> </div><img class="texticon" src="/assets/raw/icons/tango-full/16x16/places/folder.png"><span title="File in your personal bibliography" class="ll" onclick="showLists('WILMEE','')">My bibliography<img src="/philpapers/raw/subind.gif"></span>  <div id="la-WILMEE" title="Export to another format" class="yui-skin-sam ldiv"> </div><img class="texticon" src="/assets/raw/icons/tango-full/16x16/actions/document-save.png"><span class="ll" onclick="showExports('WILMEE')">Export citation<img src="/philpapers/raw/subind.gif"></span>  <span class="eMsg" id="msg-WILMEE"></span></div></div></li> <li id='eWILMOB-2' onclick="ee('click','WILMOB-2')" onmouseover="ee('over','WILMOB-2')" onmouseout="ee('out','WILMOB-2')" class='entry'><span class="citation"><a href="http://philpapers.org/rec/WILMOB-2"><span class='name'>Jon Williamson</span>, <span class='articleTitle'>Motivating Objective Bayesianism: From Empirical Constraints to Objective Probabilities.</span></a><span class='pubInfo'></span></span><div class="extras"><div class="abstract">Kyburg goes half-way towards objective Bayesianism. He accepts that frequencies constrain rational belief to an interval but stops short of isolating an optimal degree of belief within this interval. I examine the case for going the whole hog. </div><div class="catsCon" id="ecats-con-WILMOB-2">No categories</div><div class="options"><img class="texticon" src="/assets/raw/icons/tango-full/16x16/actions/go-down.png"><a rel="nofollow" href="http://philpapers.org/go.pl?id=WILMOB-2&proxyId=&u=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.kent.ac.uk%2Fsecl%2Fphilosophy%2Fjw%2F2005%2Fmotivating.pdf" target='_blank' >Direct download</a> (<a href='/rec/WILMOB-2'>2 more</a>)  <div id="ml-WILMOB-2" class="yui-skin-sam ldiv"> </div><img class="texticon" src="/assets/raw/icons/tango-full/16x16/places/folder.png"><span title="File in your personal bibliography" class="ll" onclick="showLists('WILMOB-2','')">My bibliography<img src="/philpapers/raw/subind.gif"></span>  <div id="la-WILMOB-2" title="Export to another format" class="yui-skin-sam ldiv"> </div><img class="texticon" src="/assets/raw/icons/tango-full/16x16/actions/document-save.png"><span class="ll" onclick="showExports('WILMOB-2')">Export citation<img src="/philpapers/raw/subind.gif"></span>  <span class="eMsg" id="msg-WILMOB-2"></span></div></div></li> <li id='eWILMTO-2' onclick="ee('click','WILMTO-2')" onmouseover="ee('over','WILMTO-2')" onmouseout="ee('out','WILMTO-2')" class='entry'><span class="citation"><a href="http://philpapers.org/rec/WILMTO-2"><span class='name'>Jon Williamson</span>, <span class='articleTitle'>Mechanistic Theories of Causality.</span></a><span class='pubInfo'></span></span><div class="extras"><div class="abstract">After introducing a range of mechanistic theories of causality and some of the problems they face, I argue that while there is a decisive case against a purely mechanistic analysis, a viable theory of causality must incorporate mechanisms as an ingredient. I describe one way of providing an analysis of causality which reaps the rewards of the mechanistic approach without succumbing to its pitfalls. </div><div class="catsCon" id="ecats-con-WILMTO-2">No categories</div><div class="options"><img class="texticon" src="/assets/raw/icons/tango-full/16x16/actions/go-down.png"><a rel="nofollow" href="http://philpapers.org/go.pl?id=WILMTO-2&proxyId=&u=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.kent.ac.uk%2Fsecl%2Fphilosophy%2Fjw%2F2010%2FMechanisticCausality.pdf" target='_blank' >Direct download</a> (<a href='/rec/WILMTO-2'>3 more</a>)  <div id="ml-WILMTO-2" class="yui-skin-sam ldiv"> </div><img class="texticon" src="/assets/raw/icons/tango-full/16x16/places/folder.png"><span title="File in your personal bibliography" class="ll" onclick="showLists('WILMTO-2','')">My bibliography<img src="/philpapers/raw/subind.gif"></span>  <div id="la-WILMTO-2" title="Export to another format" class="yui-skin-sam ldiv"> </div><img class="texticon" src="/assets/raw/icons/tango-full/16x16/actions/document-save.png"><span class="ll" onclick="showExports('WILMTO-2')">Export citation<img src="/philpapers/raw/subind.gif"></span>  <span class="eMsg" id="msg-WILMTO-2"></span></div></div></li> <li id='eWILOBN' onclick="ee('click','WILOBN')" onmouseover="ee('over','WILOBN')" onmouseout="ee('out','WILOBN')" class='entry'><span class="citation"><a href="http://philpapers.org/rec/WILOBN"><span class='name'>Jon Williamson</span>, <span class='articleTitle'>Objective Bayesian Nets.</span></a><span class='pubInfo'></span></span><div class="extras"><div class="abstract">I present a formalism that combines two methodologies: objective Bayesianism and Bayesian nets. According to objective Bayesianism, an agent’s degrees of belief (i) ought to satisfy the axioms of probability, (ii) ought to satisfy constraints imposed by background knowledge, and (iii) should otherwise be as non-committal as possible (i.e. have maximum entropy). Bayesian nets offer an efficient way of representing and updating probability functions. An objective Bayesian net is a Bayesian net representation of the maximum entropy probability function. </div><div class="catsCon" id="ecats-con-WILOBN"><div><a class='catName' href='/browse/bayesian-reasoning-misc' rel='section'>Bayesian Reasoning, Misc</a><span class='catIn'> in </span><a class='catArea' href='/browse/philosophy-of-probability' rel='section'>Philosophy of Probability</a></div> </div><div class="options"><img class="texticon" src="/assets/raw/icons/tango-full/16x16/actions/go-down.png"><a rel="nofollow" href="http://philpapers.org/go.pl?id=WILOBN&proxyId=&u=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.kent.ac.uk%2Fsecl%2Fphilosophy%2Fjw%2F2005%2Fobnets.pdf" target='_blank' >Direct download</a> (<a href='/rec/WILOBN'>2 more</a>)  <div id="ml-WILOBN" class="yui-skin-sam ldiv"> </div><img class="texticon" src="/assets/raw/icons/tango-full/16x16/places/folder.png"><span title="File in your personal bibliography" class="ll" onclick="showLists('WILOBN','')">My bibliography<img src="/philpapers/raw/subind.gif"></span>  <div id="la-WILOBN" title="Export to another format" class="yui-skin-sam ldiv"> </div><img class="texticon" src="/assets/raw/icons/tango-full/16x16/actions/document-save.png"><span class="ll" onclick="showExports('WILOBN')">Export citation<img src="/philpapers/raw/subind.gif"></span>  <span class="eMsg" id="msg-WILOBN"></span></div></div></li> <li id='eWILOBN-2' onclick="ee('click','WILOBN-2')" onmouseover="ee('over','WILOBN-2')" onmouseout="ee('out','WILOBN-2')" class='entry'><span class="citation"><a href="http://philpapers.org/rec/WILOBN-2"><span class='name'>Jon Williamson</span>, <span class='articleTitle'>Objective Bayesian Nets for Systems Modelling and Prognosis in Breast Cancer.</span></a><span class='pubInfo'></span></span><div class="extras"><div class="abstract">Cancer treatment decisions should be based on all available evidence. But this evidence is complex and varied: it includes not only the patient’s symptoms and expert knowledge of the relevant causal processes, but also clinical databases relating to past patients, databases of observations made at the molecular level, and evidence encapsulated in scientific papers and medical informatics systems. Objective Bayesian nets offer a principled path to knowledge integration, and we show in this chapter how they can be applied to integrate<span id="WILOBN-2-absexp"> (<span class="ll" onclick='$("WILOBN-2-abstract2").show();$("WILOBN-2-absexp").hide()'>...</span>)</span><span id="WILOBN-2-abstract2" style="display:none"> various kinds of evidence in the cancer domain. This is important from the systems biology perspective, which needs to integrate data that concern different levels of analysis, and is also important from the point of view of medical informatics. (<span class="ll" onclick='$("WILOBN-2-abstract2").hide();$("WILOBN-2-absexp").show();'>shrink</span>)</span></div><div class="catsCon" id="ecats-con-WILOBN-2"><div><a class='catName' href='/browse/bayesian-reasoning-misc' rel='section'>Bayesian Reasoning, Misc</a><span class='catIn'> in </span><a class='catArea' href='/browse/philosophy-of-probability' rel='section'>Philosophy of Probability</a></div> </div><div class="options"><img class="texticon" src="/assets/raw/icons/tango-full/16x16/actions/go-down.png"><a rel="nofollow" href="http://philpapers.org/go.pl?id=WILOBN-2&proxyId=&u=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.kent.ac.uk%2Fsecl%2Fphilosophy%2Fjw%2F2006%2FObnetsPrognosis.pdf" target='_blank' >Direct download</a> (<a href='/rec/WILOBN-2'>2 more</a>)  <div id="ml-WILOBN-2" class="yui-skin-sam ldiv"> </div><img class="texticon" src="/assets/raw/icons/tango-full/16x16/places/folder.png"><span title="File in your personal bibliography" class="ll" onclick="showLists('WILOBN-2','')">My bibliography<img src="/philpapers/raw/subind.gif"></span>  <div id="la-WILOBN-2" title="Export to another format" class="yui-skin-sam ldiv"> </div><img class="texticon" src="/assets/raw/icons/tango-full/16x16/actions/document-save.png"><span class="ll" onclick="showExports('WILOBN-2')">Export citation<img src="/philpapers/raw/subind.gif"></span>  <span class="eMsg" id="msg-WILOBN-2"></span></div></div></li> <li id='eWILOBP' onclick="ee('click','WILOBP')" onmouseover="ee('over','WILOBP')" onmouseout="ee('out','WILOBP')" class='entry'><span class="citation"><a href="http://philpapers.org/rec/WILOBP"><span class='name'>Jon Williamson</span>, <span class='articleTitle'>Objective Bayesian Probabilistic Logic.</span></a><span class='pubInfo'></span></span><div class="extras"><div class="abstract">This paper develops connections between objective Bayesian epistemology—which holds that the strengths of an agent’s beliefs should be representable by probabilities, should be calibrated with evidence of empirical probability, and should otherwise be equivocal—and probabilistic logic. After introducing objective Bayesian epistemology over propositional languages, the formalism is extended to handle predicate languages. A rather general probabilistic logic is formulated and then given a natural semantics in terms of objective Bayesian epistemology. The machinery of objective Bayesian nets and objective credal nets<span id="WILOBP-absexp"> (<span class="ll" onclick='$("WILOBP-abstract2").show();$("WILOBP-absexp").hide()'>...</span>)</span><span id="WILOBP-abstract2" style="display:none"> is introduced and this machinery is applied to provide a calculus for probabilistic logic that meshes with the objective Bayesian semantics. (<span class="ll" onclick='$("WILOBP-abstract2").hide();$("WILOBP-absexp").show();'>shrink</span>)</span></div><div class="catsCon" id="ecats-con-WILOBP"><div><a class='catName' href='/browse/bayesian-reasoning-misc' rel='section'>Bayesian Reasoning, Misc</a><span class='catIn'> in </span><a class='catArea' href='/browse/philosophy-of-probability' rel='section'>Philosophy of Probability</a></div> </div><div class="options"><img class="texticon" src="/assets/raw/icons/tango-full/16x16/actions/go-down.png"><a rel="nofollow" href="http://philpapers.org/go.pl?id=WILOBP&proxyId=&u=http%3A%2F%2Fkar.kent.ac.uk%2F20878%2F" target='_blank' >Direct download</a> (<a href='/rec/WILOBP'>3 more</a>)  <div id="ml-WILOBP" class="yui-skin-sam ldiv"> </div><img class="texticon" src="/assets/raw/icons/tango-full/16x16/places/folder.png"><span title="File in your personal bibliography" class="ll" onclick="showLists('WILOBP','')">My bibliography<img src="/philpapers/raw/subind.gif"></span>  <div id="la-WILOBP" title="Export to another format" class="yui-skin-sam ldiv"> </div><img class="texticon" src="/assets/raw/icons/tango-full/16x16/actions/document-save.png"><span class="ll" onclick="showExports('WILOBP')">Export citation<img src="/philpapers/raw/subind.gif"></span>  <span class="eMsg" id="msg-WILOBP"></span></div></div></li> <li id='eWILPOP-3' onclick="ee('click','WILPOP-3')" onmouseover="ee('over','WILPOP-3')" onmouseout="ee('out','WILPOP-3')" class='entry'><span class="citation"><a href="http://philpapers.org/rec/WILPOP-3"><span class='name'>Jon Williamson</span>, <span class='articleTitle'>Philosophies of Probability: Objective Bayesianism and its Challenges.</span></a><span class='pubInfo'></span></span><div class="extras"><div class="abstract">This chapter presents an overview of the major interpretations of probability followed by an outline of the objective Bayesian interpretation and a discussion of the key challenges it faces. I discuss the ramifications of interpretations of probability and objective Bayesianism for the philosophy of mathematics in general. </div><div class="catsCon" id="ecats-con-WILPOP-3"><div><a class='catName' href='/browse/bayesian-reasoning-misc' rel='section'>Bayesian Reasoning, Misc</a><span class='catIn'> in </span><a class='catArea' href='/browse/philosophy-of-probability' rel='section'>Philosophy of Probability</a></div> <div><a class='catName' href='/browse/logical-probability' rel='section'>Logical Probability</a><span class='catIn'> in </span><a class='catArea' href='/browse/philosophy-of-probability' rel='section'>Philosophy of Probability</a></div> </div><div class="options"><img class="texticon" src="/assets/raw/icons/tango-full/16x16/actions/go-down.png"><a rel="nofollow" href="http://philpapers.org/go.pl?id=WILPOP-3&proxyId=&u=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.kent.ac.uk%2Fsecl%2Fphilosophy%2Fjw%2F2004%2Fphilprob.pdf" target='_blank' >Direct download</a>  <div id="ml-WILPOP-3" class="yui-skin-sam ldiv"> </div><img class="texticon" src="/assets/raw/icons/tango-full/16x16/places/folder.png"><span title="File in your personal bibliography" class="ll" onclick="showLists('WILPOP-3','')">My bibliography<img src="/philpapers/raw/subind.gif"></span>  <div id="la-WILPOP-3" title="Export to another format" class="yui-skin-sam ldiv"> </div><img class="texticon" src="/assets/raw/icons/tango-full/16x16/actions/document-save.png"><span class="ll" onclick="showExports('WILPOP-3')">Export citation<img src="/philpapers/raw/subind.gif"></span>  <span class="eMsg" id="msg-WILPOP-3"></span></div></div></li> <li id='eWILSIO' onclick="ee('click','WILSIO')" onmouseover="ee('over','WILSIO')" onmouseout="ee('out','WILSIO')" class='entry'><span class="citation"><a href="http://philpapers.org/rec/WILSIO"><span class='name'>Jon Williamson</span>, <span class='articleTitle'>Special Issue on Combining Probability and Logic Introduction.</span></a><span class='pubInfo'></span></span><div class="extras"><div class="abstract">This volume arose out of an international, interdisciplinary academic network on Probabilistic Logic and Probabilistic Networks involving four of us (Haenni, Romeijn, Wheeler and Williamson), called Progicnet and funded by the Leverhulme Trust from 2006–8. Many of the papers in this volume were presented at an associated conference, the Third Workshop on Combining Probability and Logic (Progic 2007), held at the University of Kent on 5–7 September 2007. The papers in this volume concern either the special focus on the connection<span id="WILSIO-absexp"> (<span class="ll" onclick='$("WILSIO-abstract2").show();$("WILSIO-absexp").hide()'>...</span>)</span><span id="WILSIO-abstract2" style="display:none"> between probabilistic logic and probabilistic networks or the more general question of the links between probability and logic. Here we introduce probabilistic logic, probabilistic networks, current and future directions of research and also the themes of the papers that follow. (<span class="ll" onclick='$("WILSIO-abstract2").hide();$("WILSIO-absexp").show();'>shrink</span>)</span></div><div class="catsCon" id="ecats-con-WILSIO"><div><a class='catName' href='/browse/philosophy-of-probability' rel='section'>Philosophy of Probability</a></div></div><div class="options"><img class="texticon" src="/assets/raw/icons/tango-full/16x16/actions/go-down.png"><a rel="nofollow" href="http://philpapers.org/go.pl?id=WILSIO&proxyId=&u=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.kent.ac.uk%2Fsecl%2Fphilosophy%2Fjw%2F2007%2Fprogic_editorial.pdf" target='_blank' >Direct download</a>  <div id="ml-WILSIO" class="yui-skin-sam ldiv"> </div><img class="texticon" src="/assets/raw/icons/tango-full/16x16/places/folder.png"><span title="File in your personal bibliography" class="ll" onclick="showLists('WILSIO','')">My bibliography<img src="/philpapers/raw/subind.gif"></span>  <div id="la-WILSIO" title="Export to another format" class="yui-skin-sam ldiv"> </div><img class="texticon" src="/assets/raw/icons/tango-full/16x16/actions/document-save.png"><span class="ll" onclick="showExports('WILSIO')">Export citation<img src="/philpapers/raw/subind.gif"></span>  <span class="eMsg" id="msg-WILSIO"></span></div></div></li> <li id='eWILTRO-8' onclick="ee('click','WILTRO-8')" onmouseover="ee('over','WILTRO-8')" onmouseout="ee('out','WILTRO-8')" class='entry'><span class="citation"><a href="http://philpapers.org/rec/WILTRO-8"><span class='name'>Laura Williamson</span>, <span class='name'>Marie Fox</span> & <span class='name'>Sheila McLean</span>, <span class='articleTitle'>The Regulation of Xenotransplantation in the United Kingdom After UKXIRA: Legal and Ethical Issues.</span></a><span class='pubInfo'></span></span><div class="extras"><div class="abstract">Xenotransplantation - the transfer of living tissue between species - has long been heralded as a potential solution to the severe organ shortage crisis experienced by the United Kingdom and other 'developed' nations. However, the significant risks which accompany this biotechnology led the United Kingdom to adopt a cautious approach to its regulation, with the establishment of a non-departmental public body - UKXIRA - to oversee the development of this technology on a national basis. In December 2006 UKXIRA was quietly<span id="WILTRO-8-absexp"> (<span class="ll" onclick='$("WILTRO-8-abstract2").show();$("WILTRO-8-absexp").hide()'>...</span>)</span><span id="WILTRO-8-abstract2" style="display:none"> disbanded and replaced with revised guidance, which entrusts the regulation of xenotransplantation largely to research ethics committees. In this article we seek to problematize this new regulatory framework, arguing that specialist expertise and national oversight are necessary components of an adequate regulatory framework for a biotechnology which poses new orders of risk, challenges the adequacy of traditional understandings of autonomy and consent, and raises significant animal welfare concerns. We argue for a more considered and holistic approach, based on adequate consultation, to regulating biotechnological developments in the United Kingdom. (<span class="ll" onclick='$("WILTRO-8-abstract2").hide();$("WILTRO-8-absexp").show();'>shrink</span>)</span></div><div class="catsCon" id="ecats-con-WILTRO-8"><div><a class='catName' href='/browse/autonomy-in-applied-ethics' rel='section'>Autonomy in Applied Ethics</a><span class='catIn'> in </span><a class='catArea href='/browse/applied-ethics' rel='section'>Applied Ethics</a></div></div><div class="options"><img class="texticon" src="/assets/raw/icons/tango-full/16x16/actions/go-down.png"><a rel="nofollow" href="http://philpapers.org/go.pl?id=WILTRO-8&proxyId=&u=http%3A%2F%2Fpapers.ssrn.com%2Fsol3%2Fpapers.cfm%3Fabstract_id%3D1031785" target='_blank' >Direct download</a>  <div id="ml-WILTRO-8" class="yui-skin-sam ldiv"> </div><img class="texticon" src="/assets/raw/icons/tango-full/16x16/places/folder.png"><span title="File in your personal bibliography" class="ll" onclick="showLists('WILTRO-8','')">My bibliography<img src="/philpapers/raw/subind.gif"></span>  <div id="la-WILTRO-8" title="Export to another format" class="yui-skin-sam ldiv"> </div><img class="texticon" src="/assets/raw/icons/tango-full/16x16/actions/document-save.png"><span class="ll" onclick="showExports('WILTRO-8')">Export citation<img src="/philpapers/raw/subind.gif"></span>  <span class="eMsg" id="msg-WILTRO-8"></span></div></div></li> <li id='eCLAMAT-3' onclick="ee('click','CLAMAT-3')" onmouseover="ee('over','CLAMAT-3')" onmouseout="ee('out','CLAMAT-3')" class='entry'><span class="citation"><a href="http://philpapers.org/rec/CLAMAT-3"><span class='name'>Brendan Clarke</span>, <span class='name'>Donald Gillies</span>, <span class='name'>Phyllis Illari</span>, <span class='name'>Federica Russo</span> & <span class='name'>Jon Williamson</span> (forthcoming). <span class='articleTitle'>Mechanisms and the Evidence Hierarchy.</span></a><span class='pubInfo'> <em class='pubName'>Topoi</em>:1-22.</span></span><div class="extras"><div class="abstract">Evidence-based medicine (EBM) makes use of explicit procedures for grading evidence for causal claims. Normally, these procedures categorise evidence of correlation produced by statistical trials as better evidence for a causal claim than evidence of mechanisms produced by other methods. We argue, in contrast, that evidence of mechanisms needs to be viewed as complementary to, rather than inferior to, evidence of correlation. In this paper we first set out the case for treating evidence of mechanisms alongside evidence of correlation in<span id="CLAMAT-3-absexp"> (<span class="ll" onclick='$("CLAMAT-3-abstract2").show();$("CLAMAT-3-absexp").hide()'>...</span>)</span><span id="CLAMAT-3-abstract2" style="display:none"> explicit protocols for evaluating evidence. Next we provide case studies which exemplify the ways in which evidence of mechanisms complements evidence of correlation in practice. Finally, we put forward some general considerations as to how the two sorts of evidence can be more closely integrated by EBM. (<span class="ll" onclick='$("CLAMAT-3-abstract2").hide();$("CLAMAT-3-absexp").show();'>shrink</span>)</span></div><div class="catsCon" id="ecats-con-CLAMAT-3"><div><a class='catName' href='/browse/value-theory' rel='section'>Value Theory</a></div> </div><div class="options"><img class="texticon" src="/assets/raw/icons/tango-full/16x16/actions/go-down.png"><a rel="nofollow" href="http://philpapers.org/go.pl?id=CLAMAT-3&proxyId=&u=http%3A%2F%2Flink.springer.com%2F10.1007%2Fs11245-013-9220-9" target='_blank' >Direct download</a> (<a href='/rec/CLAMAT-3'>4 more</a>)  <div id="ml-CLAMAT-3" class="yui-skin-sam ldiv"> </div><img class="texticon" src="/assets/raw/icons/tango-full/16x16/places/folder.png"><span title="File in your personal bibliography" class="ll" onclick="showLists('CLAMAT-3','')">My bibliography<img src="/philpapers/raw/subind.gif"></span>  <div id="la-CLAMAT-3" title="Export to another format" class="yui-skin-sam ldiv"> </div><img class="texticon" src="/assets/raw/icons/tango-full/16x16/actions/document-save.png"><span class="ll" onclick="showExports('CLAMAT-3')">Export citation<img src="/philpapers/raw/subind.gif"></span>  <span class="eMsg" id="msg-CLAMAT-3"></span></div></div></li> <li id='eLULMA' onclick="ee('click','LULMA')" onmouseover="ee('over','LULMA')" onmouseout="ee('out','LULMA')" class='entry'><span class="citation"><a href="http://philpapers.org/rec/LULMA"><span class='name'>R. E. Lu</span>, <span class='name'>D. Williamson</span> & <span class='name'>P. Kaufman</span> (forthcoming). <span class='articleTitle'>Learning, Memory and Cognition.</span></a><span class='pubInfo'> <em class='pubName'>Journal of Experimental Psychology</em>.</span></span><div class="extras"><div class="catsCon" id="ecats-con-LULMA"><div><a class='catName' href='/browse/cognitive-sciences' rel='section'>Cognitive Sciences</a></div> </div><div class="options"><div id="ml-LULMA" class="yui-skin-sam ldiv"> </div><img class="texticon" src="/assets/raw/icons/tango-full/16x16/places/folder.png"><span title="File in your personal bibliography" class="ll" onclick="showLists('LULMA','')">My bibliography<img src="/philpapers/raw/subind.gif"></span>  <div id="la-LULMA" title="Export to another format" class="yui-skin-sam ldiv"> </div><img class="texticon" src="/assets/raw/icons/tango-full/16x16/actions/document-save.png"><span class="ll" onclick="showExports('LULMA')">Export citation<img src="/philpapers/raw/subind.gif"></span>  <span class="eMsg" id="msg-LULMA"></span></div></div></li> <li id='eLUKISA' onclick="ee('click','LUKISA')" onmouseover="ee('over','LUKISA')" onmouseout="ee('out','LUKISA')" class='entry'><span class="citation"><a href="http://philpapers.org/rec/LUKISA"><span class='name'>Julia Lukewich</span>, <span class='name'>Renée Corbin</span>, <span class='name'>Elizabeth G. VanDenKerkhof</span>, <span class='name'>Dana S. Edge</span>, <span class='name'>Tyler Williamson</span> & <span class='name'>Joan E. Tranmer</span> (forthcoming). <span class='articleTitle'>Identification, Summary and Comparison of Tools Used to Measure Organizational Attributes Associated with Chronic Disease Management Within Primary Care Settings.</span></a><span class='pubInfo'> <em class='pubName'>Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice</em>:n/a-n/a.</span></span><div class="extras"><div class="catsCon" id="ecats-con-LUKISA">No categories</div><div class="options"><img class="texticon" src="/assets/raw/icons/tango-full/16x16/actions/go-down.png"><a rel="nofollow" href="http://philpapers.org/go.pl?id=LUKISA&proxyId=&u=http%3A%2F%2Fdoi.wiley.com%2F10.1111%2Fjep.12172" target='_blank' >Direct download</a> (<a href='/rec/LUKISA'>2 more</a>)  <div id="ml-LUKISA" class="yui-skin-sam ldiv"> </div><img class="texticon" src="/assets/raw/icons/tango-full/16x16/places/folder.png"><span title="File in your personal bibliography" class="ll" onclick="showLists('LUKISA','')">My bibliography<img src="/philpapers/raw/subind.gif"></span>  <div id="la-LUKISA" title="Export to another format" class="yui-skin-sam ldiv"> </div><img class="texticon" src="/assets/raw/icons/tango-full/16x16/actions/document-save.png"><span class="ll" onclick="showExports('LUKISA')">Export citation<img src="/philpapers/raw/subind.gif"></span>  <span class="eMsg" id="msg-LUKISA"></span></div></div></li> <li id='eSLYETT' onclick="ee('click','SLYETT')" onmouseover="ee('over','SLYETT')" onmouseout="ee('out','SLYETT')" class='entry'><span class="citation"><a href="http://philpapers.org/rec/SLYETT"><span class='name'>Gail Slye</span> & <span class='name'>Ed Williamson</span> (forthcoming). <span class='articleTitle'>Empowering Teachers Through Technology.</span></a><span class='pubInfo'> <em class='pubName'>Complexity</em>.</span></span><div class="extras"><div class="catsCon" id="ecats-con-SLYETT">No categories</div><div class="options"><div id="ml-SLYETT" class="yui-skin-sam ldiv"> </div><img class="texticon" src="/assets/raw/icons/tango-full/16x16/places/folder.png"><span title="File in your personal bibliography" class="ll" onclick="showLists('SLYETT','')">My bibliography<img src="/philpapers/raw/subind.gif"></span>  <div id="la-SLYETT" title="Export to another format" class="yui-skin-sam ldiv"> </div><img class="texticon" src="/assets/raw/icons/tango-full/16x16/actions/document-save.png"><span class="ll" onclick="showExports('SLYETT')">Export citation<img src="/philpapers/raw/subind.gif"></span>  <span class="eMsg" id="msg-SLYETT"></span></div></div></li> <li id='eSUTER' onclick="ee('click','SUTER')" onmouseover="ee('over','SUTER')" onmouseout="ee('out','SUTER')" class='entry'><span class="citation"><a href="http://philpapers.org/rec/SUTER"><span class='name'>John Sutton</span> & <span class='name'>Kellie Williamson</span> (forthcoming). <span class='articleTitle'>Embodied Remembering.</span></a><span class='pubInfo'> In L. Shapiro (ed.), <em><a href="http://philpapers.org/rec/SHATRH">The Routledge Handbook of Embodied Cognition</a></em>. Routledge.</span></span><div class="extras"><div class="abstract">Experiences of embodied remembering are familiar and diverse. We settle bodily into familiar chairs or find our way easily round familiar rooms. We inhabit our own kitchens or cars or workspaces effectively and comfortably, and feel disrupted when our habitual and accustomed objects or technologies change or break or are not available. Hearing a particular song can viscerally bring back either one conversation long ago, or just the urge to dance. Some people explicitly use their bodies to record, store, or<span id="SUTER-absexp"> (<span class="ll" onclick='$("SUTER-abstract2").show();$("SUTER-absexp").hide()'>...</span>)</span><span id="SUTER-abstract2" style="display:none"> cue memories. Others can move skilfully, without stopping to think, in complex and changing environments thanks to the cumulative expertise accrued in their history of fighting fires, or dancing, or playing hockey. The forms of memory involved in these cases may be distinct, operating at different timescales and levels, and by way of different mechanisms and media, but they often cooperate in the many contexts of our practices of remembering. (<span class="ll" onclick='$("SUTER-abstract2").hide();$("SUTER-absexp").show();'>shrink</span>)</span></div><div class="catsCon" id="ecats-con-SUTER"><div><a class='catName' href='/browse/embodied-memory' rel='section'>Embodied Memory</a><span class='catIn'> in </span><a class='catArea' href='/browse/philosophy-of-mind' rel='section'>Philosophy of Mind</a></div> <div><a class='catName' href='/browse/memory-and-cognitive-science' rel='section'>Memory and Cognitive Science</a><span class='catIn'> in </span><a class='catArea' href='/browse/philosophy-of-mind' rel='section'>Philosophy of Mind</a></div> <div><a class='catName' href='/browse/theories-of-memory' rel='section'>Theories of Memory</a><span class='catIn'> in </span><a class='catArea' href='/browse/philosophy-of-mind' rel='section'>Philosophy of Mind</a></div> </div><div class="options"><img class="texticon" src="/assets/raw/icons/tango-full/16x16/apps/internet-group-chat.png"><div id="tr-SUTER" title="Translate to English" class="yui-skin-sam ldiv" style="cursor:pointer" onclick="translateEntry('SUTER')">Translate to English</div> | <img class="texticon" src="/assets/raw/icons/tango-full/16x16/actions/go-down.png"><a rel="nofollow" href="http://philpapers.org/go.pl?id=SUTER&proxyId=&u=http%3A%2F%2Fphilpapers.org%2Farchive%2FSUTER.pdf" target='_blank' >Direct download</a>  <div id="ml-SUTER" class="yui-skin-sam ldiv"> </div><img class="texticon" src="/assets/raw/icons/tango-full/16x16/places/folder.png"><span title="File in your personal bibliography" class="ll" onclick="showLists('SUTER','')">My bibliography<img src="/philpapers/raw/subind.gif"></span>  <div id="la-SUTER" title="Export to another format" class="yui-skin-sam ldiv"> </div><img class="texticon" src="/assets/raw/icons/tango-full/16x16/actions/document-save.png"><span class="ll" onclick="showExports('SUTER')">Export citation<img src="/philpapers/raw/subind.gif"></span>  <span class="eMsg" id="msg-SUTER"></span></div></div></li> <li id='eWILMOB-3' onclick="ee('click','WILMOB-3')" onmouseover="ee('over','WILMOB-3')" onmouseout="ee('out','WILMOB-3')" class='entry'><span class="citation"><a href="http://philpapers.org/rec/WILMOB-3"><span class='name'>Callie Williamson</span> (forthcoming). <span class='articleTitle'>Monuments of Bronze: Roman Legal Documents on Bronze Tablets.</span></a><span class='pubInfo'> <em class='pubName'>Classical Antiquity</em>.</span></span><div class="extras"><div class="catsCon" id="ecats-con-WILMOB-3"><div><a class='catName' href='/browse/ancient-greek-and-roman-philosophy' rel='section'>Ancient Greek and Roman Philosophy</a></div> </div><div class="options"><div id="ml-WILMOB-3" class="yui-skin-sam ldiv"> </div><img class="texticon" src="/assets/raw/icons/tango-full/16x16/places/folder.png"><span title="File in your personal bibliography" class="ll" onclick="showLists('WILMOB-3','')">My bibliography<img src="/philpapers/raw/subind.gif"></span>  <div id="la-WILMOB-3" title="Export to another format" class="yui-skin-sam ldiv"> </div><img class="texticon" src="/assets/raw/icons/tango-full/16x16/actions/document-save.png"><span class="ll" onclick="showExports('WILMOB-3')">Export citation<img src="/philpapers/raw/subind.gif"></span>  <span class="eMsg" id="msg-WILMOB-3"></span></div></div></li> <li id='eSUTCDA' onclick="ee('click','SUTCDA')" onmouseover="ee('over','SUTCDA')" onmouseout="ee('out','SUTCDA')" class='entry'><span class="citation"><a href="http://philpapers.org/rec/SUTCDA"><span class='name'>Kellie Williamson</span> & <span class='name'>John Sutton</span> (forthcoming). <span class='articleTitle'>Embodied Collaboration in Small Groups.</span></a><span class='pubInfo'> In C. T. Wolfe (ed.), <em><a href="http://philpapers.org/rec/WOLBT">Brain Theory</a></em>. Springer.</span></span><div class="extras"><div class="abstract">Being social creatures in a complex world, we do things together. We act jointly. While cooperation, in its broadest sense, can involve merely getting out of each other’s way, or refusing to deceive other people, it is also essential to human nature that it involves more active forms of collaboration and coordination (Tomasello 2009; Sterelny 2012). We collaborate with others in many ordinary activities which, though at times similar to those of other animals, take unique and diverse cultural and psychological<span id="SUTCDA-absexp"> (<span class="ll" onclick='$("SUTCDA-abstract2").show();$("SUTCDA-absexp").hide()'>...</span>)</span><span id="SUTCDA-abstract2" style="display:none"> forms in human beings. But we also work closely and interactively with each other in more peculiar and flexible practices which are in distinctive ways both species-specific and culturally and historically contingent: from team sports to shared labour, from committee work to mass demonstrations, from dancing to reminiscing together about old times. (<span class="ll" onclick='$("SUTCDA-abstract2").hide();$("SUTCDA-absexp").show();'>shrink</span>)</span></div><div class="catsCon" id="ecats-con-SUTCDA"><div><a class='catName' href='/browse/embodiment-and-situated-cognition' rel='section'>Embodiment and Situated Cognition</a><span class='catIn'> in </span><a class='catArea' href='/browse/philosophy-of-cognitive-science' rel='section'>Philosophy of Cognitive Science</a></div> </div><div class="options"><img class="texticon" src="/assets/raw/icons/tango-full/16x16/actions/go-down.png"><a rel="nofollow" href="http://philpapers.org/go.pl?id=SUTCDA&proxyId=&u=http%3A%2F%2Fphilpapers.org%2Farchive%2FSUTCDA.pdf" target='_blank' >Direct download</a> (<a href='/rec/SUTCDA'>2 more</a>)  <div id="ml-SUTCDA" class="yui-skin-sam ldiv"> </div><img class="texticon" src="/assets/raw/icons/tango-full/16x16/places/folder.png"><span title="File in your personal bibliography" class="ll" onclick="showLists('SUTCDA','')">My bibliography<img src="/philpapers/raw/subind.gif"></span>  <div id="la-SUTCDA" title="Export to another format" class="yui-skin-sam ldiv"> </div><img class="texticon" src="/assets/raw/icons/tango-full/16x16/actions/document-save.png"><span class="ll" onclick="showExports('SUTCDA')">Export citation<img src="/philpapers/raw/subind.gif"></span>  <span class="eMsg" id="msg-SUTCDA"></span></div></div></li> <li id='eSUTOMA' onclick="ee('click','SUTOMA')" onmouseover="ee('over','SUTOMA')" onmouseout="ee('out','SUTOMA')" class='entry'><span class="citation"><a href="http://philpapers.org/rec/SUTOMA"><span class='name'>Kellie Williamson</span> & <span class='name'>John Sutton</span> (forthcoming). <span class='articleTitle'>Embodied Remembering.</span></a><span class='pubInfo'> In L. Shapiro (ed.), <em><a href="http://philpapers.org/rec/SHATRH">The Routledge Handbook of Embodied Cognition</a></em>. Routledge.</span></span><div class="extras"><div class="abstract">Experiences of embodied remembering are familiar and diverse. We settle bodily into familiar chairs or find our way easily round familiar rooms. We inhabit our own kitchens or cars or workspaces effectively and comfortably, and feel disrupted when our habitual and accustomed objects or technologies change or break or are not available. Hearing a particular song can viscerally bring back either one conversation long ago, or just the urge to dance. Some people explicitly use their bodies to record, store, or<span id="SUTOMA-absexp"> (<span class="ll" onclick='$("SUTOMA-abstract2").show();$("SUTOMA-absexp").hide()'>...</span>)</span><span id="SUTOMA-abstract2" style="display:none"> cue memories. Others can move skilfully, without stopping to think, in complex and changing environments thanks to the cumulative expertise accrued in their history of fighting fires, or dancing, or playing hockey. The forms of memory involved in these cases may be distinct, operating at different timescales and levels, and by way of different mechanisms and media, but they often cooperate in the many contexts of our practices of remembering. (<span class="ll" onclick='$("SUTOMA-abstract2").hide();$("SUTOMA-absexp").show();'>shrink</span>)</span></div><div class="catsCon" id="ecats-con-SUTOMA"><div><a class='catName' href='/browse/embodiment-and-situated-cognition' rel='section'>Embodiment and Situated Cognition</a><span class='catIn'> in </span><a class='catArea' href='/browse/philosophy-of-cognitive-science' rel='section'>Philosophy of Cognitive Science</a></div> <div><a class='catName' href='/browse/memory' rel='section'>Memory</a><span class='catIn'> in </span><a class='catArea' href='/browse/philosophy-of-mind' rel='section'>Philosophy of Mind</a></div> </div><div class="options"><img class="texticon" src="/assets/raw/icons/tango-full/16x16/actions/go-down.png"><a rel="nofollow" href="http://philpapers.org/go.pl?id=SUTOMA&proxyId=&u=http%3A%2F%2Fphilpapers.org%2Farchive%2FSUTOMA.pdf" target='_blank' >Direct download</a>  <div id="ml-SUTOMA" class="yui-skin-sam ldiv"> </div><img class="texticon" src="/assets/raw/icons/tango-full/16x16/places/folder.png"><span title="File in your personal bibliography" class="ll" onclick="showLists('SUTOMA','')">My bibliography<img src="/philpapers/raw/subind.gif"></span>  <div id="la-SUTOMA" title="Export to another format" class="yui-skin-sam ldiv"> </div><img class="texticon" src="/assets/raw/icons/tango-full/16x16/actions/document-save.png"><span class="ll" onclick="showExports('SUTOMA')">Export citation<img src="/philpapers/raw/subind.gif"></span>  <span class="eMsg" id="msg-SUTOMA"></span></div></div></li> <li id='eWILBRM-8' onclick="ee('click','WILBRM-8')" onmouseover="ee('over','WILBRM-8')" onmouseout="ee('out','WILBRM-8')" class='entry'><span class="citation"><a href="http://philpapers.org/rec/WILBRM-8"><span class='name'>Lamar Williamson</span> (forthcoming). <span class='articleTitle'>Book Review: Mark by William C. Placher Westminster John Knox, Louisville, 2010. 272 Pp. $29.95. ISBN 978-0-664-23209-2; Luke by Justo L. Conzález Westminster John Knox, Louisville, 2010. 308 Pp. $34.95. ISBN 978-0-664-323201-6.</span> <span class='hint'>[REVIEW]</span></a><span class='pubInfo'> <em class='pubName'>Interpretation</em> 65 (3):292-294.</span></span><div class="extras"><div class="catsCon" id="ecats-con-WILBRM-8">No categories</div><div class="options"><img class="texticon" src="/assets/raw/icons/tango-full/16x16/actions/go-down.png"><a rel="nofollow" href="http://philpapers.org/go.pl?id=WILBRM-8&proxyId=&u=http%3A%2F%2Fint.sagepub.com%2Fcontent%2F65%2F3%2F292.short" target='_blank' >Direct download</a> (<a href='/rec/WILBRM-8'>4 more</a>)  <div id="ml-WILBRM-8" class="yui-skin-sam ldiv"> </div><img class="texticon" src="/assets/raw/icons/tango-full/16x16/places/folder.png"><span title="File in your personal bibliography" class="ll" onclick="showLists('WILBRM-8','')">My bibliography<img src="/philpapers/raw/subind.gif"></span>  <div id="la-WILBRM-8" title="Export to another format" class="yui-skin-sam ldiv"> </div><img class="texticon" src="/assets/raw/icons/tango-full/16x16/actions/document-save.png"><span class="ll" onclick="showExports('WILBRM-8')">Export citation<img src="/philpapers/raw/subind.gif"></span>  <span class="eMsg" id="msg-WILBRM-8"></span></div></div></li> <li id='eWILBRS-11' onclick="ee('click','WILBRS-11')" onmouseover="ee('over','WILBRS-11')" onmouseout="ee('out','WILBRS-11')" class='entry'><span class="citation"><a href="http://philpapers.org/rec/WILBRS-11"><span class='name'>Lamar Williamson</span> (forthcoming). <span class='articleTitle'>Book Review: Sacred Scripture: A Short History of Interpretation.</span> <span class='hint'>[REVIEW]</span></a><span class='pubInfo'> <em class='pubName'>Interpretation</em> 64 (4):426-427.</span></span><div class="extras"><div class="catsCon" id="ecats-con-WILBRS-11">No categories</div><div class="options"><img class="texticon" src="/assets/raw/icons/tango-full/16x16/actions/go-down.png"><a rel="nofollow" href="http://philpapers.org/go.pl?id=WILBRS-11&proxyId=&u=http%3A%2F%2Fint.sagepub.com%2Fcontent%2F64%2F4%2F426.2.short" target='_blank' >Direct download</a> (<a href='/rec/WILBRS-11'>4 more</a>)  <div id="ml-WILBRS-11" class="yui-skin-sam ldiv"> </div><img class="texticon" src="/assets/raw/icons/tango-full/16x16/places/folder.png"><span title="File in your personal bibliography" class="ll" onclick="showLists('WILBRS-11','')">My bibliography<img src="/philpapers/raw/subind.gif"></span>  <div id="la-WILBRS-11" title="Export to another format" class="yui-skin-sam ldiv"> </div><img class="texticon" src="/assets/raw/icons/tango-full/16x16/actions/document-save.png"><span class="ll" onclick="showExports('WILBRS-11')">Export citation<img src="/philpapers/raw/subind.gif"></span>  <span class="eMsg" id="msg-WILBRS-11"></span></div></div></li> <li id='eWILIOP' onclick="ee('click','WILIOP')" onmouseover="ee('over','WILIOP')" onmouseout="ee('out','WILIOP')" class='entry'><span class="citation"><a href="http://philpapers.org/rec/WILIOP"><span class='name'>Rodney Williamson</span> (forthcoming). <span class='articleTitle'>Images of Power in the Electronic Press.</span></a><span class='pubInfo'> <em class='pubName'>Semiotics</em>:533-550.</span></span><div class="extras"><div class="catsCon" id="ecats-con-WILIOP">No categories</div><div class="options"><img class="texticon" src="/assets/raw/icons/tango-full/16x16/actions/go-down.png"><a rel="nofollow" href="http://philpapers.org/go.pl?id=WILIOP&proxyId=&u=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.pdcnet.org%2Fcollection%2Fshow%3Fid%3Dcpsem_2003_0533_0550%26file_type%3Dpdf" target='_blank' >Direct download</a> (<a href='/rec/WILIOP'>3 more</a>)  <div id="ml-WILIOP" class="yui-skin-sam ldiv"> </div><img class="texticon" src="/assets/raw/icons/tango-full/16x16/places/folder.png"><span title="File in your personal bibliography" class="ll" onclick="showLists('WILIOP','')">My bibliography<img src="/philpapers/raw/subind.gif"></span>  <div id="la-WILIOP" title="Export to another format" class="yui-skin-sam ldiv"> </div><img class="texticon" src="/assets/raw/icons/tango-full/16x16/actions/document-save.png"><span class="ll" onclick="showExports('WILIOP')">Export citation<img src="/philpapers/raw/subind.gif"></span>  <span class="eMsg" id="msg-WILIOP"></span></div></div></li> <li id='eWILSAN-3' onclick="ee('click','WILSAN-3')" onmouseover="ee('over','WILSAN-3')" onmouseout="ee('out','WILSAN-3')" class='entry'><span class="citation"><a href="http://philpapers.org/rec/WILSAN-3"><span class='name'>Rodney Williamson</span> (forthcoming). <span class='articleTitle'>Semiotics and National Identity.</span></a><span class='pubInfo'> <em class='pubName'>Semiotics</em>:11-12.</span></span><div class="extras"><div class="catsCon" id="ecats-con-WILSAN-3">No categories</div><div class="options"><img class="texticon" src="/assets/raw/icons/tango-full/16x16/actions/go-down.png"><a rel="nofollow" href="http://philpapers.org/go.pl?id=WILSAN-3&proxyId=&u=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.pdcnet.org%2Fcollection%2Fshow%3Fid%3Dcpsem_2003_R011_R012%26file_type%3Dpdf" target='_blank' >Direct download</a>  <div id="ml-WILSAN-3" class="yui-skin-sam ldiv"> </div><img class="texticon" src="/assets/raw/icons/tango-full/16x16/places/folder.png"><span title="File in your personal bibliography" class="ll" onclick="showLists('WILSAN-3','')">My bibliography<img src="/philpapers/raw/subind.gif"></span>  <div id="la-WILSAN-3" title="Export to another format" class="yui-skin-sam ldiv"> </div><img class="texticon" src="/assets/raw/icons/tango-full/16x16/actions/document-save.png"><span class="ll" onclick="showExports('WILSAN-3')">Export citation<img src="/philpapers/raw/subind.gif"></span>  <span class="eMsg" id="msg-WILSAN-3"></span></div></div></li> <li id='eWILAFS-3' onclick="ee('click','WILAFS-3')" onmouseover="ee('over','WILAFS-3')" onmouseout="ee('out','WILAFS-3')" class='entry'><span class="citation"><a href="http://philpapers.org/rec/WILAFS-3"><span class='name'>Thad Williamson</span> (forthcoming). <span class='articleTitle'>A Fair Stake and a Fair Shake: John Rawls's Idea of a Property-Owning Democracy and Its Political Plausibility. Forthcoming In.</span></a><span class='pubInfo'> <em class='pubName'>Journal of Social Philosophy</em>.</span></span><div class="extras"><div class="catsCon" id="ecats-con-WILAFS-3"><div><a class='catName' href='/browse/john-rawls' rel='section'>John Rawls</a><span class='catIn'> in </span><a class='catArea' href='/browse/20th-century-philosophy' rel='section'>20th Century Philosophy</a></div> <div><a class='catName' href='/browse/social-and-political-philosophy' rel='section'>Social and Political Philosophy</a></div> </div><div class="options"><div id="ml-WILAFS-3" class="yui-skin-sam ldiv"> </div><img class="texticon" src="/assets/raw/icons/tango-full/16x16/places/folder.png"><span title="File in your personal bibliography" class="ll" onclick="showLists('WILAFS-3','')">My bibliography<img src="/philpapers/raw/subind.gif"></span>  <div id="la-WILAFS-3" title="Export to another format" class="yui-skin-sam ldiv"> </div><img class="texticon" src="/assets/raw/icons/tango-full/16x16/actions/document-save.png"><span class="ll" onclick="showExports('WILAFS-3')">Export citation<img src="/philpapers/raw/subind.gif"></span>  <span class="eMsg" id="msg-WILAFS-3"></span></div></div></li> <li id='eESSOPA' onclick="ee('click','ESSOPA')" onmouseover="ee('over','ESSOPA')" onmouseout="ee('out','ESSOPA')" class='entry'><span class="citation"><a href="http://philpapers.org/rec/ESSOPA"><span class='name'>Timothy Williamson</span> (forthcoming). <span class='articleTitle'>Objects, Properties and Contingent Existence.</span></a><span class='pubInfo'> In W. K. Essler (ed.), <em><a href="http://philpapers.org/rec/ESSTFB">Themes from Barcan Marcus</a></em>.</span></span><div class="extras"><div class="abstract">Second-order logic and modal logic are both, separately, major topics of philosophical discussion. Although both have been criticized by Quine and others, increasingly many philosophers find their strictures uncompelling, and regard both branches of logic as valuable resources for the articulation and investigation of significant issues in logical metaphysics and elsewhere. One might therefore expect some combination of the two sorts of logic to constitute a natural and more comprehensive background logic for metaphysics. So it is somewhat surprising to find<span id="ESSOPA-absexp"> (<span class="ll" onclick='$("ESSOPA-abstract2").show();$("ESSOPA-absexp").hide()'>...</span>)</span><span id="ESSOPA-abstract2" style="display:none"> that philosophical discussion of secondorder modal logic is almost totally absent, despite the pioneering contribution of Barcan.. (<span class="ll" onclick='$("ESSOPA-abstract2").hide();$("ESSOPA-absexp").show();'>shrink</span>)</span></div><div class="catsCon" id="ecats-con-ESSOPA"><div><a class='catName' href='/browse/logic-and-philosophy-of-logic' rel='section'>Logic and Philosophy of Logic</a></div></div><div class="options"><img class="texticon" src="/assets/raw/icons/tango-full/16x16/apps/internet-group-chat.png"><div id="tr-ESSOPA" title="Translate to English" class="yui-skin-sam ldiv" style="cursor:pointer" onclick="translateEntry('ESSOPA')">Translate to English</div> | <img class="texticon" src="/assets/raw/icons/tango-full/16x16/actions/go-down.png"><a rel="nofollow" href="http://philpapers.org/go.pl?id=ESSOPA&proxyId=&u=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.philosophy.ox.ac.uk%2F__data%2Fassets%2Fpdf_file%2F0011%2F9479%2FBernepaper.pdf" target='_blank' >Direct download</a>  <div id="ml-ESSOPA" class="yui-skin-sam ldiv"> </div><img class="texticon" src="/assets/raw/icons/tango-full/16x16/places/folder.png"><span title="File in your personal bibliography" class="ll" onclick="showLists('ESSOPA','')">My bibliography<img src="/philpapers/raw/subind.gif"></span>  <div id="la-ESSOPA" title="Export to another format" class="yui-skin-sam ldiv"> </div><img class="texticon" src="/assets/raw/icons/tango-full/16x16/actions/document-save.png"><span class="ll" onclick="showExports('ESSOPA')">Export citation<img src="/philpapers/raw/subind.gif"></span>  <span class="eMsg" id="msg-ESSOPA"></span></div></div></li> <li id='eWILANO-22' onclick="ee('click','WILANO-22')" onmouseover="ee('over','WILANO-22')" onmouseout="ee('out','WILANO-22')" class='entry'><span class="citation"><a href="http://philpapers.org/rec/WILANO-22"><span class='name'>Timothy Williamson</span> (forthcoming). <span class='articleTitle'>A Note on Gettier Cases in Epistemic Logic.</span></a><span class='pubInfo'> <em class='pubName'>Philosophical Studies</em>:1-12.</span></span><div class="extras"><div class="abstract">The paper explains how Gettier’s conclusion can be reached on general theoretical grounds within the framework of epistemic logic, without reliance on thought experiments. It extends the argument to permissive conceptions of justification that invalidate principles of multi-premise closure and require neighbourhood semantics rather than semantics of a more standard type. The paper concludes by recommending a robust methodology that aims at convergence in results between thought experimentation and more formal methods. It also warns against conjunctive definitions as sharing several<span id="WILANO-22-absexp"> (<span class="ll" onclick='$("WILANO-22-abstract2").show();$("WILANO-22-absexp").hide()'>...</span>)</span><span id="WILANO-22-abstract2" style="display:none"> of the drawbacks of disjunctive definitions. (<span class="ll" onclick='$("WILANO-22-abstract2").hide();$("WILANO-22-absexp").show();'>shrink</span>)</span></div><div class="catsCon" id="ecats-con-WILANO-22">No categories</div><div class="options"><img class="texticon" src="/assets/raw/icons/tango-full/16x16/actions/go-down.png"><a rel="nofollow" href="http://philpapers.org/go.pl?id=WILANO-22&proxyId=&u=http%3A%2F%2Flink.springer.com%2F10.1007%2Fs11098-014-0357-1" target='_blank' >Direct download</a> (<a href='/rec/WILANO-22'>2 more</a>)  <div id="ml-WILANO-22" class="yui-skin-sam ldiv"> </div><img class="texticon" src="/assets/raw/icons/tango-full/16x16/places/folder.png"><span title="File in your personal bibliography" class="ll" onclick="showLists('WILANO-22','')">My bibliography<img src="/philpapers/raw/subind.gif"></span>  <div id="la-WILANO-22" title="Export to another format" class="yui-skin-sam ldiv"> </div><img class="texticon" src="/assets/raw/icons/tango-full/16x16/actions/document-save.png"><span class="ll" onclick="showExports('WILANO-22')">Export citation<img src="/philpapers/raw/subind.gif"></span>  <span class="eMsg" id="msg-WILANO-22"></span></div></div></li> <li id='eWILIMR-2' onclick="ee('click','WILIMR-2')" onmouseover="ee('over','WILIMR-2')" onmouseout="ee('out','WILIMR-2')" class='entry'><span class="citation"><a href="http://philpapers.org/rec/WILIMR-2"><span class='name'>Timothy Williamson</span> (forthcoming). <span class='articleTitle'>In Memoriam: Ruth Barcan Marcus 1921-2012.</span></a><span class='pubInfo'> <em class='pubName'>Association for Symbolic Logic: The Bulletin of Symbolic Logic</em>.</span></span><div class="extras"><div class="abstract">Timothy Williamson The Bulletin of Symbolic Logic, Volume 19, Issue 1, Page 123-126, March 2013. </div><div class="catsCon" id="ecats-con-WILIMR-2">No categories</div><div class="options"><img class="texticon" src="/assets/raw/icons/tango-full/16x16/actions/go-down.png"><a rel="nofollow" href="http://philpapers.org/go.pl?id=WILIMR-2&proxyId=&u=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.jstor.org%2Fstable%2Finfo%2F10.2307%2F41825315%3Fai%3D11y%26mi%3Dfmvqw2p%26af%3DR" target='_blank' >Direct download</a>  <div id="ml-WILIMR-2" class="yui-skin-sam ldiv"> </div><img class="texticon" src="/assets/raw/icons/tango-full/16x16/places/folder.png"><span title="File in your personal bibliography" class="ll" onclick="showLists('WILIMR-2','')">My bibliography<img src="/philpapers/raw/subind.gif"></span>  <div id="la-WILIMR-2" title="Export to another format" class="yui-skin-sam ldiv"> </div><img class="texticon" src="/assets/raw/icons/tango-full/16x16/actions/document-save.png"><span class="ll" onclick="showExports('WILIMR-2')">Export citation<img src="/philpapers/raw/subind.gif"></span>  <span class="eMsg" id="msg-WILIMR-2"></span></div></div></li> <li id='eWILORA' onclick="ee('click','WILORA')" onmouseover="ee('over','WILORA')" onmouseout="ee('out','WILORA')" class='entry'><span class="citation"><a href="http://philpapers.org/rec/WILORA"><span class='name'>Timothy Williamson</span> (forthcoming). <span class='articleTitle'>On Rigidity and Persistence.</span></a><span class='pubInfo'> <em class='pubName'>Logique Et Analyse</em>.</span></span><div class="extras"><div class="abstract">This note makes a small correction to Nathan Salmon's account of rigid designators and persistent designators in Reference and Essence. </div><div class="catsCon" id="ecats-con-WILORA"><div><a class='catName' href='/browse/metaphysics-and-epistemology' rel='section'>Metaphysics and Epistemology</a></div> </div><div class="options"><img class="texticon" src="/assets/raw/icons/tango-full/16x16/actions/go-down.png"><a rel="nofollow" href="http://philpapers.org/go.pl?id=WILORA&proxyId=&u=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.mendeley.com%2Fresearch%2Frigidity-persistence%2F" target='_blank' >Direct download</a>  <div id="ml-WILORA" class="yui-skin-sam ldiv"> </div><img class="texticon" src="/assets/raw/icons/tango-full/16x16/places/folder.png"><span title="File in your personal bibliography" class="ll" onclick="showLists('WILORA','')">My bibliography<img src="/philpapers/raw/subind.gif"></span>  <div id="la-WILORA" title="Export to another format" class="yui-skin-sam ldiv"> </div><img class="texticon" src="/assets/raw/icons/tango-full/16x16/actions/document-save.png"><span class="ll" onclick="showExports('WILORA')">Export citation<img src="/philpapers/raw/subind.gif"></span>  <span class="eMsg" id="msg-WILORA"></span></div></div></li> </ol> </div> <div id='prevNextHtml' class='centered'><center><table><td><span class='prevNext'><img border='0' src='/philpapers/raw/icons/back-g.png'></td><td>1 — 50 / 572</td><td><span class='prevNext'><span title='Next page' class='clickable' onclick='goToNextPage()'><img border='0' src='/philpapers/raw/icons/forward.png'></span></span></td></table></center></div> </td> <td class="side_td"> <form name="expform"> <div class="sideBox"> 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