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  1. Timothy Williamson (2000). Knowledge and its Limits. Oxford University Press.
    Knowledge and its Limits presents a systematic new conception of knowledge as a kind of mental stage sensitive to the knower's environment. It makes a major contribution to the debate between externalist and internalist philosophies of mind, and breaks radically with the epistemological tradition of analyzing knowledge in terms of true belief. The theory casts new light on such philosophical problems as scepticism, evidence, probability and assertion, realism and anti-realism, and the limits of what can be known. The arguments are (...)
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  2.  43
    Timothy Williamson (2013). Modal Logic as Metaphysics. Oxford University Press.
    Timothy Williamson gives an original and provocative treatment of deep metaphysical questions about existence, contingency, and change, using the latest resources of quantified <span class='Hi'>modal</span> <span class='Hi'>logic</span>. Contrary to the widespread assumption that <span class='Hi'>logic</span> and <span class='Hi'>metaphysics</span> are disjoint, he argues that <span class='Hi'>modal</span> <span class='Hi'>logic</span> provides a structural core for <span class='Hi'>metaphysics</span>.
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  3. Timothy Williamson (2007). The Philosophy of Philosophy. Blackwell Pub..
    The second volume in the Blackwell Brown Lectures in Philosophy, this volume offers an original and provocative take on the nature and methodology of philosophy. Based on public lectures at Brown University, given by the pre-eminent philosopher, Timothy Williamson Rejects the ideology of the 'linguistic turn', the most distinctive trend of 20th century philosophy Explains the method of philosophy as a development from non-philosophical ways of thinking Suggests new ways of understanding what contemporary and past philosophers are doing.
     
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  4. Timothy Williamson (1994). Vagueness. Routledge.
    Vagueness provides the first comprehensive examination of a topic of increasing importance in metaphysics and the philosophy of logic and language. Timothy Williamson traces the history of this philosophical problem from discussions of the heap paradox in classical Greece to modern formal approaches such as fuzzy logic. He illustrates the problems with views which have taken the position that standard logic and formal semantics do not apply to vague language, and defends the controversial realistic view that vagueness is a kind (...)
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  5. Timothy Williamson (2011). Philosophical Expertise and the Burden of Proof. Metaphilosophy 42 (3):215-229.
    Abstract: Some proponents of “experimental philosophy” criticize philosophers' use of thought experiments on the basis of evidence that the verdicts vary with truth-independent factors. However, their data concern the verdicts of philosophically untrained subjects. According to the expertise defence, what matters are the verdicts of trained philosophers, who are more likely to pay careful attention to the details of the scenario and track their relevance. In a recent article, Jonathan M. Weinberg and others reply to the expertise defence that there (...)
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  6. Jason Stanley & Timothy Williamson (2001). Knowing How. Journal of Philosophy 98 (8):411-444.
    Many philosophers believe that there is a fundamental distinction between knowing that something is the case and knowing how to do something. According to Gilbert Ryle, to whom the insight is credited, knowledge-how is an ability, which is in turn a complex of dispositions. Knowledge-that, on the other hand, is not an ability, or anything similar. Rather, knowledge-that is a relation between a thinker and a true proposition.
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  7. Timothy Williamson (2005). Contextualism, Subject-Sensitive Invariantism and Knowledge of Knowledge. Philosophical Quarterly 55 (219):213–235.
    §I schematises the evidence for an understanding of ‘know’ and other terms of epistemic appraisal that embodies contextualism or subject-sensitive invariantism, and distinguishes between those two approaches. §II argues that although the cases for contextualism and sensitive invariantism rely on a principle of charity in the interpretation of epistemic claims, neither approach satisfies charity fully, since both attribute metalinguistic errors to speakers. §III provides an equally charitable anti-sceptical insensitive invariantist explanation of much of the same evidence as the result of (...)
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  8.  12
    Jon Williamson (2010). In Defence of Objective Bayesianism. OUP Oxford.
    Objective Bayesianism is a methodological theory that is currently applied in statistics, philosophy, artificial intelligence, physics and other sciences. This book develops the formal and philosophical foundations of the theory, at a level accessible to a graduate student with some familiarity with mathematical notation.
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  9. Timothy Williamson (2010). The Philosophy of Philosophy. Wiley-Blackwell.
    The second volume in the _Blackwell Brown Lectures in Philosophy_, this volume offers an original and provocative take on the nature and methodology of philosophy. Based on public lectures at Brown University, given by the pre-eminent philosopher, Timothy Williamson Rejects the ideology of the 'linguistic turn', the most distinctive trend of 20th century philosophy Explains the method of philosophy as a development from non-philosophical ways of thinking Suggests new ways of understanding what contemporary and past philosophers are doing.
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  10. Timothy Williamson (2000). Knowledge and its Limits. Oxford University Press Uk.
    'An outstanding contribution to analytic epistemology... original and ingenius arguments... Knowledge and its Limits has raised the standards of epistemological discussion to a higher level.' -Grazer Philosophische Studien 'Radical and challenging... without question an important exercise of the 'let me show you a new way of looking at things' kind; something we sorely need in epistemology.' -Frank Jackson, Australasian Journal of Philosophy 'The best book in epistemology to come out since 1975.' -Keith DeRose, British Journal for the Philosophy of Science (...)
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  11. Phyllis Illari & Jon Williamson (2012). What is a Mechanism? Thinking About Mechanisms Across the Sciences. European Journal for Philosophy of Science 2 (1):119-135.
    After a decade of intense debate about mechanisms, there is still no consensus characterization. In this paper we argue for a characterization that applies widely to mechanisms across the sciences. We examine and defend our disagreements with the major current contenders for characterizations of mechanisms. Ultimately, we indicate that the major contenders can all sign up to our characterization.
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  12.  30
    Timothy Williamson (2016). Replies to King, deRosset and Kment. Analysis 76 (2):201-222.
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  13. Timothy Williamson (2014). Very Improbable Knowing. Erkenntnis 79 (5):971-999.
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  14.  49
    Federica Russo & Jon Williamson (2007). Interpreting Causality in the Health Sciences. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 21 (2):157 – 170.
    We argue that the health sciences make causal claims on the basis of evidence both of physical mechanisms, and of probabilistic dependencies. Consequently, an analysis of causality solely in terms of physical mechanisms or solely in terms of probabilistic relationships, does not do justice to the causal claims of these sciences. Yet there seems to be a single relation of cause in these sciences - pluralism about causality will not do either. Instead, we maintain, the health sciences require a theory (...)
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  15.  4
    Laura Williamson (2014). Patient and Citizen Participation in Health: The Need for Improved Ethical Support. American Journal of Bioethics 14 (6):4-16.
    Patient and citizen participation is now regarded as central to the promotion of sustainable health and health care. Involvement efforts create and encounter many diverse ethical challenges that have the potential to enhance or undermine their success. This article examines different expressions of patient and citizen participation and the support health ethics offers. It is contended that despite its prominence and the link between patient empowerment and autonomy, traditional bioethics is insufficient to guide participation efforts. In addition, the turn to (...)
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  16. Timothy Williamson (2013). Gettier Cases in Epistemic Logic. Inquiry 56 (1):1-14.
    The possibility of justified true belief without knowledge is normally motivated by informally classified examples. This paper shows that it can also be motivated more formally, by a natural class of epistemic models in which both knowledge and justified belief (in the relevant sense) are represented. The models involve a distinction between appearance and reality. Gettier cases arise because the agent's ignorance increases as the gap between appearance and reality widens. The models also exhibit an epistemic asymmetry between good and (...)
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  17. Timothy Williamson (2004). Philosphical 'Intuitions' and Scepticism About Judgement. Dialectica 58 (1):109–153.
    1. What are called ‘intuitions’ in philosophy are just applications of our ordinary capacities for judgement. We think of them as intuitions when a special kind of scepticism about those capacities is salient. 2. Like scepticism about perception, scepticism about judgement pressures us into conceiving our evidence as facts about our internal psychological states: here, facts about our conscious inclinations to make judgements about some topic rather than facts about the topic itself. But the pressure should be resisted, for it (...)
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  18.  75
    Jon Williamson (2004). Bayesian Nets and Causality: Philosophical and Computational Foundations. OUP Oxford.
    Bayesian nets are widely used in artificial intelligence as a calculus for causal reasoning, enabling machines to make predictions, perform diagnoses, take decisions and even to discover causal relationships. This book, aimed at researchers and graduate students in computer science, mathematics and philosophy, brings together two important research topics: how to automate reasoning in artificial intelligence, and the nature of causality and probability in philosophy.
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  19. Timothy Williamson (1996). Knowing and Asserting. Philosophical Review 105 (4):489.
    This paper aims to identify the constitutive rule of assertion, conceived by analogy with the rules of a game. That assertion has such rules is by no means obvious; perhaps it is more like a natural phenomenon than it seems. One way to find out is by supposing that it has such rules, in order to see where the hypothesis leads and what it explains. That will be done here. The hypothesis is not perfectly clear, of course, but we have (...)
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  20.  24
    Timothy Williamson (2016). Summary. Analysis 76 (2):153-155.
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  21.  57
    Brendan Clarke, Donald Gillies, Phyllis Illari, Federica Russo & Jon Williamson (2014). Mechanisms and the Evidence Hierarchy. Topoi 33 (2):339-360.
    Evidence-based medicine (EBM) makes use of explicit procedures for grading evidence for causal claims. Normally, these procedures categorise evidence of correlation produced by statistical trials as better evidence for a causal claim than evidence of mechanisms produced by other methods. We argue, in contrast, that evidence of mechanisms needs to be viewed as complementary to, rather than inferior to, evidence of correlation. In this paper we first set out the case for treating evidence of mechanisms alongside evidence of correlation in (...)
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  22.  19
    David Williamson, Gary Lynch-Wood & John Ramsay (2006). Drivers of Environmental Behaviour in Manufacturing SMEs and the Implications for CSR. Journal of Business Ethics 67 (3):317 - 330.
    The authors use empirical research into the environmental practices of 31 manufacturing small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) to show that ‚business performance’ and ‚regulation’ considerations drive behaviour. They suggest that this is inevitable, given the market-based decision-making frames that permeate and dominate the industry in which manufacturing SMEs operate. Since the environment is a pillar of corporate social responsibility (CSR), the findings have important implications for CSR policy, which promotes voluntary actions predicated on a business case. It is argued that (...)
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  23. Igor Douven & Timothy Williamson (2006). Generalizing the Lottery Paradox. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 57 (4):755-779.
    This paper is concerned with formal solutions to the lottery paradox on which high probability defeasibly warrants acceptance. It considers some recently proposed solutions of this type and presents an argument showing that these solutions are trivial in that they boil down to the claim that perfect probability is sufficient for rational acceptability. The argument is then generalized, showing that a broad class of similar solutions faces the same problem. An argument against some formal solutions to the lottery paradox The (...)
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  24. Timothy Williamson (2007). Rationality and the Good. Oxford University Press.
     
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  25. Timothy Williamson (2005). I *-Armchair Philosophy, Metaphysical Modality and Counterfactual Thinking. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 105 (1):1-23.
    A striking feature of the traditional armchair method of philosophy is the use of imaginary examples: for instance, of Gettier cases as counterexamples to the justified true belief analysis of knowledge. The use of such examples is often thought to involve some sort of a priori rational intuition, which crude rationalists regard as a virtue and crude empiricists as a vice. It is argued here that, on the contrary, what is involved is simply an application of our general cognitive capacity (...)
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  26. Timothy Williamson (2013). How Deep is the Distinction Between A Priori and A Posteriori Knowledge? In Albert Casullo & Joshua C. Thurow (eds.), The A Priori in Philosophy. Oxford University Press 291-312.
    The paper argues that, although a distinction between a priori and a posteriori knowledge (or justification) can be drawn, it is a superficial one, of little theoretical significance. The point is not that the distinction has borderline cases, for virtually all useful distinctions have such cases. Rather, it is argued by means of an example, the differences even between a clear case of a priori knowledge and a clear case of a posteriori knowledge may be superficial ones. In both cases, (...)
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  27.  17
    Jason Stanley & Timothy Williamson (2016). Skill. Noûs 50 (2).
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  28.  58
    Timothy Williamson (2010). Vagueness and Ignorance. In Darragh Byrne & Max Kölbel (eds.), Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume. Routledge 145 - 177.
  29. Timothy Williamson (2003). Everything. Philosophical Perspectives 17 (1):415–465.
    On reading the last sentence, did you interpret me as saying falsely that everything — everything in the entire universe — was packed into my carry-on baggage? Probably not. In ordinary language, ‘everything’ and other quantifiers (‘something’, ‘nothing’, ‘every dog’, ...) often carry a tacit restriction to a domain of contextually relevant objects, such as the things that I need to take with me on my journey. Thus a sentence of the form ‘Everything Fs’ is true as uttered in a (...)
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  30.  53
    Federica Russo & Jon Williamson (2011). Generic Versus Single-Case Causality: The Case of Autopsy. [REVIEW] European Journal for Philosophy of Science 1 (1):47-69.
    This paper addresses questions about how the levels of causality (generic and single-case causality) are related. One question is epistemological: can relationships at one level be evidence for relationships at the other level? We present three kinds of answer to this question, categorised according to whether inference is top-down, bottom-up, or the levels are independent. A second question is metaphysical: can relationships at one level be reduced to relationships at the other level? We present three kinds of answer to this (...)
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  31. Timothy Williamson (2009). Reference, Inference, and the Semantics of Pejoratives. In Joseph Almog & Paolo Leonardi (eds.), The Philosophy of David Kaplan. Oxford University Press 137--159.
    Two opposing tendencies in the philosophy of language go by the names of ‘referentialism’ and ‘inferentialism’ respectively. In the crudest version of the contrast, the referentialist account of meaning gives centre stage to the referential semantics for a language, which is then used to explain the inference rules for the language, perhaps as those which preserve truth on that semantics (since a referential semantics for a language determines the truth-conditions of its sentences). By contrast, the inferentialist account of meaning gives (...)
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  32. Timothy Williamson (2008). The Philosophy of Philosophy. Wiley-Blackwell.
    The second volume in the _Blackwell Brown Lectures in Philosophy_, this volume offers an original and provocative take on the nature and methodology of philosophy. Based on public lectures at Brown University, given by the pre-eminent philosopher, Timothy Williamson Rejects the ideology of the 'linguistic turn', the most distinctive trend of 20th century philosophy Explains the method of philosophy as a development from non-philosophical ways of thinking Suggests new ways of understanding what contemporary and past philosophers are doing.
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  33.  72
    Timothy Williamson (2013). Response to Cohen, Comesaña, Goodman, Nagel, and Weatherson on Gettier Cases in Epistemic Logic. Inquiry 56 (1):77-96.
    The five commentators on my paper ‘Gettier Cases in Epistemic Logic’ (GCEL) demonstrate how fruitful the topic can be. Especially in Brian Weatherson's contribution, and to some extent in those of Jennifer Nagel and Jeremy Goodman, much of the material constitutes valuable development and refinement of ideas in GCEL, rather than criticism. In response, I draw some threads together, and answer objections, mainly those in the papers by Stewart Cohen and Juan Comesaña and by Goodman.
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  34. Timothy Williamson (1998). Bare Possibilia. Erkenntnis 48 (2/3):257--73.
    The theorems of the simplest and strongest sensible quantified modal logic include the Barcan Formula and its converse. Both formulas face strong intuitive objections. This paper develops a theory of possibilia to meet those objections.
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  35.  44
    Rolf Haenni, Jan-Willem Romeijn, Gregory Wheeler & Jon Williamson (2011). Probabilistic Logics and Probabilistic Networks. Synthese Library.
    Additionally, the text shows how to develop computationally feasible methods to mesh with this framework.
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  36. Michael Fara & Timothy Williamson (2005). Counterparts and Actuality. Mind 114 (453):1-30.
    Many philosophers, following David Lewis, believe that we should look to counterpart theory, not quantified modal logic, as a means of understanding modal discourse. We argue that this is a mistake. Significant parts of modal discourse involve either implicit or explicit reference to what is actually the case, raising the question of how talk about actuality is to be represented counterpart-theoretically. By considering possible modifications of Lewis's counterpart theory, including actual modifications due to Graeme Forbes and Murali Ramachandran, we argue (...)
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  37. Timothy Williamson (2011). Improbable Knowing. In T. Dougherty (ed.), Evidentialism and its Discontents. Oxford University Press
    Can we turn the screw on counter-examples to the KK principle (that if one knows that P, one knows that one knows that P)? The idea is to construct cases in which one knows that P, but the epistemic status for one of the proposition that one knows that P is much worse than just one’s not knowing it. Of course, since knowledge is factive, there can’t be cases in which one knows that P and knows that one doesn’t know (...)
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  38. Timothy Williamson (2003). Understanding and Inference. Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 77 (1):249–293.
    The paper challenges the inferentialist account of concept possession that Paul Boghossian takes as a premise in his account of the transmission of justification by deductive reasoning in his paper 'Blind Reasoning'. Unorthodox speakers who reject the inferences in an alleged possession condition can still have the concept by understanding a word for it. In that sense, the inferences are not analytic. Inferentialist accounts of logical constants, theoretical terms (using the Ramsey-Carnap-Lewis method) and pejorative expressions such as 'Boche' are examined (...)
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  39. Jon Williamson, Maximising Entropy Efficiently.
    Recommended citation: . . Link¨ oping Electronic Articles in Computer and Information Science, Vol. 7(2002): nr 0. http://www.ep.liu.se/ea/cis/2002/00/. September 18, 2002. </div><div class="catsCon" id="ecats-con-WILMEE"><div><a class='catName' href='/browse/thermodynamics-and-statistical-mechanics' rel='section'>Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics</a><span class='catIn'> in </span><a class='catArea' href='/browse/philosophy-of-physical-science' rel='section'>Philosophy of Physical Science</a></div> </div><div class="options"><a rel="nofollow" href="http://philpapers.org/go.pl?id=WILMEE&proxyId=&u=http%3A%2F%2Fkar.kent.ac.uk%2F7376%2F" target='_blank' ><i class="fa fa-download"></i> Direct download</a> (<a href='/rec/WILMEE'>2 more</a>)   <div id="la-WILMEE" title="Export to another format" class="yui-skin-sam ldiv"> </div><span class="ll" onclick="showExports('WILMEE')"><i class="fa fa-external-link"></i> Export citation<img src="/philpapers/raw/subind.gif"></span>   <div id="ml-WILMEE" class="yui-skin-sam ldiv"> </div><span title="Save in your personal bibliography" class="ll" onclick="showLists('WILMEE','')"><i class="fa fa-floppy-o"></i> My bibliography<img src="/philpapers/raw/subind.gif"></span>  <span class="eMsg" id="msg-WILMEE"></span></div></div></li> <li id='eWILCT' onclick="ee('click','WILCT')" onmouseover="ee('over','WILCT')" onmouseout="ee('out','WILCT')" class='entry'><div style='float:right' class='subtle'> <a href='/rec/WILCT#analytics'><span style='color:#10A010'>195 <i class="fa fa-download"></i></span></a></div><span class="citation"><a target='_blank' href="http://philpapers.org/rec/WILCT"><span class='name'>Timothy Williamson</span> (2006). <span class='articleTitle recTitle'>Conceptual Truth.</span></a><span class='pubInfo'> <em class='pubName'>Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume</em> 80 (1):1–41.</span></span><div class="extras"><div class="abstract">The paper criticizes epistemological conceptions of analytic or conceptual truth, on which assent to such truths is a necessary condition of understanding them. The critique involves no Quinean scepticism about meaning. Rather, even granted that a paradigmatic candidate for analyticity is synonymy with a logical truth, both the former and the latter can be intelligibly doubted by linguistically competent deviant logicians, who, although mistaken, still constitute counterexamples to the claim that assent is necessary for understanding. There are no analytic or<span id="WILCT-absexp"> (<span class="ll" onclick='$("WILCT-abstract2").show();$("WILCT-absexp").hide()'>...</span>)</span><span id="WILCT-abstract2" style="display:none"> conceptual truths in the epistemological sense. The critique is extended to purportedly analytic inference rules. An alternative account is sketched on which understanding a word is a matter of participation in a linguistic practice, while synonymy and concept identity consist in sameness of truth-conditional semantic properties. Although there are philosophical questions about concepts, the idea that philosophical questions in general are conceptual questions generates only an illusion of insight into philosophical methodology. (<span class="ll" onclick='$("WILCT-abstract2").hide();$("WILCT-absexp").show();'>shrink</span>)</span></div><div class="catsCon" id="ecats-con-WILCT"><div><a class='catName' href='/browse/the-analytic-synthetic-distinction' rel='section'>The Analytic-Synthetic Distinction</a><span class='catIn'> in </span><a class='catArea' href='/browse/philosophy-of-language' rel='section'>Philosophy of Language</a></div> </div><div class="options"><a rel="nofollow" href="http://philpapers.org/go.pl?id=WILCT&proxyId=&u=http%3A%2F%2Fdx.doi.org%2F10.1111%2Fj.1467-8349.2006.00136.x" target='_blank' ><i class="fa fa-download"></i> Direct download</a> (<a href='/rec/WILCT'>9 more</a>)   <div id="la-WILCT" title="Export to another format" class="yui-skin-sam ldiv"> </div><span class="ll" onclick="showExports('WILCT')"><i class="fa fa-external-link"></i> Export citation<img src="/philpapers/raw/subind.gif"></span>   <div id="ml-WILCT" class="yui-skin-sam ldiv"> </div><span title="Save in your personal bibliography" class="ll" onclick="showLists('WILCT','')"><i class="fa fa-floppy-o"></i> My bibliography<img src="/philpapers/raw/subind.gif"></span>  <a href="/citations/WILCT"><i class="fa fa-share-alt"></i> 20 citations</a>   <span class="eMsg" id="msg-WILCT"></span></div></div></li> <li id='eRUSECA-3' onclick="ee('click','RUSECA-3')" onmouseover="ee('over','RUSECA-3')" onmouseout="ee('out','RUSECA-3')" class='entry'><div style='float:right' class='subtle'> <a href='/rec/RUSECA-3#analytics'><span style='color:#10A010'>29 <i class="fa fa-download"></i></span></a></div><span class="citation"><a target='_blank' href="http://philpapers.org/rec/RUSECA-3"><span class='name'>Federica Russo</span> & <span class='name'>Jon Williamson</span> (2011). <span class='articleTitle recTitle'>Epistemic Causality and Evidence-Based Medicine.</span></a><span class='pubInfo'> <em class='pubName'>History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences</em> 33 (4).</span></span><div class="extras"><div class="abstract">Causal claims in biomedical contexts are ubiquitous albeit they are not always made explicit. This paper addresses the question of what causal claims mean in the context of disease. It is argued that in medical contexts causality ought to be interpreted according to the epistemic theory. The epistemic theory offers an alternative to traditional accounts that cash out causation either in terms of “difference-making” relations or in terms of mechanisms. According to the epistemic approach, causal claims tell us about which<span id="RUSECA-3-absexp"> (<span class="ll" onclick='$("RUSECA-3-abstract2").show();$("RUSECA-3-absexp").hide()'>...</span>)</span><span id="RUSECA-3-abstract2" style="display:none"> inferences (e.g., diagnoses and prognoses) are appropriate, rather than about the presence of some physical causal relation analogous to distance or gravitational attraction. It is shown that the epistemic theory has important consequences for medical practice, in particular with regard to evidence-based causal assessment. (<span class="ll" onclick='$("RUSECA-3-abstract2").hide();$("RUSECA-3-absexp").show();'>shrink</span>)</span></div><div class="catsCon" id="ecats-con-RUSECA-3"><div><a class='catName' href='/browse/philosophy-of-medicine' rel='section'>Philosophy of Medicine</a><span class='catIn'> in </span><a class='catArea' href='/browse/philosophy-of-science-misc' rel='section'>Philosophy of Science, Misc</a></div> </div><div class="options"><a rel="nofollow" href="http://philpapers.org/go.pl?id=RUSECA-3&proxyId=&u=http%3A%2F%2Fphilsci-archive.pitt.edu%2F8351%2F1%2Fepcause-medicine.pdf" target='_blank' ><i class="fa fa-download"></i> Direct download</a> (<a href='/rec/RUSECA-3'>6 more</a>)   <div id="la-RUSECA-3" title="Export to another format" class="yui-skin-sam ldiv"> </div><span class="ll" onclick="showExports('RUSECA-3')"><i class="fa fa-external-link"></i> Export citation<img src="/philpapers/raw/subind.gif"></span>   <div id="ml-RUSECA-3" class="yui-skin-sam ldiv"> </div><span title="Save in your personal bibliography" class="ll" onclick="showLists('RUSECA-3','')"><i class="fa fa-floppy-o"></i> My bibliography<img src="/philpapers/raw/subind.gif"></span>  <a href="/citations/RUSECA-3"><i class="fa fa-share-alt"></i> 10 citations</a>   <span class="eMsg" id="msg-RUSECA-3"></span></div></div></li> <li id='eCLATET' onclick="ee('click','CLATET')" onmouseover="ee('over','CLATET')" onmouseout="ee('out','CLATET')" class='entry'><div style='float:right' class='subtle'> <a href='/rec/CLATET#analytics'><span style='color:#10A010'>16 <i class="fa fa-download"></i></span></a></div><span class="citation"><a target='_blank' href="http://philpapers.org/rec/CLATET"><span class='name'>Brendan Clarke</span>, <span class='name'>Donald Gillies</span>, <span class='name'>Phyllis Illari</span>, <span class='name'>Frederica Russo</span> & <span class='name'>Jon Williamson</span> (2013). <span class='articleTitle recTitle'>The Evidence That Evidence-Based Medicine Omits.</span></a><span class='pubInfo'> <em class='pubName'>Preventive Medicine</em> 57:745-747.</span></span><div class="extras"><div class="abstract">According to current hierarchies of evidence for EBM, evidence of correlation is always more important than evidence of mechanisms when evaluating and establishing causal claims. We argue that evidence of mechanisms needs to be treated alongside evidence of correlation. This is for three reasons. First, correlation is always a fallible indicator of causation, subject in particular to the problem of confounding; evidence of mechanisms can in some cases be more important than evidence of correlation when assessing a causal claim. Second,<span id="CLATET-absexp"> (<span class="ll" onclick='$("CLATET-abstract2").show();$("CLATET-absexp").hide()'>...</span>)</span><span id="CLATET-abstract2" style="display:none"> evidence of mechanisms is often required in order to obtain evidence of correlation . Third, evidence of mechanisms is often required in order to generalise and apply causal claims. While the EBM movement has been enormously successful in making explicit and critically examining one aspect of our evidential practice, i.e., evidence of correlation, we wish to extend this line of work to make explicit and critically examine a second aspect of our evidential practices: evidence of mechanisms. (<span class="ll" onclick='$("CLATET-abstract2").hide();$("CLATET-absexp").show();'>shrink</span>)</span></div><div class="catsCon" id="ecats-con-CLATET"><div><a class='catName' href='/browse/philosophy-of-medicine-misc' rel='section'>Philosophy of Medicine, Misc</a><span class='catIn'> in </span><a class='catArea' href='/browse/philosophy-of-science-misc' rel='section'>Philosophy of Science, Misc</a></div> </div><div class="options"><a rel="nofollow" href="http://philpapers.org/go.pl?id=CLATET&proxyId=&u=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.sciencedirect.com%2Fscience%2Farticle%2Fpii%2FS0091743512005452" target='_blank' ><i class="fa fa-download"></i> Direct download</a> (<a href='/rec/CLATET'>4 more</a>)   <div id="la-CLATET" title="Export to another format" class="yui-skin-sam ldiv"> </div><span class="ll" onclick="showExports('CLATET')"><i class="fa fa-external-link"></i> Export citation<img src="/philpapers/raw/subind.gif"></span>   <div id="ml-CLATET" class="yui-skin-sam ldiv"> </div><span title="Save in your personal bibliography" class="ll" onclick="showLists('CLATET','')"><i class="fa fa-floppy-o"></i> My bibliography<img src="/philpapers/raw/subind.gif"></span>  <a href="/citations/CLATET"><i class="fa fa-share-alt"></i> 6 citations</a>   <span class="eMsg" id="msg-CLATET"></span></div></div></li> <li id='eWILNCA-2' onclick="ee('click','WILNCA-2')" onmouseover="ee('over','WILNCA-2')" onmouseout="ee('out','WILNCA-2')" class='entry'><div style='float:right' class='subtle'> <a href='/rec/WILNCA-2#analytics'><span style='color:#10A010'>151 <i class="fa fa-download"></i></span></a></div><span class="citation"><a target='_blank' href="http://philpapers.org/rec/WILNCA-2"><span class='name'>T. Williamson</span> (2010). <span class='articleTitle recTitle'>Necessitism, Contingentism, and Plural Quantification.</span></a><span class='pubInfo'> <em class='pubName'>Mind</em> 119 (475):657-748.</span></span><div class="extras"><div class="abstract">Necessitism is the view that necessarily everything is necessarily something; contingentism is the negation of necessitism. The dispute between them is reminiscent of, but clearer than, the more familiar one between possibilism and actualism. A mapping often used to ‘translate’ actualist discourse into possibilist discourse is adapted to map every sentence of a first-order modal language to a sentence the contingentist (but not the necessitist) may regard as equivalent to it but which is neutral in the dispute. This mapping enables<span id="WILNCA-2-absexp"> (<span class="ll" onclick='$("WILNCA-2-abstract2").show();$("WILNCA-2-absexp").hide()'>...</span>)</span><span id="WILNCA-2-abstract2" style="display:none"> the necessitist to extract a ‘cash value’ from what the contingentist says. Similarly, a mapping often used to ‘translate’ possibilist discourse into actualist discourse is adapted to map every sentence of the language to a sentence the necessitist (but not the contingentist) may regard as equivalent to it but which is neutral in the dispute. This mapping enables the contingentist to extract a ‘cash value’ from what the necessitist says. Neither mapping is a translation in the usual sense, since necessitists and contingentists use the same language with the same meanings. The former mapping is extended to a second-order modal language under a plural interpretation of the second-order variables. It is proved that the latter mapping cannot be. Thus although the necessitist can extract a ‘cash value’ from what the contingentist says in the second-order language, the contingentist cannot extract a ‘cash value’ from some of what the necessitist says, even when it raises significant questions. This poses contingentism a serious challenge. (<span class="ll" onclick='$("WILNCA-2-abstract2").hide();$("WILNCA-2-absexp").show();'>shrink</span>)</span></div><div class="catsCon" id="ecats-con-WILNCA-2"><div><a class='catName' href='/browse/plural-quantification' rel='section'>Plural Quantification</a><span class='catIn'> in </span><a class='catArea' href='/browse/philosophy-of-language' rel='section'>Philosophy of Language</a></div> </div><div class="options"><a rel="nofollow" href="http://philpapers.org/go.pl?id=WILNCA-2&proxyId=&u=http%3A%2F%2Fdx.doi.org%2F10.1093%2Fmind%2Ffzq042" target='_blank' ><i class="fa fa-download"></i> Direct download</a> (<a href='/rec/WILNCA-2'>9 more</a>)   <div id="la-WILNCA-2" title="Export to another format" class="yui-skin-sam ldiv"> </div><span class="ll" onclick="showExports('WILNCA-2')"><i class="fa fa-external-link"></i> Export citation<img src="/philpapers/raw/subind.gif"></span>   <div id="ml-WILNCA-2" class="yui-skin-sam ldiv"> </div><span title="Save in your personal bibliography" class="ll" onclick="showLists('WILNCA-2','')"><i class="fa fa-floppy-o"></i> My bibliography<img src="/philpapers/raw/subind.gif"></span>  <a href="/citations/WILNCA-2"><i class="fa fa-share-alt"></i> 10 citations</a>   <span class="eMsg" id="msg-WILNCA-2"></span></div></div></li> <li id='eILLFAO' onclick="ee('click','ILLFAO')" onmouseover="ee('over','ILLFAO')" onmouseout="ee('out','ILLFAO')" class='entry'><div style='float:right' class='subtle'> <a href='/rec/ILLFAO#analytics'><span style='color:#10A010'>30 <i class="fa fa-download"></i></span></a></div><span class="citation"><a target='_blank' href="http://philpapers.org/rec/ILLFAO"><span class='name'>Phyllis McKay Illari</span> & <span class='name'>Jon Williamson</span> (2010). <span class='articleTitle recTitle'>Function and Organization: Comparing the Mechanisms of Protein Synthesis and Natural Selection.</span></a><span class='pubInfo'> <em class='pubName'>Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C</em> 41 (3):279-291.</span></span><div class="extras"><div class="abstract">In this paper, we compare the mechanisms of protein synthesis and natural selection. We identify three core elements of mechanistic explanation: functional individuation, hierarchical nestedness or decomposition, and organization. These are now well understood elements of mechanistic explanation in fields such as protein synthesis, and widely accepted in the mechanisms literature. But Skipper and Millstein have argued that natural selection is neither decomposable nor organized. This would mean that much of the current mechanisms literature does not apply to the mechanism<span id="ILLFAO-absexp"> (<span class="ll" onclick='$("ILLFAO-abstract2").show();$("ILLFAO-absexp").hide()'>...</span>)</span><span id="ILLFAO-abstract2" style="display:none"> of natural selection.We take each element of mechanistic explanation in turn. Having appreciated the importance of functional individuation, we show how decomposition and organization should be better understood in these terms. We thereby show that mechanistic explanation by protein synthesis and natural selection are more closely analogous than they appear—both possess all three of these core elements of a mechanism widely recognized in the mechanisms literature. (<span class="ll" onclick='$("ILLFAO-abstract2").hide();$("ILLFAO-absexp").show();'>shrink</span>)</span></div><div class="catsCon" id="ecats-con-ILLFAO"><div><a class='catName' href='/browse/evolutionary-biology' rel='section'>Evolutionary Biology</a><span class='catIn'> in </span><a class='catArea' href='/browse/philosophy-of-biology' rel='section'>Philosophy of Biology</a></div> </div><div class="options"><a rel="nofollow" href="http://philpapers.org/go.pl?id=ILLFAO&proxyId=&u=http%3A%2F%2Fdx.doi.org%2F10.1016%2Fj.shpsc.2010.07.001" target='_blank' ><i class="fa fa-download"></i> Direct download</a> (<a href='/rec/ILLFAO'>3 more</a>)   <div id="la-ILLFAO" title="Export to another format" class="yui-skin-sam ldiv"> </div><span class="ll" onclick="showExports('ILLFAO')"><i class="fa fa-external-link"></i> Export citation<img src="/philpapers/raw/subind.gif"></span>   <div id="ml-ILLFAO" class="yui-skin-sam ldiv"> </div><span title="Save in your personal bibliography" class="ll" onclick="showLists('ILLFAO','')"><i class="fa fa-floppy-o"></i> My bibliography<img src="/philpapers/raw/subind.gif"></span>  <a href="/citations/ILLFAO"><i class="fa fa-share-alt"></i> 11 citations</a>   <span class="eMsg" id="msg-ILLFAO"></span></div></div></li> <li id='eWILHPI' onclick="ee('click','WILHPI')" onmouseover="ee('over','WILHPI')" onmouseout="ee('out','WILHPI')" class='entry'><div style='float:right' class='subtle'> <a href='/rec/WILHPI#analytics'><span style='color:#10A010'>92 <i class="fa fa-download"></i></span></a></div><span class="citation"><a target='_blank' href="http://philpapers.org/rec/WILHPI"><span class='name'>Timothy Williamson</span> (2007). <span class='articleTitle recTitle'>How Probable Is an Infinite Sequence of Heads?</span></a><span class='pubInfo'> <em class='pubName'>Analysis</em> 67 (3):173 - 180.</span></span><div class="extras"><div class="abstract">Isn't probability 1 certainty? If the probability is objective, so is the certainty: whatever has chance 1 of occurring is certain to occur. Equivalently, whatever has chance 0 of occurring is certain not to occur . If the probability is subjective, so is the certainty: if you give credence 1 to an event, you are certain that it will occur. Equivalently, if you give credence 0 to an event, you are certain that it will not occur . And so on<span id="WILHPI-absexp"> (<span class="ll" onclick='$("WILHPI-abstract2").show();$("WILHPI-absexp").hide()'>...</span>)</span><span id="WILHPI-abstract2" style="display:none"> for other kinds of probability, such as evidential probability. The formal analogue of this picture is the regularity constraint: a probability distribution over sets of possibilities is regular just in case it assigns probability 0 only to the null set, and therefore probability 1 only to the set of all possibilities. (<span class="ll" onclick='$("WILHPI-abstract2").hide();$("WILHPI-absexp").show();'>shrink</span>)</span></div><div class="catsCon" id="ecats-con-WILHPI"><div><a class='catName' href='/browse/probabilistic-principles-misc' rel='section'>Probabilistic Principles, Misc</a><span class='catIn'> in </span><a class='catArea' href='/browse/philosophy-of-probability' rel='section'>Philosophy of Probability</a></div> </div><div class="options"><a rel="nofollow" href="http://philpapers.org/go.pl?id=WILHPI&proxyId=&u=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.blackwell-synergy.com%2Fdoi%2Fabs%2F10.1111%2Fj.1467-8284.2007.00671.x" target='_blank' ><i class="fa fa-download"></i> Direct download</a> (<a href='/rec/WILHPI'>4 more</a>)   <div id="la-WILHPI" title="Export to another format" class="yui-skin-sam ldiv"> </div><span class="ll" onclick="showExports('WILHPI')"><i class="fa fa-external-link"></i> Export citation<img src="/philpapers/raw/subind.gif"></span>   <div id="ml-WILHPI" class="yui-skin-sam ldiv"> </div><span title="Save in your personal bibliography" class="ll" onclick="showLists('WILHPI','')"><i class="fa fa-floppy-o"></i> My bibliography<img src="/philpapers/raw/subind.gif"></span>  <a href="/citations/WILHPI"><i class="fa fa-share-alt"></i> 15 citations</a>   <span class="eMsg" id="msg-WILHPI"></span></div></div></li> <li id='eLYNTOO' onclick="ee('click','LYNTOO')" onmouseover="ee('over','LYNTOO')" onmouseout="ee('out','LYNTOO')" class='entry'><div style='float:right' class='subtle'> <a href='/rec/LYNTOO#analytics'><span style='color:#10A010'>14 <i class="fa fa-download"></i></span></a></div><span class="citation"><a target='_blank' href="http://philpapers.org/rec/LYNTOO"><span class='name'>Gary Lynch-Wood</span>, <span class='name'>David Williamson</span> & <span class='name'>Wyn Jenkins</span> (2009). <span class='articleTitle recTitle'>The Over-Reliance on Self-Regulation in CSR Policy.</span></a><span class='pubInfo'> <em class='pubName'>Business Ethics: A European Review</em> 18 (1):52-65.</span></span><div class="extras"><div class="abstract">The view that CSR performance can be improved most effectively through external pressures is shown to be invalid for most firms. In exploring why this is the case, the authors demonstrate that most small and medium enterprises are not exposed to the same pressures as large firms, and that this undermines many of the assumptions that underpin the externally driven business case (EDBC) for voluntary CSR practices. The analysis does this by looking at the external drivers of one of the<span id="LYNTOO-absexp"> (<span class="ll" onclick='$("LYNTOO-abstract2").show();$("LYNTOO-absexp").hide()'>...</span>)</span><span id="LYNTOO-abstract2" style="display:none"> components of CSR; namely, the environmental behaviour of firms. This shows that the strength of the EDBC is largely determined by five factors. Importantly, the analysis provides the basis for the claim that -- and helps to explain why -- the EDBC for voluntary environmental behaviour is likely to remain a weak form of pressure for many small firms. (<span class="ll" onclick='$("LYNTOO-abstract2").hide();$("LYNTOO-absexp").show();'>shrink</span>)</span></div><div class="catsCon" id="ecats-con-LYNTOO"><div><a class='catName' href='/browse/business-ethics' rel='section'>Business Ethics</a><span class='catIn'> in </span><a class='catArea' href='/browse/applied-ethics' rel='section'>Applied Ethics</a></div> </div><div class="options"><a rel="nofollow" href="http://philpapers.org/go.pl?id=LYNTOO&proxyId=&u=http%3A%2F%2Fdx.doi.org%2F10.1111%2Fj.1467-8608.2009.01548.x" target='_blank' ><i class="fa fa-download"></i> Direct download</a> (<a href='/rec/LYNTOO'>6 more</a>)   <div id="la-LYNTOO" title="Export to another format" class="yui-skin-sam ldiv"> </div><span class="ll" onclick="showExports('LYNTOO')"><i class="fa fa-external-link"></i> Export citation<img src="/philpapers/raw/subind.gif"></span>   <div id="ml-LYNTOO" class="yui-skin-sam ldiv"> </div><span title="Save in your personal bibliography" class="ll" onclick="showLists('LYNTOO','')"><i class="fa fa-floppy-o"></i> My bibliography<img src="/philpapers/raw/subind.gif"></span>  <a href="/citations/LYNTOO"><i class="fa fa-share-alt"></i> 13 citations</a>   <span class="eMsg" id="msg-LYNTOO"></span></div></div></li> <li id='eWILLMA' onclick="ee('click','WILLMA')" onmouseover="ee('over','WILLMA')" onmouseout="ee('out','WILLMA')" class='entry'><div style='float:right' class='subtle'> <a href='/rec/WILLMA#analytics'><span style='color:#10A010'>205 <i class="fa fa-download"></i></span></a></div><span class="citation"><a target='_blank' href="http://philpapers.org/rec/WILLMA"><span class='name'>Timothy Williamson</span> (2013). <span class='articleTitle recTitle'>Logic, Metalogic and Neutrality.</span></a><span class='pubInfo'> <em class='pubName'>Erkenntnis</em> (S2):1-21.</span></span><div class="extras"><div class="abstract">The paper is a critique of the widespread conception of logic as a neutral arbiter between metaphysical theories, one that makes no `substantive’ claims of its own (David Kaplan and John Etchemendy are two recent examples). A familiar observation is that virtually every putatively fundamental principle of logic has been challenged over the last century on broadly metaphysical grounds (however mistaken), with a consequent proliferation of alternative logics. However, this apparent contentiousness of logic is often treated as though it were<span id="WILLMA-absexp"> (<span class="ll" onclick='$("WILLMA-abstract2").show();$("WILLMA-absexp").hide()'>...</span>)</span><span id="WILLMA-abstract2" style="display:none"> neutralized by the possibility of studying all these alternative logics within an agreed metalogical framework, typically that of first-order logic with set theory. In effect, metalogic is given the role of neutral arbiter. The paper will consider a variety of examples in which deep logical disputes re-emerge at the meta-level. One case is quantified modal logic, where some varieties of actualism require a modal meta-language (as opposed to the usual non-modal language of possible worlds model theory) in order not to make their denial of the Barcan formula self-defeating. Similarly, on some views the intended model theory for second-order logic can only be given in a second-order metalanguage—this may be needed to avoid versions of Russell’s paradox when the first-order quantifiers are read as absolutely unrestricted. It can be shown that the phenomenon of higher-order vagueness eventually forces fuzzy logical treatments of vagueness to use a fuzzy metalanguage, with consequent repercussions for what first-order principles are validated. The difficulty of proving the completeness of first-order intuitionistic logic on its intended interpretation by intuitionistically rather than just classically valid means is a more familiar example. These case studies will be discussed in some detail to reveal a variety of ways in which even metalogic is metaphysically contested, substantial and non-neutral. (<span class="ll" onclick='$("WILLMA-abstract2").hide();$("WILLMA-absexp").show();'>shrink</span>)</span></div><div class="catsCon" id="ecats-con-WILLMA"><div><a class='catName' href='/browse/fuzzy-logic' rel='section'>Fuzzy Logic</a><span class='catIn'> in </span><a class='catArea' href='/browse/logic-and-philosophy-of-logic' rel='section'>Logic and Philosophy of Logic</a></div> </div><div class="options"><a rel="nofollow" href="http://philpapers.org/go.pl?id=WILLMA&proxyId=&u=http%3A%2F%2Fdx.doi.org%2F10.1007%2Fs10670-013-9474-z" target='_blank' ><i class="fa fa-download"></i> Direct download</a> (<a href='/rec/WILLMA'>6 more</a>)   <div id="la-WILLMA" title="Export to another format" class="yui-skin-sam ldiv"> </div><span class="ll" onclick="showExports('WILLMA')"><i class="fa fa-external-link"></i> Export citation<img src="/philpapers/raw/subind.gif"></span>   <div id="ml-WILLMA" class="yui-skin-sam ldiv"> </div><span title="Save in your personal bibliography" class="ll" onclick="showLists('WILLMA','')"><i class="fa fa-floppy-o"></i> My bibliography<img src="/philpapers/raw/subind.gif"></span>  <a href="/citations/WILLMA"><i class="fa fa-share-alt"></i> 4 citations</a>   <span class="eMsg" id="msg-WILLMA"></span></div></div></li> <li id='eWILOTS-2' onclick="ee('click','WILOTS-2')" onmouseover="ee('over','WILOTS-2')" onmouseout="ee('out','WILOTS-2')" class='entry'><div style='float:right' class='subtle'> <a href='/rec/WILOTS-2#analytics'><span style='color:#10A010'>95 <i class="fa fa-download"></i></span></a></div><span class="citation"><a target='_blank' href="http://philpapers.org/rec/WILOTS-2"><span class='name'>Timothy Williamson</span> (1999). <span class='articleTitle recTitle'>On the Structure of Higher-Order Vagueness.</span></a><span class='pubInfo'> <em class='pubName'>Mind</em> 108 (429):127-143.</span></span><div class="extras"><div class="abstract">Discussions of higher-order vagueness rarely define what it is for a term to have nth-order vagueness for n>2. This paper provides a rigorous definition in a framework analogous to possible worlds semantics; it is neutral between epistemic and supervaluationist accounts of vagueness. The definition is shown to have various desirable properties. But under natural assumptions it is also shown that 2nd-order vagueness implies vagueness of all orders, and that a conjunction can have 2nd-order vagueness even if its conjuncts do not.<span id="WILOTS-2-absexp"> (<span class="ll" onclick='$("WILOTS-2-abstract2").show();$("WILOTS-2-absexp").hide()'>...</span>)</span><span id="WILOTS-2-abstract2" style="display:none"> Relations between the definition and other proposals are explored; reasons are given for preferring the present proposal. (<span class="ll" onclick='$("WILOTS-2-abstract2").hide();$("WILOTS-2-absexp").show();'>shrink</span>)</span></div><div class="catsCon" id="ecats-con-WILOTS-2"><div><a class='catName' href='/browse/higher-order-vagueness' rel='section'>Higher-Order Vagueness</a><span class='catIn'> in </span><a class='catArea' href='/browse/philosophy-of-language' rel='section'>Philosophy of Language</a></div> </div><div class="options"><a rel="nofollow" href="http://philpapers.org/go.pl?id=WILOTS-2&proxyId=&u=http%3A%2F%2Fdx.doi.org%2F10.1093%2Fmind%2F108.429.127" target='_blank' ><i class="fa fa-download"></i> Direct download</a> (<a href='/rec/WILOTS-2'>10 more</a>)   <div id="la-WILOTS-2" title="Export to another format" class="yui-skin-sam ldiv"> </div><span class="ll" onclick="showExports('WILOTS-2')"><i class="fa fa-external-link"></i> Export citation<img src="/philpapers/raw/subind.gif"></span>   <div id="ml-WILOTS-2" class="yui-skin-sam ldiv"> </div><span title="Save in your personal bibliography" class="ll" onclick="showLists('WILOTS-2','')"><i class="fa fa-floppy-o"></i> My bibliography<img src="/philpapers/raw/subind.gif"></span>  <a href="/citations/WILOTS-2"><i class="fa fa-share-alt"></i> 28 citations</a>   <span class="eMsg" id="msg-WILOTS-2"></span></div></div></li> <li id='eSUTER' onclick="ee('click','SUTER')" onmouseover="ee('over','SUTER')" onmouseout="ee('out','SUTER')" class='entry'><div style='float:right' class='subtle'> <a href='/rec/SUTER#analytics'><span style='color:#10A010'>289 <i class="fa fa-download"></i></span></a></div><span class="citation"><a target='_blank' href="http://philpapers.org/rec/SUTER"><span class='name'>John Sutton</span> & <span class='name'>Kellie Williamson</span> (2014). <span class='articleTitle recTitle'>Embodied Remembering.</span></a><span class='pubInfo'> In L. Shapiro (ed.), <em><a href="http://philpapers.org/rec/SHATRH">The Routledge Handbook of Embodied Cognition</a></em>. Routledge</span></span><div class="extras"><div class="abstract">Experiences of embodied remembering are familiar and diverse. We settle bodily into familiar chairs or find our way easily round familiar rooms. We inhabit our own kitchens or cars or workspaces effectively and comfortably, and feel disrupted when our habitual and accustomed objects or technologies change or break or are not available. Hearing a particular song can viscerally bring back either one conversation long ago, or just the urge to dance. Some people explicitly use their bodies to record, store, or<span id="SUTER-absexp"> (<span class="ll" onclick='$("SUTER-abstract2").show();$("SUTER-absexp").hide()'>...</span>)</span><span id="SUTER-abstract2" style="display:none"> cue memories. Others can move skilfully, without stopping to think, in complex and changing environments thanks to the cumulative expertise accrued in their history of fighting fires, or dancing, or playing hockey. The forms of memory involved in these cases may be distinct, operating at different timescales and levels, and by way of different mechanisms and media, but they often cooperate in the many contexts of our practices of remembering. (<span class="ll" onclick='$("SUTER-abstract2").hide();$("SUTER-absexp").show();'>shrink</span>)</span></div><div class="catsCon" id="ecats-con-SUTER"><div><a class='catName' href='/browse/embodied-memory' rel='section'>Embodied Memory</a><span class='catIn'> in </span><a class='catArea' href='/browse/philosophy-of-mind' rel='section'>Philosophy of Mind</a></div> <div><a class='catName' href='/browse/memory-and-cognitive-science' rel='section'>Memory and Cognitive Science</a><span class='catIn'> in </span><a class='catArea' href='/browse/philosophy-of-mind' rel='section'>Philosophy of Mind</a></div> <div><a class='catName' href='/browse/theories-of-memory' rel='section'>Theories of Memory</a><span class='catIn'> in </span><a class='catArea' href='/browse/philosophy-of-mind' rel='section'>Philosophy of Mind</a></div> </div><div class="options"><div id="tr-SUTER" title="Translate" class="yui-skin-sam ldiv" style="cursor:pointer" onclick="translateEntry('SUTER')"><i class="fa fa-language"></i> Translate</div>   <a rel="nofollow" href="http://philpapers.org/go.pl?id=SUTER&proxyId=&u=http%3A%2F%2Fphilpapers.org%2Farchive%2FSUTER.pdf" target='_blank' ><i class="fa fa-download"></i> Direct download</a>   <div id="la-SUTER" title="Export to another format" class="yui-skin-sam ldiv"> </div><span class="ll" onclick="showExports('SUTER')"><i class="fa fa-external-link"></i> Export citation<img src="/philpapers/raw/subind.gif"></span>   <div id="ml-SUTER" class="yui-skin-sam ldiv"> </div><span title="Save in your personal bibliography" class="ll" onclick="showLists('SUTER','')"><i class="fa fa-floppy-o"></i> My bibliography<img src="/philpapers/raw/subind.gif"></span>  <span class="eMsg" id="msg-SUTER"></span></div></div></li> <li id='eWILIAD' onclick="ee('click','WILIAD')" onmouseover="ee('over','WILIAD')" onmouseout="ee('out','WILIAD')" class='entry'><div style='float:right' class='subtle'> <a href='/rec/WILIAD#analytics'><span style='color:#10A010'>22 <i class="fa fa-download"></i></span></a></div><span class="citation"><a target='_blank' href="http://philpapers.org/rec/WILIAD"><span class='name'>Timothy Williamson</span> (1990/2013). <span class='pub_name recTitle'><span class='articleTitle recTitle'>Identity and Discrimination.</span></span></a><span class='pubInfo'> Blackwell.</span></span><div class="extras"><div class="abstract">_Identity and Discrimination_, originally published in 1990 and the first book by respected philosopher Timothy Williamson, is now reissued and updated with the inclusion of significant new material. Williamson here proposes an original and rigorous theory linking identity, a relation central to metaphysics, and indiscriminability, a relation central to epistemology.__ Updated and reissued edition of Williamson’s first publication, with the inclusion of significant new material Argues for an original cognitive account of the relation between identity and discrimination that has been<span id="WILIAD-absexp"> (<span class="ll" onclick='$("WILIAD-abstract2").show();$("WILIAD-absexp").hide()'>...</span>)</span><span id="WILIAD-abstract2" style="display:none"> influential in the philosophy of perception Pioneers the use of epistemic logic to solve puzzles about indiscriminability Develops the application of techniques from mathematical logic to understand issues about identity over time and across possible worlds. (<span class="ll" onclick='$("WILIAD-abstract2").hide();$("WILIAD-absexp").show();'>shrink</span>)</span></div><div class="catsCon" id="ecats-con-WILIAD"><div><a class='catName' href='/browse/discriminability' rel='section'>Discriminability</a><span class='catIn'> in </span><a class='catArea' href='/browse/philosophy-of-mind' rel='section'>Philosophy of Mind</a></div> <div><a class='catName' href='/browse/ethics' rel='section'>Ethics</a><span class='catIn'> in </span><a class='catArea' href='/browse/value-theory-miscellaneous' rel='section'>Value Theory, Miscellaneous</a></div> <div><a class='catName' href='/browse/identity-misc' rel='section'>Identity, Misc</a><span class='catIn'> in </span><a class='catArea' href='/browse/metaphysics' rel='section'>Metaphysics</a></div> </div><div class="options"><div class='affiliateLinks'><span class='price_used'><a class='price_used' target="_blank" rel="nofollow" href="http://www.amazon.com/gp/offer-listing/0631161171?SubscriptionId=AKIAI4HPG2KEPF5SCBQA&tag=philp02-20&linkCode=xm2&camp=2025&creative=386001&creativeASIN=0631161171&condition=used">$50.00 used</a></span>   <a href="http://www.amazon.com/Identity-Discrimination-Philosophical-Theory-Series/dp/0631161171%3FSubscriptionId%3DAKIAI4HPG2KEPF5SCBQA%26tag%3Dphilp02-20%26linkCode%3Dxm2%26camp%3D2025%26creative%3D165953%26creativeASIN%3D0631161171">Amazon page</a></div><a rel="nofollow" href="http://philpapers.org/go.pl?id=WILIAD&proxyId=&u=http%3A%2F%2Fdx.doi.org%2F10.2307%2F2220453" target='_blank' ><i class="fa fa-download"></i> Direct download</a> (<a href='/rec/WILIAD'>3 more</a>)   <div id="la-WILIAD" title="Export to another format" class="yui-skin-sam ldiv"> </div><span class="ll" onclick="showExports('WILIAD')"><i class="fa fa-external-link"></i> Export citation<img src="/philpapers/raw/subind.gif"></span>   <div id="ml-WILIAD" class="yui-skin-sam ldiv"> </div><span title="Save in your personal bibliography" class="ll" onclick="showLists('WILIAD','')"><i class="fa fa-floppy-o"></i> My bibliography<img src="/philpapers/raw/subind.gif"></span>  <a href="/citations/WILIAD"><i class="fa fa-share-alt"></i> 25 citations</a>   <span class="eMsg" id="msg-WILIAD"></span></div></div></li> </ol> </div> <div id='prevNextHtml' class='centered'><center><table><td><span class='prevNext'><img border='0' src='/philpapers/raw/icons/back-g.png'></td><td>1 — 50 / 668</td><td><span class='prevNext'><span title='Next page' class='clickable' onclick='goToNextPage()'><img border='0' src='/philpapers/raw/icons/forward.png'></span></span></td></table></center></div> </td> <td class="side_td"> <form name="expform"> <div class="sideBox"> <div class="sideBoxH">BibTeX / EndNote / RIS / etc</div> <div class="sideBoxC"> Export this page: <div style='margin-top:5px'> <select name="expf" id="expf" onChange="$('expLimit').show()"> <option value=''>Choose a format..</option> <option value='htm'>Formatted text</option><option value='txt'>Plain text</option><option value='bib'>BibTeX</option><option value='zot'>Zotero</option><option value='enw'>EndNote</option><option value='ris'>Reference Manager</option></select> <div id='expLimit' style="display:none"> Limit to <input type="text" id="expLimitI" size="3" value="500"> items. <input type="button" value="Export" onclick=" if ($F('expf')) { $('ap-format').value=$F('expf'); $('ap-limit').value=$F('expLimitI'); refreshWith($('allparams')); } else { alert('You must first choose a format.') } "> </div> </div> </div> </div> </form> <form id="moreOptions" name="more"> <div class="sideBox"> <div class="sideBoxH">Restrictions</div> <div class="sideBoxC"> <input class='checkbox' type='checkbox' name='proOnly' id='proOnly' onClick="createCookie('proOnly',this.checked ? 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