Search results for 'Withdrawing and witholding treatment' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Jacqueline A. Laing (2002). Vegetative State – The Untold Story. New Law Journal 152:1272.
    Airedale NHS Trust v Bland establishes three principles among which is the controversial idea that people in a PVS, though not dying, have no best interests and no meaningful life. Accordingly, it is argued, they may have their food and fluids, whether delivered by tube or manually, removed, with the result that they die. Laing challenges this view arguing that not only is this bad medical science, it is unjustly discriminatory and at odds with our duties to the severely disabled. (...)
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  2.  6
    Jacqueline A. Laing (2013). Managerialising Death. Law Society Gazette.
    The Liverpool Care Pathway is intended as a palliative care regime at the end of life. Even its critics agree that certain of its recommendations may be useful and appropriate. Additionally, critics are aware that there are occasions when death may be a foreseen side effect of perfectly licit palliation whose primary ends are not homicidal at all. It is evident that treatment may be over-expensive, over-burdensome or simply futile. There is no suggestion that critics of the Pathway adhere (...)
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  3.  7
    Susan M. Setta & Sam D. Shemie (2015). An Explanation and Analysis of How World Religions Formulate Their Ethical Decisions on Withdrawing Treatment and Determining Death. Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 10 (1):6.
    This paper explores definitions of death from the perspectives of several world and indigenous religions, with practical application for health care providers in relation to end of life decisions and organ and tissue donation after death. It provides background material on several traditions and explains how different religions derive their conclusions for end of life decisions from the ethical guidelines they proffer.
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  4.  11
    Jacqueline A. Laing (2012). Incentivising Death. Solicitors Journal 157 (2):9.
    The recent revelation that the rolling out of the Liverpool Care Pathway as the NHS National End of Life Care strategy in 2008 had been financially incentivised and implemented with astonishing compliance emerged as a thought-provoking development. Many of us have been warning for years of the financial, political and research interests that there are in institutionalising sedation-and-dehydration regimes, and then, inevitably, medical homicide. Freedom of Information Act requests exposed the millions of pounds that have been paid for the implementation (...)
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  5. Jacqueline A. Laing (2005). The Right to Live: Reply to the Chief Executive of the Law Society. Law Society Gazette 102:11.
    The chief executive of the Law Society proposes that the Mental Capacity Bill is a progressive initiative enhancing personal autonomy. Laing replies to this by showing that the Bill, for from enhancinging personal autonomy explodes it by inviting homicide by unaccountable third parties, allowing non-therapeutic research and organ-removal without consent and creating a secret and unaccountable court with a lethal power over the vulnerable incapacitated.
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  6.  70
    Neera Bhatia & James Tibballs (2015). Deficiencies and Missed Opportunities to Formulate Clinical Guidelines in Australia for Withholding or Withdrawing Life-Sustaining Treatment in Severely Disabled and Impaired Infants. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 12 (3):449-459.
    This paper examines the few, but important legal and coronial cases concerning withdrawing or withholding life-sustaining treatment from severely disabled or critically impaired infants in Australia. Although sparse in number, the judgements should influence common clinical practices based on assessment of “best interests” but these have not yet been adopted. In particular, although courts have discounted assessment of “quality of life” as a legitimate component of determination of “best interests,” this remains a prominent component of clinical guidelines. In (...)
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  7. Dominic Wilkinson & Julian Savulescu (2014). A Costly Separation Between Withdrawing and Withholding Treatment in Intensive Care. Bioethics 28 (3):127-137.
    Ethical analyses, professional guidelines and legal decisions support the equivalence thesis for life-sustaining treatment: if it is ethical to withhold treatment, it would be ethical to withdraw the same treatment. In this paper we explore reasons why the majority of medical professionals disagree with the conclusions of ethical analysis. Resource allocation is considered by clinicians to be a legitimate reason to withhold but not to withdraw intensive care treatment. We analyse five arguments in favour of non-equivalence, (...)
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  8.  2
    Erwin Stolz, Franziska Großschädl, Hannes Mayerl, Éva Rásky & Wolfgang Freidl (2015). Determinants of Acceptance of End-of-Life Interventions: A Comparison Between Withdrawing Life-Prolonging Treatment and Euthanasia in Austria. BMC Medical Ethics 16 (1):1-8.
    BackgroundEnd-of-life decisions remain a hotly debated issue in many European countries and the acceptance in the general population can act as an important anchor point in these discussions. Previous studies on determinants of the acceptance of end-of-life interventions in the general population have not systematically assessed whether determinants differ between withdrawal of life-prolonging treatment and euthanasia.MethodsA large, representative survey of the Austrian adult population conducted in 2014 included items on WLPT and EUT. We constructed the following categorical outcome: rejection (...)
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  9.  7
    G. Baeke, J. -P. Wils & B. Broeckaert (2011). Orthodox Jewish Perspectives on Withholding and Withdrawing Life-Sustaining Treatment. Nursing Ethics 18 (6):835-846.
    The Jewish religious tradition summons its adherents to save life. For religious Jews preservation of life is the ultimate religious commandment. At the same time Jewish law recognizes that the agony of a moribund person may not be stretched. When the time to die has come this has to be respected. The process of dying should not needlessly be prolonged. We discuss the position of two prominent Orthodox Jewish authorities – the late Rabbi Moshe Feinstein and Rabbi J David Bleich (...)
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  10.  1
    H. E. McHaffie, M. Cuttini, G. Brolz-Voit, L. Randag, R. Mousty, A. M. Duguet, B. Wennergren & P. Benciolini (1999). Withholding/Withdrawing Treatment From Neonates: Legislation and Official Guidelines Across Europe. Journal of Medical Ethics 25 (6):440-446.
    Representatives from eight European countries compared the legal, ethical and professional settings within which decision making for neonates takes place. When it comes to limiting treatment there is general agreement across all countries that overly aggressive treatment is to be discouraged. Nevertheless, strong emphasis has been placed on the need for compassionate care even where cure is not possible. Where a child will die irrespective of medical intervention, there is widespread acceptance of the practice of limiting aggressive (...) or alleviating suffering even if death may be hastened as a result. Where the infant could be saved but the future outlook is bleak there is more debate, but only two countries have tested the courts with such cases. When it comes to the active intentional ending of life, the legal position is standard across Europe; it is prohibited. However, recognising those intractable situations where death may be lingering and unpleasant, Dutch paediatricians have reported that they do sometimes assist babies to die with parental consent. Two cases have been tried through the courts and recent official recommendations have set out standards by which such actions may be assessed. (shrink)
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  11.  34
    J. Brierley, J. Linthicum & A. Petros (2013). Should Religious Beliefs Be Allowed to Stonewall a Secular Approach to Withdrawing and Withholding Treatment in Children? Journal of Medical Ethics 39 (9):573-577.
    Religion is an important element of end-of-life care on the paediatric intensive care unit with religious belief providing support for many families and for some staff. However, religious claims used by families to challenge cessation of aggressive therapies considered futile and burdensome by a wide range of medical and lay people can cause considerable problems and be very difficult to resolve. While it is vital to support families in such difficult times, we are increasingly concerned that deeply held belief in (...)
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  12.  2
    Stanley A. Terman (2013). Is the Principle of Proportionality Sufficient to Guide Physicians' Decisions Regarding Withholding/Withdrawing Life-Sustaining Treatment After Suicide Attempts? American Journal of Bioethics 13 (3):22 - 24.
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  13.  22
    R. Gillon (1994). Withholding and Withdrawing Life-Prolonging Treatment--Moral Implications of a Thought Experiment. Journal of Medical Ethics 20 (4):203-222.
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  14.  6
    J. B. Reckling (1997). Who Plays What Role in Decisions About Withholding and Withdrawing Life-Sustaining Treatment? Journal of Clinical Ethics 8 (1):39.
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  15.  3
    Bioethics Center Midwest & Kansas City Area Ethics Committee Consortium (1998). Considerations Regarding Withholding/Withdrawing Life-Sustaining Treatment. Bioethics Forum 14 (2):SS1.
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  16.  2
    Denard Veshi (2014). Withdrawing Treatment From Incompetent Patients in Italy: The Case of Eluana Englaro. Asian Bioethics Review 6 (4):402-408.
  17.  1
    David Jan McQuoid-Mason (2015). Does Withdrawing Treatment From a Pregnant Persistent Vegetative State Patient Resulting in Her Death Constitute a Termination of Pregnancy? South African Journal of Bioethics and Law 8 (1):8.
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  18.  6
    Leonard H. Glantz (1987). Withholding and Withdrawing Treatment: The Role of the Criminal Law. Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 15 (4):231-241.
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  19.  2
    Dorothy Rasinski Gregory (1995). Network News: VA Network Futility Guidelines: A Resource for Decisions About Withholding and Withdrawing Treatment. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 4 (4):546.
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  20.  2
    V. Tschudin (2000). Book Review: Withholding and Withdrawing Life-Prolonging Medical Treatment: Guidance for Decision Making. [REVIEW] Nursing Ethics 7 (2):180-181.
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  21. Piotr Aszyk & Halyna Zabytivska (2004). Views of Early Christian and Scholastic Thinkers on the Issue of Withdrawing a Medical Treatment. Forum Philosophicum: International Journal for Philosophy 9:125-126.
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  22. Leonard H. Glantz (1987). Withholding and Withdrawing Treatment: The Role of the Criminal Law. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 15 (4):231-241.
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  23.  3
    D. Lanzerath, Ludger Honnefelder & Ulrich Feeser (1998). Nationaler Bericht der Europäischen Befragung: „Doctors' Views on the Management of Patients in Persistent Vegetative State (PVS)“ Im Rahmen des Forschungsprojekts „The Moral and Legal Issues Surrounding the Treatment and Health Care of Patients in Persistent Vegetative State“. [REVIEW] Ethik in der Medizin 10 (3):152-180.
    Definition of the problem: The report supplies the national part of a European survey in which doctors that are involved in the treatment of patients in `Persistent Vegetative State' (PVS) are being interviewed. The questions concern decision-situations the doctors are frequently confronted with in the treatment of PVS-patients. The questionnaire is designed as a decisiontree in order to bring about the exact delineations that govern the decisions. Therefore the result of the survey only portrays which delineations are in (...)
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  24.  5
    Sabine Beck, Andreas van de Loo & Stella Reiter-Theil (2008). A “Little Bit Illegal”? Withholding and Withdrawing of Mechanical Ventilation in the Eyes of German Intensive Care Physicians. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 11 (1):7-16.
    Research questions and backgroundThis study explores a highly controversial issue of medical care in Germany: the decision to withhold or withdraw mechanical ventilation in critically ill patients. It analyzes difficulties in making these decisions and the physicians’ uncertainty in understanding the German terminology of Sterbehilfe, which is used in the context of treatment limitation. Used in everyday language, the word Sterbehilfe carries connotations such as helping the patient in the dying process or helping the patient to enter the dying (...)
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  25.  91
    Franklin G. Miller, Robert D. Truog & Dan W. Brock (2010). Moral Fictions and Medical Ethics. Bioethics 24 (9):453-460.
    Conventional medical ethics and the law draw a bright line distinguishing the permitted practice of withdrawing life-sustaining treatment from the forbidden practice of active euthanasia by means of a lethal injection. When clinicians justifiably withdraw life-sustaining treatment, they allow patients to die but do not cause, intend, or have moral responsibility for, the patient's death. In contrast, physicians unjustifiably kill patients whenever they intentionally administer a lethal dose of medication. We argue that the differential moral assessment of (...)
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  26.  2
    D. J. Wilkinson, G. Kahane, M. Horne & J. Savulescu (2009). Functional Neuroimaging and Withdrawal of Life-Sustaining Treatment From Vegetative Patients. Journal of Medical Ethics 35 (8):508-511.
    Recent studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging of patients in a vegetative state have raised the possibility that such patients retain some degree of consciousness. In this paper, the ethical implications of such findings are outlined, in particular in relation to decisions about withdrawing life-sustaining treatment. It is sometimes assumed that if there is evidence of consciousness, treatment should not be withdrawn. But, paradoxically, the discovery of consciousness in very severely brain-damaged patients may provide more reason to (...)
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  27.  46
    Dominic Wilkinson (2009). The Self-Fulfilling Prophecy in Intensive Care. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 30 (6):401-410.
    Predictions of poor prognosis for critically ill patients may become self-fulfilling if life-sustaining treatment or resuscitation is subsequently withheld on the basis of that prediction. This paper outlines the epistemic and normative problems raised by self-fulfilling prophecies (SFPs) in intensive care. Where predictions affect outcome, it can be extremely difficult to ascertain the mortality rate for patients if all treatment were provided. SFPs may lead to an increase in mortality for cohorts of patients predicted to have poor prognosis, (...)
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  28. R. D. Mackay (1988). Terminating Life-Sustaining Treatment--Recent US Developments. Journal of Medical Ethics 14 (3):135-139.
    This paper reviews some recent litigation in the United States which addresses the difficult question of withdrawing food and hydration from both competent and incompetent patients. Whilst the decisions in question have manifested a trend towards favouring patient autonomy, they also indicate an underlying tension between doctors, health care facilities and their dying patients which is not yet close to resolution. The author suggests that the courts in the United States are likely to remain, for the foreseeable future, the (...)
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  29.  39
    R. Heywood (2012). Withdrawal of Treatment From Minimally Conscious Patients. Clinical Ethics 7 (1):10-16.
    This article explores the taxing legal questions that are raised in the context of withdrawing life sustaining treatment from patients who are in a minimally conscious state. The Court of Protection, for the first time in England, was recently asked to rule on this issue. This paper analyses the legal and ethical implications of this decision moving forward.
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  30.  25
    Dominic Wilkinson (2009). The Window of Opportunity: Decision Theory and the Timing of Prognostic Tests for Newborn Infants. Bioethics 23 (9):503-514.
    In many forms of severe acute brain injury there is an early phase when prognosis is uncertain, followed later by physiological recovery and the possibility of more certain predictions of future impairment. There may be a window of opportunity for withdrawal of life support early, but if decisions are delayed there is the risk that the patient will survive with severe impairment. In this paper I focus on the example of neonatal encephalopathy and the question of the timing of prognostic (...)
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  31.  12
    Dominic Wilkinson, Robert Truog & Julian Savulescu (2016). In Favour of Medical Dissensus: Why We Should Agree to Disagree About End‐of‐Life Decisions. Bioethics 30 (2):109-118.
    End-of-life decision-making is controversial. There are different views about when it is appropriate to limit life-sustaining treatment, and about what palliative options are permissible. One approach to decisions of this nature sees consensus as crucial. Decisions to limit treatment are made only if all or a majority of caregivers agree. We argue, however, that it is a mistake to require professional consensus in end-of-life decisions. In the first part of the article we explore practical, ethical, and legal factors (...)
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  32.  3
    D. J. Wilkinson, G. Kahane, M. Horne & J. Savulescu, Functional Neuroimaging and Withdrawal of Life-Sustaining Treatment From Vegetative Patients.
    Recent studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging of patients in a vegetative state have raised the possibility that such patients retain some degree of consciousness. In this paper, the ethical implications of such findings are outlined, in particular in relation to decisions about withdrawing life-sustaining treatment. It is sometimes assumed that if there is evidence of consciousness, treatment should not be withdrawn. But, paradoxically, the discovery of consciousness in very severely brain-damaged patients may provide more reason to (...)
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  33.  14
    J. Harris (1994). Are Withholding and Withdrawing Therapy Always Morally Equivalent? A Reply to Sulmasy and Sugarman. Journal of Medical Ethics 20 (4):223-224.
    This paper argues that Sulmasy and Sugarman have not succeeded in showing a moral difference between withholding and withdrawing treatment. In particular, they have misunderstood historical entitlement theory, which does not automatically prefer a first occupant by just acquisition.
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  34.  1
    R. Cremer, A. Binoche, O. Noizet, C. Fourier, S. Leteurtre, G. Moutel & F. Leclerc (2007). Are the GFRUP's Recommendations for Withholding or Withdrawing Treatments in Critically Ill Children Applicable? Results of a Two-Year Survey. Journal of Medical Ethics 33 (3):128-133.
    Objective: To evaluate feasibility of the guidelines of the Groupe Francophone de Réanimation et Urgence Pédiatriques for limitation of treatments in the paediatric intensive care unit .Design: A 2-year prospective survey.Setting: A 12-bed PICU at the Hôpital Jeanne de Flandre, Lille, France.Patients: Were included when limitation of treatments was expected.Results: Of 967 children admitted, 55 were included with a 2-day median delay. They were younger than others , had a higher paediatric risk of mortality score , and a higher paediatric (...)
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  35.  1
    Helen Watt (2001). Decisions Relating to Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation: Commentary 3: Degrading Lives? Journal of Medical Ethics 27 (5):321-323.
    The guidelines on Decisions Relating to Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation begin with a reassuringly objective view of medicine: its “primary goal” is to benefit patients by “restoring or maintaining their health as far as possible, thereby maximising benefit and minimising harm”. Some might want to add that medicine has several goals, not all of which relate to promoting health; however, those who see the aim of the profession as more than consumer satisfaction will welcome the suggestion here that not just any choice (...)
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  36.  23
    William Ruddick (2005). "Biographical Lives" Revisited and Extended. Journal of Ethics 9 (3-4):501-515.
    After reviewing the history, rationale, and Jim Rachels’ varied uses of the notion of biographical lives, the essay further develops its social dimensions and proposes an ontological analysis. Whether one person is leading one life or more turns on the number of separate social worlds he or she creates and maintains. Furthermore, lives are constituted by narrated events in a story. Lives, however, are not stories, but rather are extended “verbal objects,” that is, “narrative objects” with a hybrid character, both (...)
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  37.  18
    Nancy Jecker (2011). Medical Futility and the Death of a Child. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 8 (2):133-139.
    Our response to death may differ depending on the patient’s age. We may feel that death is a sad, but acceptable event in an elderly patient, yet feel that death in a very young patient is somehow unfair. This paper explores whether there is any ethical basis for our different responses. It examines in particular whether a patient’s age should be relevant to the determination that an intervention is medically futile. It also considers the responsibilities of health professionals and the (...)
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  38.  27
    Alan Rothschild (2008). Just When You Thought the Euthanasia Debate Had Died. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 5 (1):69-78.
    The death by assisted suicide in Switzerland of Australian Dr. John Elliott, in early 2007 has highlighted the inadequacy of the law pertaining to medical decisions at end-of-life, both from a legal as well as ethical perspective. Despite being illegal in most jurisdictions around the world, physician-assisted death is a reality, in part because of the flexibility, inconsistent application and, at times, invisibility, of laws surrounding it. The appropriate response to this should be greater transparency by a reform of the (...)
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  39.  19
    Dominic Wilkinson (2011). Should We Replace Disabled Newborn Infants? Journal of Moral Philosophy 8 (3):390-414.
    If a disabled newborn infant dies, her parents may be able to conceive another child without impairment. This is sometimes referred to as 'replacement'. Some philosophers have argued that replacement provides a strong reason for disabled newborns to be killed or allowed to die. In this paper I focus on the case for replacement as it relates to decisions about life support in newborn intensive care. I argue (following Jeff McMahan) that the impersonal reason to replace is weak and easily (...)
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  40.  21
    Roger S. Magnusson (2009). The Traditional Account of Ethics and Law at the End of Life—and its Discontents. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 6 (3):307-324.
    For the past 30 years, the Melbourne urologist Dr Rodney Syme has quietly—and more recently, not-so-quietly—assisted terminally and permanently ill people to die. This paper draws on Syme’s recent book, A Good Death: An Argument for Voluntary Euthanasia , to identify and to reflect on some important challenges to what I outline as the traditional account of law, ethics, and end of life decisions. Among the challenges Syme makes to the traditional view is his argument that physicians’ intentions are frail (...)
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  41.  9
    Anders Rydvall, Niklas Juth, Mikael Sandlund, Magnus Domellöf & Niels Lynøe (2014). To Treat or Not to Treat a Newborn Child with Severe Brain Damage? A Cross-Sectional Study of Physicians’ and the General Population’s Perceptions of Intentions. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 17 (1):81-88.
    Ethical dilemmas are common in the neonatal intensive care setting. The aim of the present study was to investigate the opinions of Swedish physicians and the general public on treatment decisions regarding a newborn with severe brain damage. We used a vignette-based questionnaire which was sent to a random sample of physicians (n = 628) and the general population (n = 585). Respondents were asked to provide answers as to whether it is acceptable to discontinue ventilator treatment, and (...)
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  42.  20
    J. C. Sheather (2013). Withdrawing and Withholding Artificial Nutrition and Hydration From Patients in a Minimally Conscious State: Re: M and its Repercussions. Journal of Medical Ethics 39 (9):543-546.
    In 2011 the English Court of Protection ruled that it would be unlawful to withdraw artificial nutrition and hydration from a woman, M, who had been in a minimally conscious state for 8 years. It was reported as the first English legal case concerning withdrawal of artificial nutrition and hydration from a patient in a minimally conscious state who was otherwise stable. In the absence of a valid and applicable advance decision refusing treatment, of other life-limiting pathology or excessively (...)
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  43.  9
    Andrew McGee (2015). Acting to Let Someone Die. Bioethics 29 (2):74-81.
    This paper examines the recent prominent view in medical ethics that withdrawing life-sustaining treatment is an act of killing. I trace this view to the rejection of the traditional claim that withdrawing LST is an omission rather than an act. Although that traditional claim is not as problematic as this recent prominent view suggests, my main claim is that even if we accepted that withdrawing LST should be classified as an act rather than as an omission, (...)
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  44.  32
    R. Forde (2005). Clinical Ethics, Information, and Communication: Review of 31 Cases From a Clinical Ethics Committee. [REVIEW] Journal of Medical Ethics 31 (2):73-77.
    Objectives: To summarise the types of case brought to the Clinical Ethics Committee of the National Hospital of Norway from 1996 to 2002 and to describe and discuss to what extent issues of information/communication have been involved in the ethical problems. Design: Systematic review of case reports. Findings: Of the 31 case discussions, (20 prospective, 11 retrospective), 19 cases concerned treatment of children. Twenty cases concerned ethical problems related to withholding/withdrawing of treatment. In 25 cases aspects of (...)
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  45.  11
    D. L. Dickenson (2000). Are Medical Ethicists Out of Touch? Practitioner Attitudes in the US and UK Towards Decisions at the End of Life. Journal of Medical Ethics 26 (4):254-260.
    Objectives—To assess whether UK and US health care professionals share the views of medical ethicists about medical futility, withdrawing/withholding treatment, ordinary/extraordinary interventions, and the doctrine of double effectDesign, subjects and setting–A 138-item attitudinal questionnaire completed by 469 UK nurses studying the Open University course on “Death and Dying” was compared with a similar questionnaire administered to 759 US nurses and 687 US doctors taking the Hastings Center course on “Decisions near the End of Life”.Results–Practitioners accept the relevance of (...)
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  46.  9
    Aviad Raz, Isabella Jordan & Silke Schicktanz (2012). Exploring the Positions of German and Israeli Patient Organizations in the Bioethical Context of End-of-Life Policies. Health Care Analysis (2):1-17.
    Patient organizations are increasingly involved in national and international bioethical debates and health policy deliberations. In order to examine how and to what extent cultural factors and organizational contexts influence the positions of patient organizations, this study compares the positions of German and Israeli patient organizations (POs) on issues related to end-of-life medical care. We draw on a qualitative pilot study of thirteen POs, using as a unit of analysis pairs comprised of one German PO and one Israeli PO that (...)
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  47.  12
    Katherine Wasson, Emily Anderson, Erika Hagstrom, Michael McCarthy, Kayhan Parsi & Mark Kuczewski (2016). What Ethical Issues Really Arise in Practice at an Academic Medical Center? A Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Clinical Ethics Consultations From 2008 to 2013. HEC Forum 28 (3):217-228.
    As the field of clinical ethics consultation sets standards and moves forward with the Quality Attestation process, questions should be raised about what ethical issues really do arise in practice. There is limited data on the type and number of ethics consultations conducted across different settings. At Loyola University Medical Center, we conducted a retrospective review of our ethics consultations from 2008 through 2013. One hundred fifty-six cases met the eligibility criteria. We analyzed demographic data on these patients and conducted (...)
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  48.  5
    Michele Anne Kent (1996). The Ethical Arguments Concerning the Artificial Ventilation of Patients With Motor Neurone Disease. Nursing Ethics 3 (4):317-328.
    This paper focuses on the ethical dilemmas created by advanced technology that would allow patients with motor neurone disease to be sustained by artificial ventilation. The author attempts to support the patient's right to informed choice, arguing from the perspective of autonomy as a first order principle. The counter arguments of caregiver burden and financial restraints are analysed. In the UK, where active euthanasia is not legalized, the dilemma of commencing ventilation is seen to be outweighed by the problems of (...)
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  49.  10
    Timothy D. Rawlins & John G. Bradley (1990). Planning for Hospital Ethics Committees: Meeting the Needs of the Professional Staff. [REVIEW] HEC Forum 2 (6):361-374.
    Hospital ethics committees (HECs) have historically been instituted top-down, often ignoring the needs of the professionals and patients who might use their services. Seventy-four physicians and 123 nurses participated in a hospital-wide needs assessment designed to [1] identify their perceptions of the functions of the HEC, [2] determine which services and educational programs were most desired, and [3] explore which forums were most preferred for discussion of ethical problems. Results indicated that utilization of the HEC focused around five areas of (...)
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    T. K. Chan & G. L. Tipoe (2014). The Best Interests of Persistently Vegetative Patients: To Die Rather That to Live? Journal of Medical Ethics 40 (3):202-204.
    Adults without the capacity to make their own medical decisions have their rights protected under the Mental Capacity Act in the UK. The underlying principle of the court's decisions is the best interests test, and the evaluation of best interests is a welfare appraisal. Although the House of Lords in the well-known case of Bland held that the decision to withhold treatment for patients in a persistent vegetative state should not be based on their best interests, judges in recent (...)
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