Search results for 'Withdrawing and witholding treatment' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Jacqueline A. Laing (2002). Vegetative State – The Untold Story. New Law Journal 152:1272.score: 174.0
    Airedale NHS Trust v Bland establishes three principles among which is the controversial idea that people in a PVS, though not dying, have no best interests and no meaningful life. Accordingly, it is argued, they may have their food and fluids, whether delivered by tube or manually, removed, with the result that they die. Laing challenges this view arguing that not only is this bad medical science, it is unjustly discriminatory and at odds with our duties to the severely disabled. (...)
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  2. Jacqueline A. Laing (2013). Managerialising Death. Law Society Gazette.score: 171.0
    The Liverpool Care Pathway is intended as a palliative care regime at the end of life. Even its critics agree that certain of its recommendations may be useful and appropriate. Additionally, critics are aware that there are occasions when death may be a foreseen side effect of perfectly licit palliation whose primary ends are not homicidal at all. It is evident that treatment may be over-expensive, over-burdensome or simply futile. There is no suggestion that critics of the Pathway adhere (...)
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  3. Jacqueline A. Laing (2012). Incentivising Death. Solicitors Journal 157 (2):9.score: 162.0
    The recent revelation that the rolling out of the Liverpool Care Pathway as the NHS National End of Life Care strategy in 2008 had been financially incentivised and implemented with astonishing compliance emerged as a thought-provoking development. Many of us have been warning for years of the financial, political and research interests that there are in institutionalising sedation-and-dehydration regimes, and then, inevitably, medical homicide. Freedom of Information Act requests exposed the millions of pounds that have been paid for the implementation (...)
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  4. Jacqueline A. Laing (2005). The Right to Live: Reply to the Chief Executive of the Law Society. Law Society Gazette 102:11.score: 162.0
    The chief executive of the Law Society proposes that the Mental Capacity Bill is a progressive initiative enhancing personal autonomy. Laing replies to this by showing that the Bill, for from enhancinging personal autonomy explodes it by inviting homicide by unaccountable third parties, allowing non-therapeutic research and organ-removal without consent and creating a secret and unaccountable court with a lethal power over the vulnerable incapacitated.
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  5. Dominic Wilkinson & Julian Savulescu (2014). A Costly Separation Between Withdrawing and Withholding Treatment in Intensive Care. Bioethics 28 (3):127-137.score: 144.0
    Ethical analyses, professional guidelines and legal decisions support the equivalence thesis for life-sustaining treatment: if it is ethical to withhold treatment, it would be ethical to withdraw the same treatment. In this paper we explore reasons why the majority of medical professionals disagree with the conclusions of ethical analysis. Resource allocation is considered by clinicians to be a legitimate reason to withhold but not to withdraw intensive care treatment. We analyse five arguments in favour of non-equivalence, (...)
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  6. G. Baeke, J. -P. Wils & B. Broeckaert (2011). Orthodox Jewish Perspectives on Withholding and Withdrawing Life-Sustaining Treatment. Nursing Ethics 18 (6):835-846.score: 126.0
    The Jewish religious tradition summons its adherents to save life. For religious Jews preservation of life is the ultimate religious commandment. At the same time Jewish law recognizes that the agony of a moribund person may not be stretched. When the time to die has come this has to be respected. The process of dying should not needlessly be prolonged. We discuss the position of two prominent Orthodox Jewish authorities – the late Rabbi Moshe Feinstein and Rabbi J David Bleich (...)
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  7. H. E. McHaffie, M. Cuttini, G. Brolz-Voit, L. Randag, R. Mousty, A. M. Duguet, B. Wennergren & P. Benciolini (1999). Withholding/Withdrawing Treatment From Neonates: Legislation and Official Guidelines Across Europe. Journal of Medical Ethics 25 (6):440-446.score: 126.0
    Representatives from eight European countries compared the legal, ethical and professional settings within which decision making for neonates takes place. When it comes to limiting treatment there is general agreement across all countries that overly aggressive treatment is to be discouraged. Nevertheless, strong emphasis has been placed on the need for compassionate care even where cure is not possible. Where a child will die irrespective of medical intervention, there is widespread acceptance of the practice of limiting aggressive (...) or alleviating suffering even if death may be hastened as a result. Where the infant could be saved but the future outlook is bleak there is more debate, but only two countries have tested the courts with such cases. When it comes to the active intentional ending of life, the legal position is standard across Europe; it is prohibited. However, recognising those intractable situations where death may be lingering and unpleasant, Dutch paediatricians have reported that they do sometimes assist babies to die with parental consent. Two cases have been tried through the courts and recent official recommendations have set out standards by which such actions may be assessed. (shrink)
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  8. J. Brierley, J. Linthicum & A. Petros (2013). Should Religious Beliefs Be Allowed to Stonewall a Secular Approach to Withdrawing and Withholding Treatment in Children? Journal of Medical Ethics 39 (9):573-577.score: 122.0
    Religion is an important element of end-of-life care on the paediatric intensive care unit with religious belief providing support for many families and for some staff. However, religious claims used by families to challenge cessation of aggressive therapies considered futile and burdensome by a wide range of medical and lay people can cause considerable problems and be very difficult to resolve. While it is vital to support families in such difficult times, we are increasingly concerned that deeply held belief in (...)
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  9. R. Gillon (1994). Withholding and Withdrawing Life-Prolonging Treatment--Moral Implications of a Thought Experiment. Journal of Medical Ethics 20 (4):203-222.score: 120.0
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  10. J. B. Reckling (1997). Who Plays What Role in Decisions About Withholding and Withdrawing Life-Sustaining Treatment? Journal of Clinical Ethics 8 (1):39.score: 120.0
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  11. Dorothy Rasinski Gregory (1995). Network News: VA Network Futility Guidelines: A Resource for Decisions About Withholding and Withdrawing Treatment. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 4 (04):546-.score: 120.0
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  12. Leonard H. Glantz (1987). Withholding and Withdrawing Treatment: The Role of the Criminal Law. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 15 (4):231-241.score: 120.0
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  13. V. Tschudin (2000). Book Review: Withholding and Withdrawing Life-Prolonging Medical Treatment: Guidance for Decision Making. [REVIEW] Nursing Ethics 7 (2):180-181.score: 120.0
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  14. Bioethics Center Midwest & Kansas City Area Ethics Committee Consortium (1998). Considerations Regarding Withholding/Withdrawing Life-Sustaining Treatment. Bioethics Forum 14 (2):SS1.score: 120.0
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  15. Stanley A. Terman (2013). Is the Principle of Proportionality Sufficient to Guide Physicians' Decisions Regarding Withholding/Withdrawing Life-Sustaining Treatment After Suicide Attempts? American Journal of Bioethics 13 (3):22 - 24.score: 120.0
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  16. D. Lanzerath, Ludger Honnefelder & Ulrich Feeser (1998). Nationaler Bericht der Europäischen Befragung: „Doctors' Views on the Management of Patients in Persistent Vegetative State (PVS)“ Im Rahmen des Forschungsprojekts „The Moral and Legal Issues Surrounding the Treatment and Health Care of Patients in Persistent Vegetative State“. [REVIEW] Ethik in der Medizin 10 (3):152-180.score: 110.0
    Definition of the problem: The report supplies the national part of a European survey in which doctors that are involved in the treatment of patients in `Persistent Vegetative State' (PVS) are being interviewed. The questions concern decision-situations the doctors are frequently confronted with in the treatment of PVS-patients. The questionnaire is designed as a decisiontree in order to bring about the exact delineations that govern the decisions. Therefore the result of the survey only portrays which delineations are in (...)
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  17. Sabine Beck, Andreas van de Loo & Stella Reiter-Theil (2008). A “Little Bit Illegal”? Withholding and Withdrawing of Mechanical Ventilation in the Eyes of German Intensive Care Physicians. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 11 (1):7-16.score: 102.0
    Research questions and backgroundThis study explores a highly controversial issue of medical care in Germany: the decision to withhold or withdraw mechanical ventilation in critically ill patients. It analyzes difficulties in making these decisions and the physicians’ uncertainty in understanding the German terminology of Sterbehilfe, which is used in the context of treatment limitation. Used in everyday language, the word Sterbehilfe carries connotations such as helping the patient in the dying process or helping the patient to enter the dying (...)
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  18. R. Heywood (2012). Withdrawal of Treatment From Minimally Conscious Patients. Clinical Ethics 7 (1):10-16.score: 90.7
    This article explores the taxing legal questions that are raised in the context of withdrawing life sustaining treatment from patients who are in a minimally conscious state. The Court of Protection, for the first time in England, was recently asked to rule on this issue. This paper analyses the legal and ethical implications of this decision moving forward.
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  19. Jacob Gipson, Guy Kahane & Julian Savulescu (2014). Attitudes of Lay People to Withdrawal of Treatment in Brain Damaged Patients. Neuroethics 7 (1):1-9.score: 90.7
    BackgroundWhether patients in the vegetative state (VS), minimally conscious state (MCS) or the clinically related locked-in syndrome (LIS) should be kept alive is a matter of intense controversy. This study aimed to examine the moral attitudes of lay people to these questions, and the values and other factors that underlie these attitudes.MethodOne hundred ninety-nine US residents completed a survey using the online platform Mechanical Turk, comprising demographic questions, agreement with treatment withdrawal from each of the conditions, agreement with a (...)
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  20. D. J. Wilkinson, G. Kahane, M. Horne & J. Savulescu (2009). Functional Neuroimaging and Withdrawal of Life-Sustaining Treatment From Vegetative Patients. Journal of Medical Ethics 35 (8):508-511.score: 84.0
    Recent studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging of patients in a vegetative state have raised the possibility that such patients retain some degree of consciousness. In this paper, the ethical implications of such findings are outlined, in particular in relation to decisions about withdrawing life-sustaining treatment. It is sometimes assumed that if there is evidence of consciousness, treatment should not be withdrawn. But, paradoxically, the discovery of consciousness in very severely brain-damaged patients may provide more reason to (...)
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  21. Franklin G. Miller, Robert D. Truog & Dan W. Brock (2010). Moral Fictions and Medical Ethics. Bioethics 24 (9):453-460.score: 72.0
    Conventional medical ethics and the law draw a bright line distinguishing the permitted practice of withdrawing life-sustaining treatment from the forbidden practice of active euthanasia by means of a lethal injection. When clinicians justifiably withdraw life-sustaining treatment, they allow patients to die but do not cause, intend, or have moral responsibility for, the patient's death. In contrast, physicians unjustifiably kill patients whenever they intentionally administer a lethal dose of medication. We argue that the differential moral assessment of (...)
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  22. Giles Birchley (2013). Doctor? Who? Nurses, Patient's Best Interests and Treatment Withdrawal: When No Doctor is Available, Should Nurses Withdraw Treatment From Patients? Nursing Philosophy 14 (2):96-108.score: 70.0
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  23. M. Davie & A. Kaiser (2007). Semi-Qualitative Study of Staff Attitudes to Care Following Decision to Withdraw Active Treatment in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. Clinical Ethics 2 (3):133-138.score: 68.0
    The management of an infant after a decision to withdraw active treatment creates dilemmas. Both lingering death and active killing are undesirable, but palliative interventions can hasten death. We investigated what staff on our neonatal unit thought were the limits of acceptable practice and why. We administered a structured interview to elucidate their views, and asked them to justify their answers. The interviews were analysed quantitatively and qualitatively. A total of 25 participants (15 nurses and 10 doctors) were recruited. (...)
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  24. Dominic Wilkinson (2009). The Window of Opportunity: Decision Theory and the Timing of Prognostic Tests for Newborn Infants. Bioethics 23 (9):503-514.score: 60.0
    In many forms of severe acute brain injury there is an early phase when prognosis is uncertain, followed later by physiological recovery and the possibility of more certain predictions of future impairment. There may be a window of opportunity for withdrawal of life support early, but if decisions are delayed there is the risk that the patient will survive with severe impairment. In this paper I focus on the example of neonatal encephalopathy and the question of the timing of prognostic (...)
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  25. Seiji Bito & Atsushi Asai (2007). Attitudes and Behaviors of Japanese Physicians Concerning Withholding and Withdrawal of Life-Sustaining Treatment for End-of-Life Patients: Results From an Internet Survey. BMC Medical Ethics 8 (1):1-9.score: 60.0
    Background Evidence concerning how Japanese physicians think and behave in specific clinical situations that involve withholding or withdrawal of medical interventions for end-of-life or frail elderly patients is yet insufficient. Methods To analyze decisions and actions concerning the withholding/withdrawal of life-support care by Japanese physicians, we conducted cross-sectional web-based internet survey presenting three scenarios involving an elderly comatose patient following a severe stroke. Volunteer physicians were recruited for the survey through mailing lists and medical journals. The respondents answered questions concerning (...)
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  26. Sofia Moratti (2010). The Englaro Case: Withdrawal of Treatment From a Patient in a Permanent Vegetative State in Italy. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 19 (03):372-380.score: 56.7
  27. Loane Skene (2004). Disputes About the Withdrawal of Treatment: The Role of the Courts. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 32 (4):701-707.score: 56.7
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  28. J. Appleyard (1998). Withdrawal of Treatment in Children. Journal of Medical Ethics 24 (5):350-350.score: 56.7
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  29. J. Goldie (2004). Students' Attitudes and Potential Behaviour to a Competent Patient's Request for Withdrawal of Treatment as They Pass Through a Modern Medical Curriculum. Journal of Medical Ethics 30 (4):371-376.score: 56.7
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  30. Gerald Logue (1994). Toleration of Moral Diversity and the Conscientious Refusal by Physicians to Withdraw Life-Sustaining Treatment. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 19 (2):147-159.score: 54.0
    The removal of life-sustaining treatment often brings physicians into conflict with patients. Because of their moral beliefs physicians often respond slowly to the request of patients or their families. People in bioethics have been quick to recommend that in cases of conflict the physician should simply sign off the case and "step aside". This is not easily done psychologically or morally. Such a resolution also masks a number of more subtle, quite trouble some problems that conflict with the commitment (...)
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  31. Dominic Wilkinson (2009). The Self-Fulfilling Prophecy in Intensive Care. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 30 (6):401-410.score: 54.0
    Predictions of poor prognosis for critically ill patients may become self-fulfilling if life-sustaining treatment or resuscitation is subsequently withheld on the basis of that prediction. This paper outlines the epistemic and normative problems raised by self-fulfilling prophecies (SFPs) in intensive care. Where predictions affect outcome, it can be extremely difficult to ascertain the mortality rate for patients if all treatment were provided. SFPs may lead to an increase in mortality for cohorts of patients predicted to have poor prognosis, (...)
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  32. J. Harris (1994). Are Withholding and Withdrawing Therapy Always Morally Equivalent? A Reply to Sulmasy and Sugarman. Journal of Medical Ethics 20 (4):223-224.score: 54.0
    This paper argues that Sulmasy and Sugarman have not succeeded in showing a moral difference between withholding and withdrawing treatment. In particular, they have misunderstood historical entitlement theory, which does not automatically prefer a first occupant by just acquisition.
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  33. K. R. Mitchell, I. H. Kerridge & T. J. Lovat (1993). Medical Futility, Treatment Withdrawal and the Persistent Vegetative State. Journal of Medical Ethics 19 (2):71-76.score: 54.0
    Why do we persist in the relentless pursuit of artificial nourishment and other treatments to maintain a permanently unconscious existence? In facing the future, if not the present world-wide reality of a huge number of persistent vegetative state (PVS) patients, will they be treated because of our ethical commitment to their humanity, or because of an ethical paralysis in the face of biotechnical progress? The PVS patient is cut off from the normal patterns of human connection and communication, with a (...)
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  34. S. Moratti (2010). The Parents' Ability to Take Care of Their Baby as a Factor in Decisions to Withhold or Withdraw Life-Prolonging Treatment in Two Dutch NICUs. Journal of Medical Ethics 36 (6):336-338.score: 54.0
    In The Netherlands, it is openly acknowledged that the parents' ability to take care of their child plays a role in the decision-making process over administration of life-prolonging treatment to severely defective newborn babies. Unlike other aspects of such decision-making process up until the present time, the ‘ability to take care’ has not received specific attention in regulation or in empirical research. The present study is based on interviews with neonatologists in two Dutch NICUs concerning their definition of the (...)
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  35. S. Wear, S. Lagaipa & G. Logue (1994). Toleration of Moral Diversity and the Conscientious Refusal by Physicians to Withdraw Life-Sustaining Treatment. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 19 (2):147-159.score: 54.0
    The removal of life-sustaining treatment often brings physicians into conflict with patients. Because of their moral beliefs physicians often respond slowly to the request of patients or their families. People in bioethics have been quick to recommend that in cases of conflict the physician should simply sign off the case and “step aside”. This is not easily done psychologically or morally. Such a resolution also masks a number of more subtle, quite trouble some problems that conflict with the commitment (...)
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  36. R. D. Mackay (1988). Terminating Life-Sustaining Treatment--Recent US Developments. Journal of Medical Ethics 14 (3):135-139.score: 54.0
    This paper reviews some recent litigation in the United States which addresses the difficult question of withdrawing food and hydration from both competent and incompetent patients. Whilst the decisions in question have manifested a trend towards favouring patient autonomy, they also indicate an underlying tension between doctors, health care facilities and their dying patients which is not yet close to resolution. The author suggests that the courts in the United States are likely to remain, for the foreseeable future, the (...)
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  37. Joris Gielen, Sushma Bhatnagar, Seema Mishra, Arvind K. Chaturvedi, Harmala Gupta, Ambika Rajvanshi, Stef Van den Branden & Bert Broeckaert (2011). Can Curative or Life-Sustaining Treatment Be Withheld or Withdrawn? The Opinions and Views of Indian Palliative-Care Nurses and Physicians. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 14 (1):5-18.score: 52.7
    Introduction: Decisions to withdraw or withhold curative or life-sustaining treatment can have a huge impact on the symptoms which the palliative-care team has to control. Palliative-care patients and their relatives may also turn to palliative-care physicians and nurses for advice regarding these treatments. We wanted to assess Indian palliative-care nurses and physicians’ attitudes towards withholding and withdrawal of curative or life-sustaining treatment. Method: From May to September 2008, we interviewed 14 physicians and 13 nurses working in different palliative-care (...)
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  38. Anders Rydvall, Niklas Juth, Mikael Sandlund, Magnus Domellöf & Niels Lynøe (forthcoming). To Treat or Not to Treat a Newborn Child with Severe Brain Damage? A Cross-Sectional Study of Physicians' and the General Population's Perceptions of Intentions. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy:1-8.score: 52.0
    Ethical dilemmas are common in the neonatal intensive care setting. The aim of the present study was to investigate the opinions of Swedish physicians and the general public on treatment decisions regarding a newborn with severe brain damage. We used a vignette-based questionnaire which was sent to a random sample of physicians (n = 628) and the general population (n = 585). Respondents were asked to provide answers as to whether it is acceptable to discontinue ventilator treatment, and (...)
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  39. Nancy A. Wynstra (1989). Role of In-House Counsel in Decisions About Withdrawal of Life Sustaining Treatment. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 17 (4):325-329.score: 50.0
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  40. E. Jackson (2013). The Minimally Conscious State and Treatment Withdrawal: W V M. Journal of Medical Ethics 39 (9):559-561.score: 50.0
    This short comment on the Court of Protection decision in W v M draws attention to the primacy the judge gave to the preservation of life and discusses the relative lack of weight accorded to M's previously expressed views.
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  41. M. G. Tweeddale (2002). Grasping the Nettle--What to Do When Patients Withdraw Their Consent for Treatment: (A Clinical Perspective on the Case of Ms B). Journal of Medical Ethics 28 (4):236-237.score: 50.0
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  42. P. Alderson (2004). Crucial Decisions at the Beginning of Life: Parents' Experiences of Treatment Withdrawal From Infants. Journal of Medical Ethics 30 (6):e1-e1.score: 50.0
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  43. R. J. Boyle (2004). Ethics of Refusing Parental Requests to Withhold or Withdraw Treatment From Their Premature Baby. Journal of Medical Ethics 30 (4):402-405.score: 50.0
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  44. R. Cremer, A. Binoche, O. Noizet, C. Fourier, S. Leteurtre, G. Moutel & F. Leclerc (2007). Are the GFRUP's Recommendations for Withholding or Withdrawing Treatments in Critically Ill Children Applicable? Results of a Two-Year Survey. Journal of Medical Ethics 33 (3):128-133.score: 50.0
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  45. Alan Rothschild (2008). Just When You Thought the Euthanasia Debate Had Died. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 5 (1):69-78.score: 48.0
    The death by assisted suicide in Switzerland of Australian Dr. John Elliott, in early 2007 has highlighted the inadequacy of the law pertaining to medical decisions at end-of-life, both from a legal as well as ethical perspective. Despite being illegal in most jurisdictions around the world, physician-assisted death is a reality, in part because of the flexibility, inconsistent application and, at times, invisibility, of laws surrounding it. The appropriate response to this should be greater transparency by a reform of the (...)
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  46. Dominic Wilkinson (2011). Should We Replace Disabled Newborn Infants? Journal of Moral Philosophy 8 (3):390-414.score: 48.0
    If a disabled newborn infant dies, her parents may be able to conceive another child without impairment. This is sometimes referred to as 'replacement'. Some philosophers have argued that replacement provides a strong reason for disabled newborns to be killed or allowed to die. In this paper I focus on the case for replacement as it relates to decisions about life support in newborn intensive care. I argue (following Jeff McMahan) that the impersonal reason to replace is weak and easily (...)
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  47. Nancy Jecker (2011). Medical Futility and the Death of a Child. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 8 (2):133-139.score: 48.0
    Our response to death may differ depending on the patient’s age. We may feel that death is a sad, but acceptable event in an elderly patient, yet feel that death in a very young patient is somehow unfair. This paper explores whether there is any ethical basis for our different responses. It examines in particular whether a patient’s age should be relevant to the determination that an intervention is medically futile. It also considers the responsibilities of health professionals and the (...)
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  48. Roger S. Magnusson (2009). The Traditional Account of Ethics and Law at the End of Life—and its Discontents. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 6 (3):307-324.score: 48.0
    For the past 30 years, the Melbourne urologist Dr Rodney Syme has quietly—and more recently, not-so-quietly—assisted terminally and permanently ill people to die. This paper draws on Syme’s recent book, A Good Death: An Argument for Voluntary Euthanasia , to identify and to reflect on some important challenges to what I outline as the traditional account of law, ethics, and end of life decisions. Among the challenges Syme makes to the traditional view is his argument that physicians’ intentions are frail (...)
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  49. William Ruddick (2005). "Biographical Lives" Revisited and Extended. Journal of Ethics 9 (3-4):501 - 515.score: 48.0
    After reviewing the history, rationale, and Jim Rachels’ varied uses of the notion of biographical lives, the essay further develops its social dimensions and proposes an ontological analysis. Whether one person is leading one life or more turns on the number of separate social worlds he or she creates and maintains. Furthermore, lives are constituted by narrated events in a story. Lives, however, are not stories, but rather are extended “verbal objects,” that is, “narrative objects” with a hybrid character, both (...)
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  50. J. Goldie, L. Schwartz & J. Morrison (2004). Teaching and Learning Ethics-Students' Attitudes and Potential Behaviour to a Competent Patient's Request for Withdrawal of Treatment as They Pass Through a Modern Medical Curriculum. Journal of Medical Ethics 30 (4):371-375.score: 46.7
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