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Profile: Wolfgang Ertl (Keio University)
  1. Wolfgang Ertl (2014). 'Ludewig' Molina and Kant's Libertarian Compatibilism. In Matthias Kaufmann & Alexander Aichele (eds.), A Companion to Luis de Molina. Brill. 405-445.
    Elaborating on the substantial parallels between Molina’s and Kant’s attempts to reconcile human freedom with divine foreknowledge and natural causal determinism respectively, my aim is to establish a proper historical connection as well. Leibniz is shown to be the crucial mediator in two respects: (i) Kant knew Molina’s account of divine knowledge in general in its Leibnizian version through Baumgarten’s Metaphysica. In this work, scientia media plays no role in the explication as to how God knows absolute future contingents. (ii) (...)
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  2. Wolfgang Ertl (2013). 'Nothing but Representations' - A Suárezian Way Out of the Mind? In Stefano Bacin, Alfredo Ferrarin, Claudio La Rocca & Margot Ruffing (eds.), Kant und die Philosophie in weltbürgerlicher Absicht. Akten des XI. Internationalen Kant-Kongresses. de Gruyter. Vol. V, 429-440.
    This paper is concerned with some aspects of Kant’s transcendental idealism, in particular the claim that objects of experience are nothing but representations in us, and its connection to the distinction of things in themselves and appearances. This claim has prompted phenomenalist readings which have rightly been rejected almost unanimously. Instead it has been suggested to account for Kant’s distinction in terms of mind-dependent or subject-relativized properties and properties which are not mind-dependent or subject-relativized. Along this line, the “nothing but (...)
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  3. Wolfgang Ertl (2011). Kant and the Early Modern Scholastic Legacy: New Perspectives on Transcendental Idealism”. In Hubertus Busche (ed.), Departure for Modern Europe. A Handbook of Early Modern Philosophy. Meiner. 1178-1193.
    This paper attempts to shed light on Kant’s distinction between things in themselves and appearances. It draws on the early modern debate about the nature of divine knowledge which resonates in Kant’s lectures on metaphysics and natural theology. The problem as to how divine foreknowledge of human actions is compatible with their freedom is of particular relevance, since the solution to the problem of human freedom is at the core of transcendental idealism. Philosophers such as Molina take divine cognition of (...)
     
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  4. Wolfgang Ertl (2010). Persons as Causes in Kant. In Stephen R. Palmquist (ed.), Cultivating Personhood: Kant and Asian Philosophy. de Gruyter. 217-230.
    Drawing on recent Aristotelian readings of Kant's notion of natural causality with an emphasis on substances as causes, I will try to explain how persons can make a difference in the world of appearances by virtue of their rationality. For Kant, the clue is that the peculiar mode of a substance's natural causality supervenes on in-itself features, among which is the mode or character of the person's rationality. Thus, a wedge can be driven between natural necessity and metaphysical necessity, opening (...)
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  5. Wolfgang Ertl (2006). Wilhelm Hofmann, Politik des Aufgeklärten Glücks. Jeremy Benthams Philosophisch-Politisches Denken [Politics of Enlightened Happiness. Jeremy Bentham's Philosophico-Political Thought] (Berlin: Akademie Verlag, 2002), Pp. 330. [REVIEW] Utilitas 18 (03):315-317.
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  6. Wolfgang Ertl (2004). Schöpfung und Freiheit. Ein kosmologischer Schlüssel zu Kants Kompatibilismus. In Norbert Fischer (ed.), Kants Metaphysik und Religionsphilosophie. Meiner. 43-76.
    I examine two recent accounts of Kant's version of compatibilism, i.e., Hudson's reconstruction of Kant as an "anomalous monist" avant la lettre, and Wood's interpretation along the lines of a modified version of Boethius's "eternity solution". To retain the advantages of both strategies, yet avoid their respective shortcomings, I suggest approaching Kant's doctrine from his theology lectures and their concept of universal providence. This (probably Molinist) notion, an integral element of the regulative use of reason, allows Kant to regard, in (...)
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  7. Wolfgang Ertl (2002). Hume's Antinomy and Kant's Critical Turn. British Journal for the History of Philosophy 10 (4):617-640.
    The aim of this paper is to confirm that it was Hamann's translation of Hume's "Treatise" (I.4.7) which triggered Kant's critical turn in 1768/69. If this is indeed so, then Kant's inaugural dissertation must be reassessed, in particular the doctrine, to be found there, that we have cognitive access to the intelligible world. This doctrine is part of a strategy for tackling the problem highlighted by Hume; that there may be conflicting principles at work in the human mind, i.e., an (...)
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