Search results for 'World War III' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  12
    Edmund Burke Iii (1998). Orientalism and World History: Representing Middle Eastern Nationalism and Islamism in the Twentieth Century. [REVIEW] Theory and Society 27 (4):489-507.
  2.  1
    Harmon R. Holcomb Iii (1998). Explaining World History: Marxism, Evolutionism, and Sociobiology. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 13 (4):597-618.
  3. Mitchell R. Thomas Iii (2005). War, Morality, and Autonomy. Journal of Value Inquiry 39 (2):267-271.
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  4.  23
    M. A. Gareev (1998). If War Comes Tomorrow?: The Contours of Future Armed Conflict. Frank Cass.
    Military affairs have been affected by major changes in the 19902. The bipolar world of two superpowers has gone. The Cold War and the global military confrontation that accompanied it have ended. A new military and political order has emerged, but the world has not become more stable, indeed, wars and armed conflict have become much more common. Forecasting the contours of future armed conflict is the primary object of this work. Focusing on the impact of new technologies, (...)
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  5.  10
    Matthis Krischel (2010). Perceived Hereditary Effect of World War I: A Study of the Positions of Friedrich von Bernhardi and Vernon Kellogg. [REVIEW] Medicine Studies 2 (2):139-150.
    This paper explores the question whether war was regarded as eugenic or dysgenic before, during and after the First World War. The main focus is on the positions of the German military officer and historian Friedrich von Bernhardi, who in Germany and the Next War, first published in 1912, argued for war as eugenic, and Vernon Kellogg’s Headquarters Nights, published in 1917, which marks an important work characterizing war as dysgenic. I argue that an international community of biologists and (...)
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  6.  3
    Codruta Cuceu (2010). Identity Under (Re)Construction: The Jewish Community From Transylvania Before and After the Second World War. Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies 7 (19):30-42.
    When talking about the identity of a certain community, we are inclined to appeal to essentialist, almost metaphysical notions. This often results in a unitary, deeply rooted and stable perception of the analyzed community. But this view is not always accurate enough, for it does not offer an account of a specific history. By offering a short history and a structural presentation of the Jewish community from Transylvania, before and shortly after the Second World War, our article’s purpose is (...)
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  7.  38
    Patrick Petitjean (2008). The Joint Establishment of the World Federation of Scientific Workers and of UNESCO After World War II. Minerva 46 (2):247-270.
    The World Federation of Scientific Workers (WFScW) and UNESCO share roots in the Social Relations of Science (SRS) movements and in the Franco-British scientific relations which developed in the 1930s. In this historical context (the Great Depression, the rise of Fascism and the Nazi use of science, the social and intellectual fascination for the USSR), a new model of scientific internationalism emerged, where science and politics mixed. Many progressive scientists were involved in the war efforts against Nazism, and tried (...)
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  8.  7
    Alfred Schmidt (2014). Wittgenstein and World War I: Some Additional Online Sources. Nordic Wittgenstein Review 3 (2):181-186.
    The article presents some additional biographical online sources to Ludwig Wittgenstein in the years 1913-1918.
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  9. Jo Vellacott (1980). Bertrand Russell and the Pacifists in the First World War. St. Martin's Press.
     
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  10.  9
    Virginia Parrott Williams (1987). Surrealism, Quantum Philosophy, and World War I. Garland.
  11. Nolen Gertz, Censorship, Propaganda, and the Production of 'Shell Shock' in World War I. War Fronts: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on War, Virtual War, and Human Security.
    In discussing warfare we tend to maintain a theoretical cleavage between the "home front" and the "battle front" that is supposed to parallel the physical distance that separates them. Nowhere is this more apparent than in the academic literature that surrounds World War I, with each discipline for decades having studied its correspondent aspect of the war. While this has provided us with incredibly detailed research into the minutiae of battles and the changing attitudes of the masses, it has (...)
     
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  12. D. Davenport (2012). The War Against Bacteria: How Were Sulphonamide Drugs Used by Britain During World War II? Medical Humanities 38 (1):55-58.
    Next SectionPenicillin is often considered one of the greatest discoveries of 20th century medicine. However, the revolution in therapeutics brought about by sulphonamides also had a profound effect on British medicine, particularly during World War II (WWII). Sulphonamides were used to successfully treat many infections which later yielded to penicillin and so their role deserves wider acknowledgement. The sulphonamides, a pre-war German discovery, were widely used clinically. However, the revolution brought about by the drugs has been either neglected or (...)
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  13.  57
    Jagdish Mehra, Kimball A. Milton & Peter Rembiesa (1999). The Young Julian Schwinger. IV. During the Second World War. Foundations of Physics 29 (6):967-1010.
    In this series of articles the early life and work of the young Julian Schwinger are explored. In the present article, Schwinger's work at the MIT Radiation Laboratory during the Second World War is described.
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  14.  5
    Nicolas Rasmussen (2002). Of `Small Men', Big Science and Bigger Business: The Second World War and Biomedical Research in the United States. [REVIEW] Minerva 40 (2):115-146.
    The Second World War is commonly said to have ushered in theera of `big science' in the United States. However, at least inpractically-oriented biomedical research, the American governmentadopted modes of sponsorship that were commonplace between scientistsand industry before the war. Furthermore, many life scientistsleading wartime projects were already familiar with industrialcollaboration. This essay argues that the new federal regimes introduced in the late 1940s and 1950s were more important than wartime experience in shaping the character of biomedical `big science' (...)
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  15.  9
    William Isdale (2015). Are There Moral Reasons to Remember the First World War? Think 14 (41):89-97.
    2014 marked the centenary of the outbreak of the First World War. This paper considers whether there are moral reasons to remember wars. It is argued that the most convincing reason for remembering wars is that they provide valuable lessons about human nature. The First World War elucidates several aspects of human nature, including our tribalism, sheepishness, drive for honour and over-confidence. Taking heed of these lessons may help avert future conflict.
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  16.  21
    Susan L. Smith (2008). Mustard Gas and American Race-Based Human Experimentation in World War II. Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 36 (3):517-521.
    This essay examines the risks of racialized science as revealed in the American mustard gas experiments of World War II. In a climate of contested beliefs over the existence and meanings of racial differences, medical researchers examined the bodies of Japanese American, African American, and Puerto Rican soldiers for evidence of how they differed from whites.
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  17.  6
    Robyn Smith (2009). The Emergence of Vitamins as Bio-Political Objects During World War I. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 40 (3):179-189.
    Biochemists investigating the problem of the vitamins in the early years of the twentieth century were working without an object, as such. Although they had developed a fairly elaborate idea of the character of the ‘vitamine’ and its role in metabolism, vitamins were not yet biochemical objects, but rather ‘functional ascriptions’ and ‘explanatory devices’. I suggest that an early instance of the changing status of the object of the ‘vitamins’ can be found in their stabilization, through the course of (...) War I, as bio-political objects for the British and Allied war effort. Vitamins emerged as players, active agents, in Britain’s wartime bio-political problems of food distribution and population health and because of this they became increasingly real as bio-political objects, even prior to their isolation as bio-chemical molecules. I suggest that the materiality of our biology has agency in the development of political regimes and schemes. (shrink)
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  18.  6
    Anthony N. Stranges (1993). Synthetic Fuel Production in Prewar and World War II Japan: A Case Study in Technological Failure. Annals of Science 50 (3):229-265.
    Japan is a country largely lacking supplies of many essential natural resources including petroleum, coal, and iron ore. As her industrial base and economy expanded during the 1920s and 1930s, Japan's dependence on imports of these resources became increasingly evident. The onset of the Depression in the 1930s further threatened Japan's lifeline, and, in an effort to become economically independent and self-sufficient in natural resources , Japan's militaristic government pursued a policy of territorial expansion. Beginning in 1937, Japan's military forces (...)
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  19.  13
    Edgar Jones (2012). 'The Gut War' Functional Somatic Disorders in the UK During the Second World War. History of the Human Sciences 25 (5):30-48.
    Hospital admission and mortality statistics suggested that peptic ulcer reached a peak prevalence in the mid-1950s. During the Second World War, against this background of serious and common pathology, an epidemic of dyspepsia afflicted both service personnel and civilians alike. In the absence of reliable diagnostic techniques, physicians struggled to distinguish between life-threatening illness and mild, temporary disorders. This article explores the context in which non-ulcer stomach conditions flourished. At a time when fear was considered defeatist and overt psychological (...)
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  20.  3
    Jean-Marc Coicaud (2015). A Brief Case Study of Germany and Japan: Emotions and Passions in the Making of World War II. Japanese Journal of Political Science 16 (3):227-247.
    Competing interests among big powers played a role in the making of World War II. But, and not separated from this, another element had a serious impact: the sense of psychological insecurity experienced, each in its own way, by Germany and Japan in the context of their quest for recognition by other major powers and the implications this had internationally. In connection with their material conditions compared to other great powers, this pushed Germany and Japan to embrace policies that (...)
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  21.  18
    P. C. Wever & L. van Bergen (2012). Prevention of Tetanus During the First World War. Medical Humanities 38 (2):78-82.
    The emergence of tetanus in wounded soldiers during the first months of the First World War (WWI) resulted from combat on richly manured fields in Belgium and Northern France, the use of modern explosives that produced deep tissue wounds and the intimate contact between the soldier and the soil upon which he fought. In response, routine prophylactic injections with anti-tetanus serum were given to wounded soldiers removed from the firing line. Subsequently, a steep fall in the incidence of tetanus (...)
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  22.  5
    Morris Fraser Low (1990). Japan's Secret War? ‘Instant’ Scientific Manpower and Japan's World War II Atomic Bomb Project. Annals of Science 47 (4):347-360.
    This paper questions claims that the Japanese may have succeeded in testing an atomic weapon shortly before the end of World War II. Historical and empirical evidence is examined which suggests that the lack of scientific expertise in nuclear physics hampered the development of an atomic bomb, the most qualified scientists generally being unwilling to become actively involved in the Japanese project. The paper looks at the wartime mobilization of Japanese scientists; outlines the Japanese atomic bomb project; examines claims (...)
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  23.  3
    Joel Hagen (2015). Camels, Cormorants, and Kangaroo Rats: Integration and Synthesis in Organismal Biology After World War II. Journal of the History of Biology 48 (2):169-199.
    During the decades following World War II diverse groups of American biologists established a variety of distinctive approaches to organismal biology. Rhetorically, organismal biology could be used defensively to distinguish established research traditions from perceived threats from newly emerging fields such as molecular biology. But, organismal biologists were also interested in integrating biological disciplines and using a focus on organisms to synthesize levels of organization from molecules and cells to populations and communities. Part of this broad movement was the (...)
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  24.  11
    Teri Chettiar (2012). Democratizing Mental Health Motherhood, Therapeutic Community and the Emergence of the Psychiatric Family at the Cassel Hospital in Post-Second World War Britain. History of the Human Sciences 25 (5):107-122.
    Shortly following the Second World War, and under the medical direction of ex-army psychiatrist T. F. Main, the Cassel Hospital for Functional Nervous Disorders emerged as a pioneering democratic ‘therapeutic community’ in the treatment of mental illness. This definitive movement away from conventional ‘custodial’ assumptions about the function of the psychiatric hospital initially grew out of a commitment to sharing therapeutic responsibility between patients and staff and to preserving patients’ pre-admission responsibilities and social identities. However, by the mid-1950s, hospital (...)
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  25.  11
    B. A. Chagin (1964). The Role of the Subjective Factor in the Prevention of World War. Russian Studies in Philosophy 3 (3):3-8.
    In our time, a time of fundamental societal changes associated with the development of the world socialist system, which conditions the progressive course of mankind's social development, the problem of the prevention of war has come to be of immense importance. This problem has not only the greatest practical significance, but also a theoretical, philosophical aspect. The philosophical aspect of this problem is reflected, in the first place, in the fact that some hold the view that a new (...) war is predestined by history, and represents a fatal inevitability, so that struggle against it is "Utopian." This view denies the possibility of peaceful coexistence among the given countries differing in societal and political systems. Such a position is in irreconcilable contradiction with the teachings of Marxism-Leninism, which stand opposed to the bourgeois conceptions of Karl Jaspers, W. Schmidt, Raymond Aron, G. Wetter, and many others who employ pseudoscientific argumentation to propagate the idea that such peaceful coexistence is impossible. (shrink)
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  26.  6
    Claudia Wiesner & Anna Björk (2014). Introduction: Citizenship in Europe After World War II—the Challenges of Migration and European Integration. Contributions to the History of Concepts 9 (1):50-59.
    The concept of citizenship in Europe after World War II faces two major challenges: migration and European integration. This introduction precedes a group of articles examining debates and law-making processes related to the concept of citizenship in Europe after World War II. The introduction sketches the historical development of citizenship in European representative democracies, taking into account four basic dimensions for analyzing changes in the concept of citizenship.
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  27.  10
    Julia Resnik (2007). The Democratisation of the Education System in France After the Second World War: A Neo-Weberian Glocal Approach to Education Reforms. British Journal of Educational Studies 55 (2):155 - 181.
    The structural reforms of the education system in France (1959, 1963, and 1975) were part both of a global process of democratisation of education launched after the Second World War and of a larger modernisation project in which knowledge producers (experts, scholars and consultants) played a crucial role. Instead of a national approach or a world system approach to education reforms I propose a neo-Weberian glocal perspective that focuses on knowledge producers as a status group, education discourse structuration (...)
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  28.  7
    Maurice A. Finocchiaro (2005). Gramsci, the First World War, and the Problem of Politics Vs Religion Vs Economics in War. Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 8 (4):407-419.
    Abstract This essay examines Gramsci?s writings about the First World War, primarily his immediate reflections in 1914?1918, but also relevant prison notes (1926?1937). The most striking feature of his attitude during the war years is ?Germanophilia?, a label I adapt from Croce, whose writings on the Great War also exhibited this attitude. A key common motivation was that political conflicts should not be turned into religious ones in which one portrays the enemy as an evil to be annihilated. But (...)
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  29.  6
    Nils Roll-Hansen (1980). Eugenics Before World War II: The Case of Norway. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 2 (2):269 - 298.
    During the first half of the twentieth century there was a marked decline in biological conceptions of man and society. This paper describes the development of the views concerning eugenics held by the Norwegian scientific expertise, from open racism before World War I to a moderate nonracist eugenic program in the 1930's. It is claimed that public criticism of the popular eugenics movement by the experts came earlier in Norway than in most other countries, including the United States. The (...)
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  30.  6
    Ian Burney (2012). War on Fear Solly Zuckerman and Civilian Nerve in the Second World War. History of the Human Sciences 25 (5):49-72.
    This article examines the processes through which civilian fear was turned into a practicable investigative object in the inter-war period and the opening stages of the Second World War, and how it was invested with significance at the level of science and of public policy. Its focus is on a single historical actor, Solly Zuckerman, and on his early war work for the Ministry of Home Security-funded Extra Mural Unit based in Oxford’s Department of Anatomy (OEMU). It examines the (...)
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  31.  8
    Marietta Meier (2009). “Adjusting” People: Conceptions of the Self in Psychosurgery After World War II. [REVIEW] Medicine Studies 1 (4):353-366.
    Between 1935 and 1970, tens of thousands of people worldwide underwent brain operations due to psychiatric indication that were intended to positively influence their mental state and behaviour. The majority of these psychosurgical procedures were prefrontal lobotomies. Developed in 1935, the procedure initially met with fierce opposition, but was introduced in numerous countries in the following decade, and was employed up until the late 1960s. This article investigates why psychosurgery was widely accepted after World War II. It examines the (...)
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  32.  4
    Krisztina Robert (2013). 2. Constructions of “Home,”“Front,” and Women's Military Employment in First‐World‐War Britain: A Spatial Interpretation. History and Theory 52 (3):319-343.
    In First-World-War Britain, women's ambition to perform noncombatant duties for the military faced considerable public opposition. Nevertheless, by late 1916 up to 10,000 members of the female volunteer corps were working for the army, laying the foundation for some 90,000 auxiliaries of the official Women's Services, who filled support positions in the armed forces in the second half of the war. This essay focuses on the public debate in which the volunteers overcame their critics to understand how they obtained (...)
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  33.  10
    Ann-Louise Shapiro (1997). Fixing History: Narratives of World War I in France. History and Theory 36 (4):111–130.
    For nearly a century, the French have entertained an unshakable conviction that their ability to recognize themselves-to know and transmit the essence of Frenchness-depended on the teaching of the history of France. In effect, history was a discourse on France, and the teaching of history-"la pédagogie centrale du citoyen"-the means by which children were constituted as heirs and carriers of a common collective memory that made them not only citizens, but family. In this essay, I examine the rhetorical and conceptual (...)
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  34.  3
    Gabriel Viorel Gardan & Marius Eppel (2012). The Romanian Emigration to the United States Until the First World War. Revisiting Opportunities and Vulnerabilities. Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies 11 (32):256-287.
    The European emigration on the other side of the Atlantic was a complex phenomenon. The areas inhabited by Romanians got acquainted to this phenomenon towards the end of the nineteenth century and the beginning of the twentieth. Therefore, starting with the year 1895, a certain mixture of causes led to a massive migration to America, especially of the Romanians from the rural areas. The purpose of our study is to explore the causes of the Romanian emigration across the ocean up (...)
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  35.  3
    Lydia N. Yu Jose (2012). Boundary Fluidity and Ideology: A Comparison of Japan's Pre-World War II and Present Regionalisms. Japanese Journal of Political Science 13 (1):105-129.
    There is a question that has not been raised in the literature on Japan's regionalism: Why does it have a strong tendency toward making the boundary of the proposed East Asian community fluid? By looking back beyond the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere of the 1940s, a method hitherto untried, the paper shows that this Japanese propensity was also present in the first half of the twentieth century, especially in the 1920s and 1930s. Moreover, both then and now, Japan did (...)
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  36.  1
    Norriss S. Hetherington (1991). Air Power and Governmental Support for Scientific Research: The Approach to the Second World War. [REVIEW] Minerva 29 (4):420-439.
    The development of radar, jet propulsion, ballistic missiles and the atomic bomb during the Second World War established and made visible to an unprecedented degree governmentally supported and directed research and development. National survival was now seen to depend on the mobilisation of a country's talents and resources in science and technology for military purposes.Prior to the Second World War, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics had established its own role in research. It also established the legitimacy of (...)
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  37.  1
    Jeffrey Herf (2006). Narratives of Totalitarianism: Nazism's Anti-Semitic Propaganda During World War II and the Holocaust. Telos: Critical Theory of the Contemporary 2006 (135):32-60.
    In recent decades, historians have probed the kinds of narratives that they tell in constructing the past. In the process, we have devoted too little attention to the ways that historical actors themselves translate beliefs and ideologies into narratives of events, which themselves become causal factors of great importance. In this essay, and the longer work from which it is drawn, I examine this translation as it emerged in Nazi Germany's anti-Semitic propaganda campaigns during World War II and the (...)
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  38.  1
    Katrina Witt (2010). Ukrainian Memory and Victimhood Narratives After the Second World War. Constellations 1 (2).
    Memory can be selective and Ukrainian people are no exception. This paper examines the victimhood narrative of Ukrainians following the Second World War. Although they suffered greatly, through the war, the victimhood narrative denies their actions during the war. One component of this narrative involves ignoring Ukrainian involvement with Nazis in order to preserve their memory of their Great Heroes of WWII. Other aspects will also be considered.
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  39. Agnès Cardinal, Dorothy Goldman & Judith Hattaway (eds.) (2002). Women's Writing on the First World War. Oxford University Press Uk.
    'ground-breaking anthology... wide array of perspectives on WW1, from both sides of the fighting' -B. Adler, Choice 'a very fine anthology' -Times Literary SupplementThe First World War inspired a huge outpouring of writing that, until recently, was thought to be almost the exclusive preserve of men. Yet the war also acted as a catalyst which enabled women writers to find a literary and political voice. This anthology bears witness to the great variety and scope of women's writing about the (...)
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  40. W. Dray (1978). Concepts of Causation in A. J. P. Taylor's Account of the Origins of the Second World War. History and Theory 17 (2):149-174.
    A. J. P. Taylor's book, The Origins of the Second World War, has generated substantial criticism from historians. However, Taylor and his critics agree on many aspects of causality. At least four models of the cause versus condition, argument can be discerned in the work of both Taylor and his critics. The first is the "traditional" theory that the war was caused by a single man, Adolf Hitler. A second issue concerns what it means to say that Hitler "intended" (...)
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  41.  6
    Jean Lindenmann (2002). Typhus Vaccine Developments From the First to the Second World War (On Paul Weindling's 'Between Bacteriology and Virology...'). History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 24 (3/4):467 - 485.
    After the louse transmission of epidemic typhus had been established (1909), a small microorganism (thought to belong to a new genus, Rickettsia) was shown in enormous numbers in the guts of lice that had fed on human typhus victims. Attempts at cultivating this organism on inert media failed; tansfer from louse to louse without loss of virulence for the vertebrate host was successful. Some scientists were not convinced of the etiologic role of Rickettsiae, because the presence of this microbe in (...)
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  42. Leisa D. Meyer (1992). Creating G.I. Jane: The Regulation of Sexuality and Sexual Behavior in the Women's Army Corps During World War II. Feminist Studies 18 (3):581.
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  43.  2
    Howard Brody, Sarah Leonard, Jing-bao Nie & Paul Weindling (2014). U.S. Responses To Japanese Wartime Inhuman Experimentation After World War Ii: National Security and Wartime Exigency. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 23 (2):220-230.
    In 1945–46, representatives of the U.S. government made similar discoveries in both Germany and Japan, unearthing evidence of unethical experiments on human beings that could be viewed as war crimes. The outcomes in the two defeated nations, however, were strikingly different. In Germany, the United States, influenced by the Canadian physician John Thompson, played a key role in bringing Nazi physicians to trial and publicizing their misdeeds. In Japan, the United States played an equally key role in concealing information about (...)
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  44. Rey Chow (2006). The Age of the World Target: Self-Referentiality in War, Theory, and Comparative Work. Duke University Press Books.
    Martin Heidegger once wrote that the world had, in the age of modern science, become a world picture. For Rey Chow, the world has, in the age of atomic bombs, become a world target, to be attacked once it is identified, or so global geopolitics, dominated by the United States since the end of the Second World War, seems repeatedly to confirm. How to articulate the problematics of knowledge production with this aggressive targeting of the (...)
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  45.  8
    Carrie Giunta, White Feather or Bowler Hat? Charlie Chaplin and the First World War. No Glory in War.
  46.  3
    A. R. L. Gurland (2008). Social Power and the Fetishization of Jews: American Labor Antisemitism During the Second World War. Telos: Critical Theory of the Contemporary 2008 (144):149-171.
    A considerable number of workers interviewed have stated their belief that Jews have too much power. The notion of power in this context has a wide range. It covers the most diversified phenomena—from holding minor positions in administration or business to dominating everything and wielding unchecked power over the world. The idea of Jewish power as it fascinates our interviewees is vague and hazy. To establish its real contents, it seems advisable to discuss these statements first that refer to (...)
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  47.  2
    Michele Valerie Ronnick (2013). Classical Spies: American Archaeologists with the OSS in World War II Greece by Susan Heuck Allen (Review). Classical World: A Quarterly Journal on Antiquity 106 (3):534-535.
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  48. William H. F. Altman (2012). Martin Heidegger and the First World War: Being and Time as Funeral Oration. Lexington Books.
    In a new approach to a vexing problem in modern philosophy, William H. F. Altman shows that Heidegger’s decision to join the Nazis in 1933 can only be understood in the context of his complicated relationship with the Great War.
     
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  49. William H. F. Altman (2015). Martin Heidegger and the First World War: Being and Time as Funeral Oration. Lexington Books.
    In a new approach to a vexing problem in modern philosophy, William H. F. Altman shows that Heidegger’s decision to join the Nazis in 1933 can only be understood in the context of his complicated relationship with the Great War.
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  50. Alan Kramer (2010). Prisoners in The First World War. In Sibylle Scheipers (ed.), Prisoners in War. OUP Oxford
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