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Xiang Chen [33]Xunwu Chen [23]Xianda Chen [10]X. Chen [8]
Xingliang Chen [7]Xiaoping Chen [5]Xin Chen [5]Xiaoyu Chen [3]

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See also:
Profile: Xiaoxu Chen (Cambridge University)
Profile: Xiaoxu Chen (Shandong University)
Profile: Xinyu Chen
Profile: Xiaoqing Chen (University of Aberdeen)
Profile: Xiaoqing Chen (University of Aberdeen)
Profile: Xinliu Chen (Columbia University)
Profile: Xiaosheng Chen (Swansea University)
Profile: Xi Chen (Northwestern University)
Profile: Xuan Chen (University of Copenhagen)
Profile: Xisi Sofia Ye Chen (King's College London)
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  1.  10
    Xunwu Chen (2016). The Problem of Mind in Confucianism. Asian Philosophy 26 (2):166-181.
    ABSTRACTThis essay explores the Confucian theory of mind. Doing so, it first examines the early Confucian concept of the human mind as a substance that has both moral and cognitive functions and a universal nature. It then explores the neo-Confucian concept of the human mind, the original mind, and the relationships between the human mind and human nature, as well as between the human mind and the human body. Finally, it explores the Confucian concept of cultivation of the mind.
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  2.  21
    X. Chen & R. Fan (2010). The Family and Harmonious Medical Decision Making: Cherishing an Appropriate Confucian Moral Balance. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 35 (5):573-586.
    This essay illustrates what the Chinese family-based and harmony-oriented model of medical decision making is like as well as how it differs from the modern Western individual-based and autonomy-oriented model in health care practice. The essay discloses the roots of the Chinese model in the Confucian account of the family and the Confucian view of harmony. By responding to a series of questions posed to the Chinese model by modern Western scholars in terms of the basic individualist concerns and values (...)
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  3.  21
    Peter Barker, Xiang Chen & Hanne Andersen (2003). Kuhn on Concepts and Categorization. In Thomas Nickles (ed.), Thomas Kuhn. Cambridge University Press 212--245.
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  4. Hanne Andersen, Peter Barker & Xiang Chen (1996). Kuhn's Mature Philosophy of Science and Cognitive Psychology. Philosophical Psychology 9 (3):347 – 363.
    Drawing on the results of modem psychology and cognitive science we suggest that the traditional theory of concepts is no longer tenable, and that the alternative account proposed by Kuhn may now be seen to have independent empirical support quite apart from its success as part of an account of scientific change. We suggest that these mechanisms can also be understood as special cases of general cognitive structures revealed by cognitive science. Against this background, incommensurability is not an insurmountable obstacle (...)
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  5.  66
    H. Andersen, P. Barker & X. Chen (1998). Kuhn's Theory of Scientific Revolutions and Cognitive Psychology. Philosophical Psychology 11 (1):5-28.
    In a previous article we have shown that Kuhn's theory of concepts is independently supported by recent research in cognitive psychology. In this paper we propose a cognitive re?reading of Kuhn's cyclical model of scientific revolutions: all of the important features of the model may now be seen as consequences of a more fundamental account of the nature of concepts and their dynamics. We begin by examining incommensurability, the central theme of Kuhn's theory of scientific revolutions, according to two different (...)
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  6. Xiang Chen & Peter Barker (2000). Continuity Through Revolutions: A Frame-Based Account of Conceptual Change During Scientific Revolutions. Philosophy of Science 67 (3):223.
    In this paper we examine the pattern of conceptual change during scientific revolutions by using methods from cognitive psychology. We show that the changes characteristic of scientific revolutions, especially taxonomic changes, can occur in a continuous manner. Using the frame model of concept representation to capture structural relations within concepts and the direct links between concept and taxonomy, we develop an account of conceptual change in science that more adequately reflects the current understanding that episodes like the Copernican revolution are (...)
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  7. Xiang Chen (1997). Thomas Kuhn's Latest Notion of Incommensurability. Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 28 (2):257-273.
    To correct the misconception that incommensurability implies incomparability, Kuhn lately develops a new interpretation of incommensurability. This includes a linguistic theory of scientific revolutions (the theory of kinds), a cognitive exploration of the language learning process (the analogy of bilingualism), and an epistemological discussion on the rationality of scientific development (the evolutionary epistemology). My focus in this paper is to review Kuhn's effort in eliminating relativism, highlighting both the insights and the difficulties of his new version of incommensurability . Finally (...)
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  8.  10
    Susan E. Brennan, Xin Chen, Christopher A. Dickinson, Mark B. Neider & Gregory J. Zelinsky (2008). Coordinating Cognition: The Costs and Benefits of Shared Gaze During Collaborative Search. Cognition 106 (3):1465-1477.
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  9. Xiang Chen, Hanne Andersen & Peter Barker (1998). Kuhn's Theory of Scientific Revolutions and Cognitive Psychology. Philosophical Psychology 11 (1):5 – 28.
    In a previous article we have shown that Kuhn's theory of concepts is independently supported by recent research in cognitive psychology. In this paper we propose a cognitive re-reading of Kuhn's cyclical model of scientific revolutions: all of the important features of the model may now be seen as consequences of a more fundamental account of the nature of concepts and their dynamics. We begin by examining incommensurability, the central theme of Kuhn's theory of scientific revolutions, according to two different (...)
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  10.  5
    X. Chen (2003). Why Did John Herschel Fail to Understand Polarization? The Differences Between Object and Event Concepts. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 34 (3):491-513.
    This paper offers a solution to a problem in Herschel studies by drawing on the dynamic frame model for concept representation offered by cognitive psychology. Applying the frame model to represent the conceptual frameworks of the particle and wave theories, this paper shows that discontinuity between the particle and wave frameworks consists mainly in the transition from a particle notion 'side' to a wave notion 'phase difference'. By illustrating intraconceptual relations within concepts, the frame representations reveal the ontological differences between (...)
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  11.  28
    Xiang Chen (2007). The Object Bias and the Study of Scientific Revolutions: Lessons From Developmental Psychology. Philosophical Psychology 20 (4):479 – 503.
    I propose a new perspective on the study of scientific revolutions. This is a transformation from an object-only perspective to an ontological perspective that properly treats objects and processes as distinct kinds. I begin my analysis by identifying an object bias in the study of scientific revolutions, where it takes the form of representing scientific revolutions as changes in classification of physical objects. I further explore the origins of this object bias. Findings from developmental psychology indicate that children cannot distinguish (...)
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  12.  10
    Xiang Chen (2010). A Different Kind of Revolutionary Change: Transformation From Object to Process Concepts. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 41 (2):182-191.
    I propose a new perspective with which to understand scientific revolutions. This is a conversion from an object-only perspective to one that properly treats object and process concepts as distinct kinds. I begin with a re-examination of the Copernican revolution. Recent findings from the history of astronomy suggest that the Copernican revolution was a move from a conceptual framework built around an object concept to one built around a process concept. Drawing from studies in the cognitive sciences, I then show (...)
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  13.  13
    Xiang Chen (1994). The Rule of Reproducibility and its Applications in Experiment Appraisal. Synthese 99 (1):87 - 109.
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  14.  69
    Xiang Chen (2002). The 'Platforms' for Comparing Incommensurable Taxonomies: A Cognitive-Historical Analysis. [REVIEW] Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 33 (1):1-22.
    This paper examines taxonomy comparison from a cognitive perspective. Arguments are developed by drawing on the results of cognitive psychology, which reveal the cognitive mechanisms behind the practice of taxonomy comparison. The taxonomic change in 19th-century ornithology is also used to uncover the historical practice that ornithologists employed in the revision of the classification of birds. On the basis of cognitive and historical analyses, I argue that incommensurable taxonomies can be compared rationally. Using a frame model to represent taxonomy, I (...)
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  15.  8
    R. Fan, X. Chen & Y. Cao (2012). Family-Oriented Health Savings Accounts: Facing the Challenges of Health Care Allocation. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 37 (6):507-512.
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  16.  49
    Xiang Chen (2005). Transforming Temporal Knowledge: Conceptual Change Between Event Concepts. Perspectives on Science 13 (1):49-73.
    : This paper offers a preliminary analysis of conceptual change between event concepts. It begins with a brief review of the major findings of cognitive studies on event knowledge. The script model proposed by Schank and Abelson was the first attempt to represent event knowledge. Subsequent cognitive studies indicated that event knowledge is organized in the form of dimensional organizations in which temporally successive actions are related causally. This paper proposes a frame representation to capture and outline the internal structure (...)
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  17.  9
    Xunwu Chen (2012). Cultivating Oneself After the Images of Sages: Another Version of Ethical Personalism. Asian Philosophy 22 (1):51-62.
    Countering the general reading of Confucian ethics as a form of virtue ethics or humanistic ethics, this essay reads Confucian ethics as a form of ethical personalism. Doing so, it examines the ethical orientations in the Confucian classics, The Analects, Da Xue, and others, pointing out that the touchstone concept of Confucian ethics taught in these classics is the person, recalling the Confucian motto of ethical cultivation, ?inner sagehood and outer kinghood?. It demonstrates that only the name of personalism describes (...)
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  18.  21
    Xiang Chen (2003). Object and Event Concepts: A Cognitive Mechanism of Incommensurability. Philosophy of Science 70 (5):962-974.
    In this paper I examine a cognitive mechanism of incommensurability. Using the frame model of concept representation to capture structural relations within concepts, I reveal an ontological difference between object and event concepts: the former are spatial but the latter temporal. Experiments from cognitive sciences further demonstrate that the mind treats object and event concepts differently. Thus, incommensurability can occur in conceptual change across different ontological categories. I use a historical case to illustrate how the ontological difference between an object (...)
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  19.  17
    Y. Cao, X. Chen & R. Fan (2011). Toward a Confucian Family-Oriented Health Care System for the Future of China. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 36 (5):452-465.
    Recently implemented Chinese health insurance schemes have failed to achieve a Chinese health care system that is family-oriented, family-based, family-friendly, or even financially sustainable. With this diagnosis in hand, the authors argue that a financially and morally sustainable Chinese health care system should have as its core family health savings accounts supplemented by appropriate health insurance plans. This essay’s arguments are set in the context of Confucian moral commitments that still shape the background culture of contemporary China.
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  20.  1
    Xiang Chen (1995). Taxonomic Changes and the Particle-Wave Debate in Early Nineteenth-Century Britain. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 26 (2):251-271.
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  21.  43
    Xiang Chen (2003). Object and Event Concepts: A Cognitive Mechanism of Incommensurability. Philosophy of Science 70 (5):962-974.
    In this paper I examine a cognitive mechanism of incommensurability. Using the frame model of concept representation to capture structural relations within concepts, I reveal an ontological difference between object and event concepts: the former are spatial but the latter temporal. Experiments from cognitive sciences further demonstrate that the mind treats object and event concepts differently. Thus, incommensurability can occur in conceptual change across different ontological categories. I use a historical case to illustrate how the ontological difference between an object (...)
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  22.  60
    Xiaoping Chen (2011). Various Concepts of “Supervenience” and Their Relations: A Comment on Kim's Theory of Supervenience. Frontiers of Philosophy in China 6 (2):316-333.
    Supervenience was first used by Donald Davidson to describe the dependent and independent relationships between the mental and the physical. Jaegwon Kim presented a more precise definition, distinguishing between three types of supervenience: weak, strong and global. Kim further proved that strong and global supervenience are equivalent. However, three years later, Kim argued that strong supervenience is stronger than global supervenience, while weak supervenience and global supervenience are independent of each other. This paper demonstrates that Kim’s conclusion that weak supervenience (...)
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  23.  24
    Xunwu Chen (forthcoming). A Confucian Reflection on Experimenting with Human Subjects. Confucian Bioethics.
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  24.  6
    Xunwu Chen (2015). The Value of Authenticity: Another Dimension of Confucian Ethics. Asian Philosophy 25 (2):172-187.
    This paper explores the Confucian value of authenticity. Taking as the starting point of the Confucian concept of becoming authentic persons of bo, da, jing, and shen, the paper first demonstrates that a high–far–firm zhixiang, creativity, an examined life, and sincerity are four necessary conditions for a self to be an authentic one of bo, da, jing, and shen. It then demonstrates that Confucian ethics operates with a metaphysical concept of a substantive self and Confucian self-cultivation implies authenticating such a (...)
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  25.  61
    Xiaoping Chen (2010). How Does Downward Causation Exist?—A Comment on Kim's Elimination of Downward Causation. Frontiers of Philosophy in China 5 (4):652-665.
    The importance of downward causation lies in showing that it shows that functional properties such as mental properties are real, although they cannot be reduced to physical properties. Kim rejects nonreductive physicalism, which includes leading functionalism, by eliminating downward causation, and thereby returns to reductionism. In this paper, I make a distinction between two aspects of function—functional meaning and functional structure and argue that functional meaning cannot be reduced to the physical level whereas functional structure can. On this basis, I (...)
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  26.  16
    Xiao-Yang Chen (2007). Defensive Medicine or Economically Motivated Corruption? A Confucian Reflection on Physician Care in China Today. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 32 (6):635 – 648.
    In contemporary China, physicians tend to require more diagnostic work-ups and prescribe more expensive medications than are clearly medically indicated. These practices have been interpreted as defensive medicine in response to a rising threat of potential medical malpractice lawsuits. After outlining recent changes in Chinese malpractice law, this essay contends that the overuse of expensive diagnostic and therapeutic interventions cannot be attributed to malpractice concerns alone. These practice patterns are due as well, if not primarily, to the corruption of medical (...)
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  27. Xiang Chen (1994). Why Do Scientists Have Disagreements About Experiment?: Incommensurability in the Use of Goal-Derived Categories. Perspectives on Science 2:275-301.
     
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  28.  9
    Xunwu Chen (2007). Introduction: The Long Road to Global Justice, Peace, and Humanity. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 34 (3):323–330.
  29.  5
    Xiang Chen (1994). Experimental Skills and Experiment Appraisal. In Peter Achinstein & Laura J. Snyder (eds.), Scientific Methods: Conceptual and Historical Problems. Krieger Pub. Co. 45--66.
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  30.  55
    Xiaoping Chen (2006). Bayesian Test and Kuhn's Paradigm. Frontiers of Philosophy in China 1 (3):491-505.
    Kuhn's theory of paradigm reveals a pattern of scientific progress, in which normal science alternates with scientific revolution. But Kuhn underrated too much the function of scientific test in his pattern, because he focuses all his attention on the hypothetico-deductive schema instead of Bayesian schema. This paper employs Bayesian schema to re-examine Kuhn's theory of paradigm, to uncover its logical and rational components, and to illustrate the tensional structure of logic and belief, rationality and irrationality, in the process of scientific (...)
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  31.  3
    Xiao-Yang Chen (2006). Clinical Bioethics in China: The Challenge of Entering a Market Economy. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 31 (1):7 – 12.
    Over the last quarter-century, China has experienced dramatic changes associated with its development of a market economy. The character of clinical practice is also profoundly influenced by the ways in which reimbursement scales are established in public hospitals. The market distortions that lead to the over-prescription of drugs and the medically unindicated use of more expensive drugs and more costly high-technology diagnostic and therapeutic interventions create the most significant threat to patients. The payment of red packets represents a black-market attempt (...)
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  32.  6
    Xiang Chen & Peter Barker (1992). Cognitive Appraisal and Power: David Brewster, Henry Brougham, and the Tactics of the Emission—Undulatory Controversy During the Early 1850s. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 23 (1):75-101.
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  33.  31
    Xunwu Chen (2011). Crisis and Possibility: The Ethical Implication of Contingency. Asian Philosophy 21 (3):257 - 268.
    This essay argues that a person's fate is defined by the interaction of necessity and contingency, indicating that a person's existential competence consists of his or her ability to dance well with both necessity and contingency, not merely with either of them. As a result, it rejects the traditional association of fate with fatalism and fatality on the one hand and resists the present current to define individual fate and identity merely in terms of contingency and as contingency on the (...)
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  34.  16
    Xunwu Chen (2013). Happiness and Authenticity. Journal of Philosophical Research 38:261-274.
    Engaging in present debates on happiness, this essay shows that a good, happy life and an authentic life entail one another. Doing so, the essay first explores the Confucian approach to the relationships between happiness and authenticity, and between authenticity and value. It then presents the Heideggeran approach. Therefore, it demonstrates how authenticity, happiness, and value are inseparable in a person’s being; the so called fact-value dichotomy, even if it is applicable to non-human beings, has no magic touch in human (...)
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  35.  37
    Xiang Chen (2001). Perceptual Symbols and Taxonomy Comparison. Philosophy of Science 3 (September):S200-S212.
    Many recent cognitive studies reveal that human cognition is inherently perceptual, sharing systems with perception at both the conceptual and the neural levels. This paper introduces Barsalou's theory of perceptual symbols and explores its implications for philosophy of science. If perceptual symbols lie in the heart of conceptual processing, the process of attribute selection during concept representation, which is critical for defining similarity and thus for comparing taxonomies, can no longer be determined solely by background beliefs. The analogous nature of (...)
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  36.  9
    Xunwu Chen (1998). A Rethinking of Confucian Rationality. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 25 (4):483-504.
  37.  9
    Xunwu Chen (1997). Justice as a Constellation of Fairness, Harmony and Righteousness. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 24 (4):497-519.
  38.  12
    Xiang Chen (1990). Local Incommensurability and Communicability. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1990:67 - 76.
    Kuhn regards local incommensurability as an unavoidable result of changes in worldview, but his account fails to explain both historical cases in which rivals with different paradigms obtained consensus, and psychological experiments in which people with different cultural backgrounds accurately presented other points of view. Although the conditions required to generate local incommensurability were present in the dispute between Brewster and Herschel on light absorption, they succeeded in communicating. Ultimately Brewster understood his opponent's position, in the same way that subjects (...)
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  39.  4
    Xunwu Chen (2000). A Hermeneutical Reading of Confucianism. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 27 (1):101-115.
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  40.  23
    Xiang Chen (1988). Reconstruction of the Optical Revolution: Lakatos Vs. Laudan. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1988:103 - 109.
    According to Lakatos's theory of scientific change, the victory of the wave theory in the nineteenth-century optical revolution was due to its empirical successes. However, historical facts do not support this opinion. Based on Laudan's theory of scientific change, this paper presents a different orientation to reconstruct the optical revolution. By comparing the conceptual problems that both optical theories had, this paper argues that it was the inferior status of the corpuscular theory in dealing with conceptual problems that constituted the (...)
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  41.  3
    Y. Du, X. Chen, X. Wei, K. R. Bales, D. T. Berg, S. M. Paul, M. R. Farlow, B. Maloney, Y. W. Ge & D. K. Lahiri (2005). NF-B Mediates Amyloid Beta Peptide-Stimulated Activity of the Human Apolipoprotein E Gene Promoter in Human Astroglial Cells. Brain Res Mol Brain Res 136:177-88.
    The apolipoprotein E gene plays an important role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease , and amyloid plaque comprised mostly of the amyloid-beta peptide ) is one of the major hallmarks of AD. However, the relationship between these two important molecules is poorly understood. We examined how A treatment affects APOE expression in cultured cells and tested the role of the transcription factor NF-B in APOE gene regulation. To delineate NF-B's role, we have characterized a 1098 nucleotide segment containing the (...)
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  42.  23
    Xunwu Chen (2009). Justice: The Neglected Argument and the Pregnant Vision. Asian Philosophy 19 (2):189 – 198.
    Countering the present trend in the discourse on justice wherein human reason is perceived and marginalized as an embarrassment to justice and the trend to reject the concept of formal justice, this paper argues that there is formal justice and the essence of justice is setting things right and setting righteousness to stand straight. By this token, justice means the rule of reason, not the rule of power and desire, and the ethics of justice differs fundamentally from the ethics of (...)
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  43.  23
    Xunwu Chen (2010). Fate and Humanity. Asian Philosophy 20 (1):67 – 77.
    This essay examines the concept of fate, exploring the causal-normative constraint problem in the existential phenomenology of humanity in _A Dream of Red Mansions_. It studies the structure, content, and origin of the consciousness and experience of fate, as it is illustrated in the phenomenology in the novel, exploring the causal and normative challenges that fate poses to the reality, value, authenticity, happiness, and freedom of a person. Doing so, the essay also demonstrates both the difference and affinity between the (...)
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  44.  12
    Xiang Chen (2000). To See or Not to See: The Uses of Photometers and Measurements of Reflective Power. Perspectives on Science 8 (1):1-28.
    : Armed with a photometer originally designed for evaluating telescopes, Richard Potter in the early 1830s measured the re(integral)ective power of metallic and glass mirrors. Because he found significant discrepancies between his measurements and Fresnel's predictions, Potter developed doubts concerning the wave theory. However, Potter's measurements were colored by a peculiar procedure. In order to protect the sensitivity of the eye, Potter made certain approximations in the measuring process, which exaggerated the discrepancies between the theory and the data. Potter's measurements (...)
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  45.  1
    Xiang Chen (1990). Young and Lloyd on the Particle Theory of Light: A Response to Achinstein. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 21 (4):665-676.
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  46.  10
    Xunwu Chen (2013). Law, Humanity, and Reason: The Chinese Debate, the Habermasian Approach, and a Kantian Outcome. Asian Philosophy 23 (1):100-114.
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  47.  2
    Xiaomei Chen (1992). Occidentalism as Counterdiscourse: "He Shang" in Post-Mao China. Critical Inquiry 18 (4):686-712.
    In the years since its introduction, Edward Said’s celebrated study Orientalism has acquired a near-paradigmatic status as a model of the relationships between Western and non-Western cultures. Said seeks to show how Western imperialist images of its colonial others—images that, of course, are inevitably and sharply at odds with the self-understanding of the indigenous non-Western cultures they purport to represent—not only govern the West’s hegemonic policies, but were imported into the West’s political and cultural colonies where they affected native points (...)
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  48.  4
    Xin Chen (2013). Zhang, Tao 張濤, Confucius in the United States: The Image of Confucius in U.S. Newspapers Since 1849 孔子在美國 : 1849 年以來孔子在美國報紙上的形象變遷. [REVIEW] Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 12 (4):567-570.
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  49.  5
    Xiang Chen & Bernard R. Goldstein (2005). Tools: Cultures of Organic Chemistry in the Nineteenth Century (2003), and Edi-Tor of Tools and Modes of Representation in the Laboratory Sciences (2001). Her Recent Research is on the History of Experimentation and Technoscience in the Eighteenth-and Early Nineteenth Centuries. [REVIEW] Perspectives on Science 13 (1).
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  50.  9
    Xin Chen (2012). Huang, Yushun 黃玉順, Confucianism and Contemporary Life: Collected Essays on “Life Confucianism” 儒家思想與當代生活—“生活儒學” 論集. Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 11 (3):393-397.
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