This book is the result of the first SEEP (Studies in Economic Ethics and Philosophy) conference that was held in Asia. First, the Western tradition is reinterpreted and restated by the two editors with their diversified perspective of virtue ethics and communicative ethics. Then, new approaches such as "critical realism", "reciprocal delivery", "evolutionary thought" and "cultural studies" are applied to understand ethical problems in economics. Further, in contrast to the reassessment of Scottish moral philosophy and German Romanticism, Chinese, Japanese, and (...) Korean ethical thinking is examined under the modern perspective. This book does not miss the reflections on current problems around the penetration of corruption and the primacy of shareholders' value in the field of business. (shrink)
Gerd Gigerenzer's views on probabilistic reasoning in humans have come under close scrutiny. Very little attention, however, has been paid to his evolutionary component of his argument. According to Gigerenzer, reasoning about probabilities as frequencies is so common today because it was favored by natural selection in the past. This paper presents a critical examination of this argument. It will show first, that, _pace_ Gigerenzer, there are some reasons to believe that using the frequency format was not more adaptive than (...) using the standard (percentage) format and, second, that Gigerenzer's evolutionary argument and his other arguments such as his historical description of the notion of probability are in tension with each other. (shrink)
The main part of the proof of Kripke's completeness theorem for intuitionistic logic is Henkin's construction. We introduce a new Kripke-type semantics with semilattice structures for intuitionistic logic. The completeness theorem for this semantics can he proved without Henkin's construction.
A reduction rule is introduced as a transformation of proof figures in implicational classical logic. Proof figures are represented as typed terms in a -calculus with a new constant P (()). It is shown that all terms with the same type are equivalent with respect to -reduction augmented by this P-reduction rule. Hence all the proofs of the same implicational formula are equivalent. It is also shown that strong normalization fails for P-reduction. Weak normalization is shown for P-reduction with another (...) reduction rule which simplifies of (( ) ) into an atomic type. (shrink)
Takahashi translation * is a translation which means reducing all of the redexes in a λ-term simultaneously. In  and , Takahashi gave a simple proof of the Church–Rosser confluence theorem by using the notion of parallel reduction and Takahashi translation. Our aim of this paper is to give a simpler proof of Church–Rosser theorem using only the notion of Takahashi translation.
In our previous paper , we have studied Kripke-type semantics for propositional logics without the contraction rule. In this paper, we will extend our argument to predicate logics without the structure rules. Similarly to the propositional case, we can not carry out Henkin's construction in the predicate case. Besides, there exists a difficulty that the rules of inference () and () are not always valid in our semantics. So, we have to introduce a notion of normal models.
The atomic structure, energetics and chemical bonding state of pristine and Y doped Σ13, (10 4) grain boundaries in α-Al2O3 were investigated by aberration-corrected Z-contrast scanning transmission electron microscopy combined with first-principles calculations. Combining observations from two orthogonal directions parallel to the grain boundary plane, we found that Y atoms segregate into specific atomic sites and form two-dimensionally ordered structure. We performed first-principles calculations to estimate stable atomic sites for Y segregation, and it was found that the calculation results are (...) in good agreement with the experimental results. Local chemical bonding states at the core of the boundary were investigated by a first-principles orthogonalized linear combination of atomic orbitals (OLCAO) method, and Y atoms and neighboring O atoms were found to evince strong ionic character while O?Al back bonds evince strong covalent character. (shrink)
Crack propagation along grain boundaries in sintered silicon nitride (Si3N4) was investigated by in-situ straining experiments at room temperature in a transmission electron microscope, using a high-precision microindenter. Using this in-situ technique, cracks introduced were introduced in situ and observed propagating along grain boundaries. High-resolution electron microscopy observation revealed that the propagation of the intergranular crack takes place at an interface between the Si3N4 grains and the intergranular glassy film (IGF). This suggests that the Si3N4/IGF interface has a relatively high (...) excess energy. The result was compared with a theoretical calculation using a molecular dynamics simulation. (shrink)
The logical system P-W is an implicational non-commutative intuitionistic logic defined by axiom schemes B = (b → c) → (a → b) → a → c, B' = (a → b) → (b → c) → a → c, I = a → a with the rules of modus ponens and substitution. The P-W problem is a problem asking whether α = β holds if α → β and β → α are both provable in P-W. The answer is (...) affirmative. The first to prove this was E. P. Martin by a semantical method. In this paper, we give the first proof of Martin's theorem based on the theory of simply typed λ-calculus. This proof is obtained as a corollary to the main theorem of this paper, shown without using Martin's Theorem, that any closed hereditary right-maximal linear (HRML) λ-term of type α → α is βη-reducible to λ x.x. Here the HRML λ-terms correspond, via the Curry-Howard isomorphism, to the P-W proofs in natural deduction style. (shrink)
Wegner’s method of flow equations offers a useful tool for diagonalizing a given Hamiltonian and is widely used in various branches of quantum physics. Here, generalizing this method, a condition is derived, under which the corresponding flow of a quantum state becomes geodesic in a submanifold of the projective Hilbert space, independently of specific initial conditions. This implies the geometric optimality of the present method as an algorithm of generating stationary states. The result is illustrated by analyzing some physical examples.
In this note, we will study four implicational logicsB, BI, BB and BBI. In , Martin and Meyer proved that a formula is provable inBB if and only if is provable inBBI and is not of the form of » . Though it gave a positive solution to theP - W problem, their method was semantical and not easy to grasp. We shall give a syntactical proof of the syntactical relation betweenBB andBBI logics. It also includes a syntactical proof of (...) Powers and Dwyer's theorem that is proved semantically in . Moreover, we shall establish the same relation betweenB andBI logics asBB andBBI logics. This relation seems to say thatB logic is meaningful, and so we think thatB logic is the weakest among meaningful logics. Therefore, by Theorem 1.1, our Gentzentype system forBI logic may be regarded as the most basic among all meaningful logics. It should be mentioned here that the first syntactical proof ofP - W problem is given by Misao Nagayama . (shrink)
Literature expects that an attitude toward nuclear power is in direct proportion to the perceived risk of accidents at an operational nuclear power plant; that is, the oppositional attitude is based on the view that nuclear technology is risky and support for nuclear power is related to a perceived low risk and/or potential benefit. However, it is misleading to assume that individuals’ risk perception alone can linearly explain their position after such an accident. The association between risk perception and attitude (...) toward nuclear power varies significantly according to country but, until now, has been largely unexamined. This article takes into consideration the effects of structural factors on that relationship by examining public attitudes toward nuclear energy after the Fukushima nuclear accident in March 2011 and reveals that the need for the efficient production of electricity (i.e., nuclear energy) outweighs concern for the potential danger of a nuclear incident. Although a country's dependence on nuclear power for the production of electricity engenders anti-nuclear attitudes, it is evident that a level of economic development largely alleviates any negativity relative to that energy source. (shrink)
High-resolution transmission electron microscopy was used to analyze basal-plane dislocations, which display very characteristic contrasts in grazing incidence monochromatic X-ray topographic images, on the Si-face of 4H?SiC. Grazing incidence monochromatic synchrotron X-ray topography, which is a lattice defect observational technique, has been used in power devices made from 4H?SiC. This technique is useful in analyzing lattice defects near the surface but without the contrast of high-density lattice defects inside the wafer. Basal-plane dislocations exhibit several distinct types of contrast: dark, bright, (...) asymmetric dark/bright and intermediate contrast. Dark and bright contrast areas have been reported to be the edge dislocation regions of basal-plane dislocations. Nevertheless, it remains unclear whether the dark contrast regions are edge dislocations with extra half-planes on the surface side, i.e. Si-core edge dislocations, or those with extra half planes on the deeper crystal side, namely C-core edge dislocations on the Si-face. In this paper, basal-plane dislocations with dark contrast edge dislocations in grazing incidence X-ray topographic images around the (0001) surface were observed via high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and it was determined that the extra half planes are located on the deeper side against the Si-face. This indicates that the dark contrast edge dislocations are those with a C-core structure on the Si-face. This conclusion is important in establishing the analytical procedure for dislocation contrast in grazing incidence monochromatic X-ray topography on Si face images. (shrink)