Search results for 'Y. Z' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Yanfeng Hu (2009). The Introduction and Dissemination of the Behaviorism in Modern China —— The Historical Investigation Centered by Kuo, Z, Y. Asian Culture and History 1 (2):P118.score: 48.0
    The behaviorism was the most influential school during the former half of the 20th.C. In the early years of the century, the oversea students introduced it (...)into China, among whom Dr. Kuo, Z, Y, a faithful behaviorist, was the most typical example, who, after returned home, set about to this project, which made the great contributions to the early Chinese psychology. (shrink)
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  2. Karl Popper & David Miller, [1P(X, Z)][1P(y, Z)]/P(y, Z) If P(y, Z) >.score: 45.0
    The burden of this theorem, stated informally, is that when a hypothesis h is maximally independent of the evidencethat is, it goes wholly beyond the evidence (...) —, then the probability p(h, e) increases when the evidence e is weakened; and hence, the weaker is the evidence, the greater is the probabilistic support. (shrink)
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  3. E. Ayiter (forthcoming). `Thought/Visual Processing': Ctrl+X, y, Z, V. Technoetic Arts.score: 45.0
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  4. Mark T. Nelson (2010). Y and Z Are Not Off the Hook: The Survival Lottery Made Fairer. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 35 (4):396-401.score: 36.0
    In this article I show that the argument in John Harris's famous "Survival Lottery" paper cannot be right. Even if we grant Harris's assumptionsof (...) the justifiability of such a lottery, the correctness of maximizing consequentialism, the indistinguishability between killing and letting die, the practical and political feasibility of such a schemethe argument still will not yield the conclusion that Harris wants. On his own terms, the medically needy should be less favored (and more vulnerable to being killed), than Harris suggests. (shrink)
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  5. Matthias Singer & Werner Stulpe (1990). Informational Incompleteness of the observablesS X ,S y ,S Z for Spin-1 Systems. Foundations of Physics 20 (4):471-472.score: 36.0
    By a counter-example, we show that the set of the three spin components Sx, Sy, Sz of spin-1 systems is not informationally complete.
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  6. Zenon Pylyshyn, Se E I N G a N D V I S U a L I Z I N G : I T ' S N O T W H a T y O U T H I N K.score: 36.0
    <span class='Hi'>span>6<span class='Hi'>span>. <span class='Hi'>span>Seeing<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>With<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>the<span class='Hi (...)'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>Mind<span class='Hi'>span>’<span class='Hi'>span>s<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>Eye<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>1<span class='Hi'>span>: <span class='Hi'>span>The<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>Puzzle<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>of<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>Mental<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>Imagery<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>6<span class='Hi'>span>.<span class='Hi'>span>1<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>What<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>is<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>the<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>puzzle<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>about<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>mental<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>imagery<span class='Hi'>span>? <span class='Hi'>span>6<span class='Hi'>span>.<span class='Hi'>span>2<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>Content<span class='Hi'>span>, <span class='Hi'>span>form<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>and<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>substance<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>of<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>representations<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>6<span class='Hi'>span>.<span class='Hi'>span>3<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>What<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>is<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>responsible<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>for<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>the<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>pattern<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>of<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>results<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>obtained<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>in<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>imagery<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>studies<span class='Hi'>span>? (shrink)
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  7. Stuart T. Smith (1993). Quadratic Residues and $X^3+y^3=Z^3$ in Models of ${\Rm IE}1$ and ${\Rm IE}2$. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 34 (3):420-438.score: 36.0
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  8. Eren Duzgun (2012). Islam's Marriage with Neoliberalism: State Transformation in Turkey, Yıldız Atasoy, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009. Historical Materialism 20 (3):181-200.score: 36.0
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  9. Edwin W. Fay (1915). Indo-European Initial Variants Dy- (Z-)/ Y-/D-. Classical Quarterly 9 (02):104-.score: 36.0
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  10. Miguel García-Valdecasas Merino (2005). Formalistas extremos y moderados en la interpretación de Aristóteles Z 3, 1029 a-b. Anuario Filosófico 38 (83):747-770.score: 36.0
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  11. Jiří Raclavský (2005). Nal É Z Á N Í Jako Pojmov Ý Postoj (II). Organon F 12 (3):260-277.score: 36.0
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  12. Ján Rybár (1996). Predt ý m, ne ž sa pok ú si š niekoho zmeni ť. Organon F 3 (2):113-124.score: 36.0
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  13. Alejandro G. Vigo (1999). Aristóteles, Pseudo-Alejandro y la prioridad temporal de la sustancia (metaph. z 1. 1028 a 32-b 2). Elenchos: Rivista di Studi Sul Pensiero Antico 20 (1):75-108.score: 36.0
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  14. Shosh Ben-Ari (2008). Lata'if, parénesis y profetas: una revisión del manuscrito de la Junta Kitab lata'if al-Anbiy' wafhi Qisas al-Anbiya'. Al-Qantara: Revista de Estudios Árabes 29 (1):165-195.score: 21.0
    Trabajando sobre el género de ¿Historias de los Profetas¿ (Qis.as. al-Anbiya-¿) en el proceso de elaboración de mi tesis sobre Abraham en la literatura islámica, el (...) profesor J. Sadan me envió un manuscrito que había localizado en la British Library relacionado con este género. Posteriormente encontré versiones similares de la misma composición, lo que me animó a profundizar mi investigación sobre sus orígenes. La obra está próxima a la literatura de predicación (wa¿z.), que se ocupa principalmente de la educación moral, pero también incluye historias. Me planteé la posibilidad de que éste formarse un género que hubiera surgido como una ayuda, un material auxiliar concebido para entender la tradición oral y los estudios religiosos para, posteriormente, convertirse en un género independiente, más cercano a la Parénesis o al Specula Regis (Espejos de príncipes). Describiré el manuscrito para intentar alcanzar una conclusión sobre ciertas cuestiones: ¿es éste un género literario diferente?, ¿se trata de un género educativo o solamente es una versión simplificada de historias para ilustrar a niños o principiantes de la lengua árabe?, ¿buscaría el autor un nombre original para su compilación, haciendo referencia al reducido tamaño de la colección y descartando el de Qis.as. al-Anbiya-¿ por ser conocido? (shrink)
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  15. Pedro Mercado Pacheco (2012). Democracia, participación Y representación: Presentación. Anales de la Cátedra Francisco Suárez 46:7-10.score: 21.0
    Cuand o l a edició n d e est e númer o d e lo s Anale s d e l a Cáted r a F r (...)
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  16. Pedro Mercado Pacheco (2012). Experimentalismo democrático, nuevas formas de regulación Y legitimación Del derecho. Anales de la Cátedra Francisco Suárez 46:37-68.score: 21.0
    E n e l a r tícul o s e aborda n lo s pro b lema s d e l e gitimació n qu e plantea (...)
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  17. Jaume Pey Ivars (2010). Alienación y consumo. Daímon 51:59-75.score: 21.0
    A pesar de que, a grandes rasgos, el análisis marxista del proceso de alienación sigue vigente, ha llegado a perder toda su fuerza revolucionaria. La razón parece (...)
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  18. Nezih Sungur, Yüksel Kankaya, Kaya Yıldız, Utku Can Dölen & Uğur Koçer (2012). Bilateral VY Rotation Advancement Flap for Fingertip Amputations. In Zdravko Radman (ed.), The Hand. Mit Press. 79-85.score: 21.0
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  19. P. Y.-Z. Wan (2011). Emergence a la Systems Theory: Epistemological Totalausschluss or Ontological Novelty? Philosophy of the Social Sciences 41 (2):178-210.score: 15.0
    In this article, I examine Luhmanns, Bunges and othersviews on emergence, and argue that Luhmanns epistemological construal of emergence in terms of Totalausschluss (total (...)
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  20. A. Meessen (1999). Spacetime Quantization, Elementary Particles, and Cosmology. Foundations of Physics 29 (2):281-316.score: 15.0
    Relativistic quantum mechanics is generalized to account for a universally constant quantum of length a. Its value depends on the total convertible energy content of our universe: (...)
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  21. Carlo Caponecchia, Andrew Y. Z. Sun & Anne Wyatt (2012). 'Psychopaths' at Work? Implications of Lay Persons' Use of Labels and Behavioural Criteria for Psychopathy. Journal of Business Ethics 107 (4):399-408.score: 15.0
    In attempting to explain or deal with negative workplace behaviours such as workplace bullying, the notion ofworkplace psychopathshas recently received much attention. Focusing on individual (...)
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  22. D. Alan Shewmon (2004). The Dead Donor Rule: Lessons From Linguistics. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 14 (3):277-300.score: 15.0
    : American society traditionally has assumed a univocal notion of "death," largely because we have only one word for it and, until recently, have not needed a more (...) nuanced notion. The reality of death-processes does not preclude the reality of death events. Linguistically, "death" can be understood only as an event; there are other words for the process. Our death vocabulary should expand to reflect multiple events along the process from sickness to decomposition. Depending on context, some death-related events may constitute a more obvious discontinuity than others and more justifiably may be considered "death" within that context. There is no reason to assume a priori that there must be an overarching, unitary concept of death from which all diagnostic criteria must derive. Regarding organ transplantation, the relevant question is not "Is the patient dead?" but rather "Can organs X, Y, Z . . . be removed without causing or hastening death or harming the patient?". (shrink)
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  23. Steven E. Boër (2003). Thought-Contents and the Formal Ontology of Sense. Journal of Philosophical Logic 32 (1):43-114.score: 15.0
    This paper articulates a formal theory of belief incorporating three key theses: (1) belief is a dyadic relation between an agent and a property; (2) this property (...)
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  24. David Miller, An Open Problem In.score: 15.0
    The notation and terminology of this paper follow [2], and are dual to those of [6] and [7]. If L is a language in the narrow sense, (...)
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  25. Mitio Takano (1985). A Semantical Investigation Into Leśniewski's Axiom of His Ontology. Studia Logica 44 (1):71 - 77.score: 15.0
    A structure A for the language L, which is the first-order language (without equality) whose only nonlogical symbol is the binary predicate symbol , is called a (...)
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  26. Robert van Rooij, Notes.score: 15.0
    Definition 1. A Strict partial order is a structure X, P , with P a binary relation on X that is irreflexive (IR) and Transitive (TR): (IR) ∀x (...) : ¬P (x, x). (TR) ∀x, y, v, w : (P (x, y) ∧ P (y, z)) → P (x, z). (shrink)
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  27. Michael Hrušák & Ondřej Zindulka (2012). Cardinal Invariants of Monotone and Porous Sets. Journal of Symbolic Logic 77 (1):159-173.score: 15.0
    A metric space (X, d) is monotone if there is a linear order < on X and a constant c such that d(x, y) ≤ c d(x, (...)
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  28. John L. Bell, Basic Set Theory.score: 15.0
    to indicate that the object a is an element or member of the class A. We assume that every member of a class is an object. Lower- (...)case letters a, b, c, x, y, z, … will always denote objects, and later, sets. Equality between classes is governed by the Axiom of Extensionality. (shrink)
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  29. Anand Pillay (1994). Definability of Types, and Pairs of o-Minimal Structures. Journal of Symbolic Logic 59 (4):1400-1409.score: 15.0
    Let T be a complete O-minimal theory in a language L. We first give an elementary proof of the result (due to Marker and Steinhorn) that (...)all types over Dedekind complete models of T are definable. Let L * be L together with a unary predicate P. Let T * be the L * -theory of all pairs (N, M), where M is a Dedekind complete model of T and N is an |M| + -saturated elementary extension of N (and M is the interpretation of P). Using the definability of types result, we show that T * is complete and we give a simple set of axioms for T * . We also show that for every L * -formula φ(x) there is an L-formula ψ(x) such that $T^\ast \models (\forall \mathbf{x})(P(\mathbf{x}) \rightarrow (\phi(\mathbf{x}) \mapsto \psi (\mathbf{x}))$ . This yields the following result: Let M be a Dedekind complete model of T. Let φ(x, y) be an L-formula where l(y) = k. Let $\mathbf{X} = \{X \subset M^k$ : for some a in an elementary extension N of M, X = φ (a,y NM k }. Then there is a formula ψ(y, z) of L such that X = {ψ (y, b) M : b in M}. (shrink)
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  30. Fred Richman (2000). Gleason's Theorem has a Constructive Proof. Journal of Philosophical Logic 29 (4):425-431.score: 15.0
    Gleason's theorem for ³ says that if f is a nonnegative function on the unit sphere with the property that f(x) + f(y) + f(z) is (...)a fixed constant for each triple x, y, z of mutually orthogonal unit vectors, then f is a quadratic form. We examine the issues raised by discussions in this journal regarding the possibility of a constructive proof of Gleason's theorem in light of the recent publication of such a proof. (shrink)
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  31. Ch Cornaros & C. Dimitracopoulos (1993). A Note on Exponentiation. Journal of Symbolic Logic 58 (1):64-71.score: 15.0
    We study the strength (over bounded induction) of axioms expressing particular cases of the Chinese Remainder Theorem with respect to the axiomx, yz (z = (...)xy). (shrink)
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  32. Tareq Syed, Michael Bölker & Mathias Gutmann (2008). GeneticInformationor the Indomitability of a Persisting Scientific Metaphor. Poiesis and Praxis 5 (3-4):193-209.score: 15.0
    In the history of genetics, the information-theoretical description of the gene, beginning in the early 1960s, had a significant effect on the concept of the gene. (...)Information is a highly complex metaphor which is applicable in view of the description of substances, processes, and spatio-temporal organisation. Thus, information can be understood as a functional particle of many different language games (some of them belonging to subdisciplines of genetics, as the biochemical language game, some of them belonging to linguistics and informatics). It is this wide covering of different language games that justifies the common description of genes x, y, z as containing information for the phenotypic traits X, Y, Z (or the genome as storage for the information of a whole organism). However, if information is taken as the explanans and phenotypic traits or organisms as the explananda, then a description of the explanandum is of prior importance before the explanans can be characterised. This way of thinking could be useful for future discussions on the strikingly dominant information -metaphor, and the different gene concepts as well. The article illustrates this in two steps. First, a condensed overview on the history of genetics is given, which can be divided into three parts: (1) genetics without genes, (2) genetics with genes, but without information, (3) genetics with genes and information. It is assumed that this provides not only some historical knowledge about the origin of genetics and the introduction of technical terms, but offers at least preliminary insight into the methodological structure of genetic descriptions. In a second step, we redraw Spemann’s disturbation experiments to discuss our thesis that genetic information is not a natural entity, but part of a causality-language game which is secondarily added to the descriptions of interventionalistic practices, viz. experimental approaches. (shrink)
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  33. W. A. Pogorzelski (1962). The Adequacy of the Theories of Deductive Systems with Respect to Sentential Calculi. Studia Logica 13 (1):129-131.score: 15.0
    The sentential calculiR, under discussion, are axiomatizable and implication is among their primitive terms. The modus ponens and the rule of substitution are their primitive rules. ByS (...)
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  34. В. А Порожелъский (1962). Адекватностъ Теории Дедуктивных Систем По Отношению К Исчислению Высказываний. Studia Logica 13 (1):126-128.score: 15.0
    Рассматриваемые исчисления высказыванийR поддаются аксиоматизации и содержат среди своих первичных терминов импликацию. Первичными правилами этих исхислений являются правилоmodus ponens и правило подстановки. ПодS R я понимаю множество (...)
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  35. Wolfgang Burr (2000). Fragments of Heyting Arithmetic. Journal of Symbolic Logic 65 (3):1223-1240.score: 15.0
    We define classes Φ n of formulae of first-order arithmetic with the following properties: (i) Every φΦ n is classically equivalent to a Π n (...)
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  36. Harvey M. Friedman, Introduction.score: 15.0
    The use of x[y,z,w] rather than the more usual y Πx has many advantages for this work. One of them is that we have (...)
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  37. Bruce I. Rose (1978). Rings Which Admit Elimination of Quantifiers. Journal of Symbolic Logic 43 (1):92-112.score: 15.0
    We say that a ring admits elimination of quantifiers, if in the language of rings, {0, 1, +, ·}, the complete theory of R admits elimination of quantifiers. (...)Theorem 1. Let D be a division ring. Then D admits elimination of quantifiers if and only if D is an algebraically closed or finite field. A ring is prime if it satisfies the sentence: ∀ xyz (x = 0y = 0xzy0). Theorem 2. If R is a prime ring with an infinite center and R admits elimination of quantifiers, then R is an algebraically closed field. Let A be the class of finite fields. Let B be the class of 2 × 2 matrix rings over a field with a prime number of elements. Let C be the class of rings of the form $GF(p^n) \bigoplus GF(p^k)$ such that either n = k or g.c.d. (n, k) = 1. Let D be the set of ordered pairs (f, Q) where Q is a finite set of primes and f: QABC such that the characteristic of the ring f(q) is q. Finally, let E be the class of rings of the form $\bigoplus_{q \in Q}f(q)$ for some (f, Q) in D. Theorem 3. Let R be a finite ring without nonzero trivial ideals. Then R admits elimination of quantifiers if and only if R belongs to E. Theorem 4. Let R be a ring with the descending chain condition of left ideals and without nonzero trivial ideals. Then R admits elimination of quantifiers if and only if R is an algebraically closed field or R belongs to E. In contrast to Theorems 2 and 4, we have Theorem 5. If R is an atomless p-ring, then R is finite, commutative, has no nonzero trivial ideals and admits elimination of quantifiers, but is not prime and does not have the descending chain condition. We also generalize Theorems 1, 2 and 4 to alternative rings. (shrink)
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  38. I. I. I. Sem, Top 1: Update with Centering.score: 15.0
    UPDATE WITH NOMINAL CENTERING (UCδ) D1.0 (UCδ types) The set of UCδ types Θ is the smallest set such that: i. t, δ, sΘ ii. (...)
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  39. Jan van Eijck, Limits and Strengths of Predicate Logic (and its Alloy Implementation).score: 15.0
    The transitive closure of R is the smallest relation S for which: –RS, – S is transitive. • To express ^r one would need aninfinite formula’: {( (...)x, y) | R(x, y) ∨ ∃z(R(x, z) ∧ R(z, y)) ∨∃z, v(R(x, z) ∧ R(z, v) ∧ R(v, y)) ∨∃z, v, w(R(x, z) ∧ R(z, v) ∧ R(v, w) ∧ R(w, y)) ∨ · · ·. (shrink)
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  40. Y. Z. Chen (2001). A Self-Organising Cosmology Revealed by an Ancient Taoist Text Newly Discovered. Filozofia 56 (2):101-108.score: 15.0
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  41. Susanne J. De Kort, Jeannette Pols, Dick J. Richel, Nelleke Koedoot & Dick L. Willems (2010). Understanding Palliative Cancer Chemotherapy: About Shared Decisions and Shared Trajectories. Health Care Analysis 18 (2):164-174.score: 15.0
    Most models of patient-physician communication take decision-making as a central concept. However, we found that often the treatment course of metastatic cancer patients is not easy (...) to describe in straightforward terms used in decision-making models but is instead frequently more erratic. Our aim was to analyse these processes as trajectories. We used a longitudinal case study of 13 patients with metastatic colorectal and pancreatic cancer for whom palliative chemotherapy was a treatment option, and analysed 65 semi-structured interviews. We analysed three characteristics of the treatment course that contributed to theerraticnessof the course: (1) The treatment (with or without chemotherapy) contained many options; (2) these options were not stable entities to be decided upon, but changed identity over the course of treatment, and (3) contrary to the closure (option X means no option Y, Z, etc.) a decision implies, the treatment course was a continuous process in which options instead remained open. When the treatment course is characterised by these many and changeable options that do not result in closure, the shared decision-making model should take these into account. More attention needs to be paid to the erratic character of the process in which the doctor has to provide continuous information that is related to the changing situation of the patient; also, flexibility in dealing with protocols is warranted, as is vigilance about the overall direction of the process. (shrink)
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  42. Branden Fitelson, Vanquishing the XCB Question: The Methodological Discovery of the Last Shortest Single Axiom for the Equivalential Calculus.score: 15.0
    With the inclusion of an e ective methodology, this article answers in detail a question that, for a quarter of a century, remained open despite intense study (...)
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  43. Gerard R. Renardel De Lavalette (1984). Descriptions in Mathematical Logic. Studia Logica 43 (3):281 - 294.score: 15.0
    After a discussion of the different treatments in the literature of vacuous descriptions, the notion of descriptor is slightly generalized to function descriptor $\overset \rightarrow \to{ (...)y}(x)$ , so as to form partial functions φ = $y(\overset \rightarrow \to{x}).A(\overset \rightarrow \to{x},y)$ which satisfy $\forall \overset \rightarrow \to{x}z(z=\phi \overset \rightarrow \to{x}\leftrightarrow \forall y(A(\overset \rightarrow \to{x},y)\leftrightarrow y=z))$ . We use (intuitionistic, classical or intermediate) logic with existence predicate, as introduced by D. S. Scott, to handle partial functions, and prove that adding function descriptors to a theory based on such a logic is conservative. For theories with quantification over functions, the situation is different: there the addition of yields new theorems in the -free fragment, but an axiomatisation is easily given. The proofs are syntactical. (shrink)
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  44. Jordan Y. Z. Li, Tuck Y. Yong, Paul Hakendorf, David Ben‐Tovim & Campbell H. Thompson (2013). Timeliness in Discharge Summary Dissemination is Associated with Patients' Clinical Outcomes. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 19 (1):76-79.score: 15.0
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  45. Morteza Moniri (2003). Intuitionistic Weak Arithmetic. Archive for Mathematical Logic 42 (8):791-796.score: 15.0
    We construct ω-framed Kripke models of i1 and iΠ1 non of whose worlds satisfiesxy(x=2yx=2y+1) andx,yzExp(x, y, z) respectively (...). This will enable us to show that i1 does not prove ¬¬∀xy(x=2yx=2y+1) and iΠ1 does not prove ¬¬∀x, yzExp(x, y, z). Therefore, i1⊬¬¬lop and iΠ1⊬¬¬iΣ1. We also prove that HAlΣ1 and present some remarks about iΠ2. (shrink)
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  46. Pavel Hrubeš (2007). Theories Very Close to PA Where Kreisel's Conjecture Is False. Journal of Symbolic Logic 72 (1):123 - 137.score: 15.0
    We give four examples of theories in which Kreisel's Conjecture is false: (1) the theory PA(-) obtained by adding a function symbol minus, '−', to the language (...)
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  47. Jesse B. Wright (1972). Characterization of Recursively Enumerable Sets. Journal of Symbolic Logic 37 (3):507-511.score: 15.0
    Let N, O and S denote the set of nonnegative integers, the graph of the constant 0 function and the graph of the successor function respectively. For (...)
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  48. Cody Gilmore (2014). Parts of Propositions. In Shieva Kleinschmidt (ed.), Mereology and Location. Oxford University Press. 156-208.score: 12.0
    Do Russellian propositions have their constituents as parts? One reason for thinking not is that if they did, they would generate apparent counterexamples to plausible mereological principles. (...)
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  49. Stevan Harnad (1990). The Symbol Grounding Problem. 42:335-346.score: 12.0
    There has been much discussion recently about the scope and limits of purely symbolic models of the mind and about the proper role of connectionism in cognitive (...)span> from their sensory projections. Elementary symbols are the names of these object and event <span class='Hi'>categoriesspan>, assigned on the basis of their (nonsymbolic) categorical representations. Higher-order (3) symbolic representations, grounded in these elementary symbols, consist of symbol strings describing category membership relations (e.g., An X is a Y that is Z). Connectionism is one natural candidate for the mechanism that learns the invariant features underlying categorical representations, thereby connecting names to the proximal projections of the distal objects they stand for. In this way connectionism can be seen as a complementary component in a hybrid nonsymbolic/symbolic model of the mind, rather than a rival to purely symbolic modeling. Such a hybrid model would not have an autonomous symbolic module, however; the symbolic functions would emerge as an intrinsically dedicated symbol system as a consequence of the bottom-up grounding of <span class='Hi'>categoriesspan>' names in their sensory representations. Symbol manipulation would be governed not just by the arbitrary shapes of the symbol tokens, but by the nonarbitrary shapes of the icons and category invariants in which they are grounded. (shrink)
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  50. D. H. Sanford (2011). Can a Sum Change its Parts? Analysis 71 (2):235-239.score: 12.0
    I consider two logically independent definitions of (mereological) sum identity when x is a sum of the ys and w is a sum of the zs. Def (...)
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