A method for forcing norms onto individual agents in a multi-agent system is presented. The agents under study are supersoft agents: autonomous artificial agents programmed to represent and evaluate vague and imprecise information. Agents are further assumed to act in accordance with advice obtained from a normative decision module, with which they can communicate. Norms act as global constraints on the evaluations performed in the decision module and hence no action that violates a norm will be suggested to any agent. (...) Further constraints on action may then be added locally. The method strives to characterise real-time decision making in agents, in the presence of risk and uncertainty. (shrink)
This paper considers the ethical implications of applying three major ethical theories to the memory structure of an artificial companion that might have different embodiments such as a physical robot or a graphical character on a hand-held device. We start by proposing an ethical memory model and then make use of an action-centric framework to evaluate its ethical implications. The case that we discuss is that of digital artefacts that autonomously record and store user data, where this data are used (...) as a resource for future interaction with users. (shrink)
The overall aim of the article is to analyse how the universal right to education have been built, legitimized and used. And more specifically ask who is addressed by the universal right to education, and who is given access to rights and to education. The first part of the article focus on the history of declarations, the notion of the universal right to education, emphasizing differences in matters of detail—for example, the meaning of ‘compulsory’, ‘children’s rights’ or ‘parents’ rights’—and critically (...) examining the right of the child and the right of the parent in terms of tensions between ‘social rights’ and ‘private autonomy rights’. Despite differences in detail, the iterations of the universal right to education do share to the full in the idea of education as such. In the second part the attempt to scrutinize the underlying assumptions legitimizing the consensus on education, focusing again on the notion of the child. In conclusion I argue that a certain notion of what it is to be a human being is inscribed within the circle of access to rights and education. These notions of what it means to be a child, a parent, a citizen or a member of the ‘human family’ are notions of enlightenment and humanity and, to my understanding, aspects of how democracy is configured around freedom, equality and fraternity. (shrink)
This unique collection of articles on emotion by Wittgensteinian philosophers provides a fresh perspective on the questions framing the current philosophical and scientific debates about emotions and offers significant insights into the role of emotions for understanding interpersonal relations and the relation between emotion and ethics.
Summary The article examines the reception and interpretation of the ?death of ideology? thesis in Sweden. The thesis was launched by the political scientist Herbert Tingsten in several works, and generated much attention and debate in the 1960s. The main opponents of the idea saw it as a liberal utopia, and also as an attack on Swedish social democracy. It is largely this interpretation that has gone down in history. This article seeks to demonstrate that Tingsten's idea can be given (...) another interpretation and a quite different significance if it is set in the context of the period when it was first conceived, namely in the 1940s. According to this argument, the idea that ideological clashes were being given less and less weight implied not so much an attack on social democracy, but on the contrary heralded a new emphasis on the importance of social engineering and on the use of social science as vehicle for societal reform. Thus, instead of being seen as a liberal utopia, the so-called ?death of ideology? in Sweden can be seen as much more compatible with the socialist ends that were influential in mid-twentieth-century Sweden. These are, this article maintains, the true background against which Tingsten's analysis must be understood. (shrink)