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  1. Yvonne Stedham & Rafik I. Beekun (2013). Ethical Judgment in Business: Culture and Differential Perceptions of Justice Among Italians and Germans. Business Ethics 22 (2):189-201.
    This study focuses on the cultural context of ethical decision making by considering the relationship between power distance and ethical judgment. Specifically, we propose that this relationship exists because of the influence of peers on ethical judgment and perceptions of justice. Considering the importance of peers in stage three of Kohlberg's model of moral development, we argue that peers are the basis for social comparisons, social cues and social identification and, hence, are critical to an individual's beliefs about justice. Using (...)
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  2. Rafik I. Beekun, Yvonne Stedham, James W. Westerman & Jeanne H. Yamamura (2010). Effects of Justice and Utilitarianism on Ethical Decision Making: A Cross-Cultural Examination of Gender Similarities and Differences. Business Ethics 19 (4):309-325.
    This study investigates the relationship between intention to behave ethically and gender within the context of national culture. Using Reidenbach and Robin's measures of the ethical dimensions of justice and utilitarianism in a sample of business students from three different countries, we found that gender is significantly related to the respondents' intention to behave ethically. Women relied on both justice as well as utilitarianism when making moral decisions. By contrast, men relied only on justice, and did not rely on utilitarianism (...)
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  3. Yvonne Stedham, Jeanne H. Yamamura & Rafik I. Beekun (2007). Gender Differences in Business Ethics: Justice and Relativist Perspectives. Business Ethics 16 (2):163–174.
  4. James W. Westerman, Rafik I. Beekun, Yvonne Stedham & Jeanne Yamamura (2007). Peers Versus National Culture: An Analysis of Antecedents to Ethical Decision-Making. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 75 (3):239 - 252.
    Given the recent ethics scandals in the United States, there has been a renewed focus on understanding the antecedents to ethical decision-making in the research literature. Since ethical norms and standards of behavior are not universally consistent, an individual’s choice of referent may exert a large influence on his/her ethical decision-making. This study used a social identity theory lens to empirically examine the relative influence of the macro- and micro-level variables of national culture and peers on an individual’s intention to (...)
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  5. Rafik I. Beekun, Yvonne Stedham & Jeanne H. Yamamura (2003). Business Ethics in Brazil and the U.S.: A Comparative Investigation. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 42 (3):267 - 279.
    In this comparative survey of 126 Brazilian and U.S. business professionals, we explore the effect of national culture on ethical decision-making within the context of business. Using Reidenbach and Robin''s (1988) multi-criteria ethics instrument, we examined how these two countries'' differences on Hofstede''s individualism/collectivism dimension are related to the manner in which business practitioners make ethical decisions. Our results indicate that Brazilians and Americans evaluate the ethical content of actions or decisions differently when applying utilitarian criteria. By contrast, business people (...)
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