Search results for 'Zelman Cowen' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  2
    Zelman Cowen (1986). A View From the Clapham Omnibus. Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 14 (3-4):108-112.
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  2. Honorable Sir Zelman Cowen (1986). A View From the Clapham Omnibus. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 14 (3-4):108-112.
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  3. Zelman Cowen (1985). Reflections on Medicine, Biotechnology, and the Law. Distributed by the University of Nebraska Press.
     
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  4. Tyler Cowen (1992). Law as a Public Good: The Economics of Anarchy. Economics and Philosophy 8 (2):249-267.
    Various writers in the Western liberal and libertarian tradition have challenged the argument that enforcement of law and protection of property rights are public goods that must be provided by governments. Many of these writers argue explicitly for the provision of law enforcement services through private market relations.
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  5.  54
    Tyler Cowen (1996). What Do We Learn From the Repugnant Conclusion? Ethics 106 (4):754-775.
    In a series of articles on population theory, culminating in his 1984 b00k Reasons and Persons, Dcrck Pariit presented dilemmas for utilitarian and conscqucntialist moral theories.] ParHt’s work has led to rcncwcd interest in thc theory of optimal population. More generally, Pariit is searching for a general theory of bcncHcencc—"Theory X"——that also will covcr population comparisons. Theory X corresponds to Kenneth Arrow’s notion of a social welfare function—both attempt t0 provide 21 generic formula or algorithm for ranking social outcomes on (...)
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  6.  22
    Sylvia Terbeck, Guy Kahane, Sarah McTavish, Julian Savulescu, Neil Levy, Miles Hewstone & Philip Cowen (2013). Beta Adrenergic Blockade Reduces Utilitarian Judgement. Biological Psychology 92 (2):323-328.
    Noradrenergic pathways are involved in mediating the central and peripheral effects of physiological arousal. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of noradrenergic transmission in moral decision-making. We studied the effects in healthy volunteers of propranolol (a noradrenergic beta-adrenoceptor antagonist) on moral judgement in a set of moral dilemmas pitting utilitarian outcomes (e.g., saving five lives) against highly aversive harmful actions (e.g., killing an innocent person) in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group design. Propranolol (40 mg orally) (...)
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  7.  2
    Neil Levy, Thomas Douglas, Guy Kahane, Sylvia Terbeck, Philip J. Cowen, Miles Hewstone & Julian Savulescu, Are You Morally Modified? : The Moral Effects of Widely Used Pharmaceuticals.
    A number of concerns have been raised about the possible future use of pharmaceuticals designed to enhance cognitive, affective, and motivational processes, particularly where the aim is to produce morally better decisions or behavior. In this article, we draw attention to what is arguably a more worrying possibility: that pharmaceuticals currently in widespread therapeutic use are already having unintended effects on these processes, and thus on moral decision making and morally significant behavior. We review current evidence on the moral effects (...)
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  8.  77
    Tyler Cowen (2006). The Epistemic Problem Does Not Refute Consequentialism. Utilitas 18 (4):383.
    “Perhaps the most common objection to consequentialism is this: it is impossible to know the future…This means that you will never be absolutely certain as to what all the consequences of your act will be…there may be long term bad effects from your act, side effects that were unforeseen and indeed unforeseeable…So how can we tell which act will lead to the best results overall – counting all the results? This seems to mean that consequentialism will be unusable as a (...)
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  9.  23
    Tyler Cowen (2007). The Importance of Defining the Feasible Set. Economics and Philosophy 23 (1):1-14.
    How should we define the feasible set? Even when individuals agree on facts and values, as traditionally construed, different views on feasibility may suffice to produce very different policy conclusions. Focusing on the difficulties in the feasibility concept may help us resolve some policy disagreements, or at least identify the sources of those disagreements. Feasibility is most plausibly a matter of degree rather than of kind. Normative economic reasoning therefore faces a fuzzy social budget constraint. Iterative reasoning about feasibility and (...)
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  10.  16
    Neil Levy, Thomas Douglas, Guy Kahane, Sylvia Terbeck, Philip J. Cowen, Miles Hewstone & Julian Savulescu (2014). Disease, Normality, and Current Pharmacological Moral Modification. Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 21 (2):135-137.
  11.  47
    Tyler Cowen (2003). Policing Nature. Environmental Ethics 25 (2):169-182.
    Utility, rights, and holistic standards all point toward some modest steps to limit or check the predatory activity of carnivores relative to their victims. At the very least, we should limit current subsidies to nature’s carnivores. Policing nature need not be absurdly costly or violate common-sense intuitions.
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  12.  42
    Tyler Cowen & Robin Hanson (forthcoming). Are Disagreements Honest. Journal of Economic Methodology.
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  13.  10
    Tyler Cowen (2000). Risk and Business Cycles: Reply to Rosser. Critical Review 14 (1):89-94.
    Abstract Rosser's thoughtful and careful review of my book on business cycles reflects a different methodological stance than my own. I believe that economic theory and macroeconomics cannot escape using the concept of risk, even though, as Rosser points out, risk is not a simple unidimensional magnitude in many circumstances. I view the rational expectations assumption as a useful way of presenting a theory, rather than as a descriptive account of real?world expectations.
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  14.  12
    Neil Levy, Thomas Douglas, Guy Kahane, Sylvia Terbeck, Philip J. Cowen, Miles Hewstone & Julian Savulescu (2014). Are You Morally Modified?: The Moral Effects of Widely Used Pharmaceuticals. Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 21 (2):111-125.
  15.  17
    Deborah Cowen (2007). National Soldiers and the War on Cities. Theory and Event 10 (2).
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  16.  15
    Tyler Cowen (1991). Self-Constraint Versus Self-Liberation. Ethics 101 (2):360-373.
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  17.  39
    Tyler Cowen (2011). Rule Consequentialism Makes Sense After All. Social Philosophy and Policy 28 (2):212-231.
    It is commonly claimed that rule consequentialism collapses into act consequentialism, because sometimes there are benefits from breaking the rules. I suggest this argument is less powerful than has been believed. The argument requires a commitment to a very particular account of feasibility and constraints. It requires the presupposition that thinking of rules as the relevant constraint is incorrect. Supposedly we should look at a smaller unit of choice—the single act—as the relevant choice variable. But once we see feasibility as (...)
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  18.  43
    Tyler Cowen (2002). Does the Welfare State Help the Poor? Social Philosophy and Policy 19 (1):36-54.
    Does the welfare state help the poor? This surprisingly simple question often generates more heat than light. By the welfare state, I mean transfer programs aimed at helping the poor through the direct redistribution of income. Defenders of the welfare state often assume that the poor benefit from it, while critics suggest that the losses outweigh the gains. The most notable of such criticisms is Charles Murray's Losing Ground, which suggests that the welfare state has failed to achieve its stated (...)
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  19.  9
    Tyler Cowen (1993). The Scope and Limits of Preference Sovereignty. Economics and Philosophy 9 (2):253.
    Economists use tastes as a source of information about personal welfare and judge the effects of policies upon preference satisfaction; neoclassical welfare economics is the analytical embodiment of this preference sovereignty norm. For an initial distribution of wealth, the welfare-maximizing outcome is the one that exhausts all possible gains from trade. Gains from trade are defined relative to fixed ordinal preferences. This analytical apparatus consists of both the Pareto principle, which implies that externality-free voluntary trades increase welfare, and applied costbenefit (...)
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  20. Tyler Cowen & Michelle Dawson, What Does the Turing Test Really Mean? And How Many Human Beings (Including Turing) Could Pass?
    The so-called Turing test, as it is usually interpreted, sets a benchmark standard for determining when we might call a machine intelligent. We can call a machine intelligent if the following is satisfied: if a group of wise observers were conversing with a machine through an exchange of typed messages, those observers could not tell whether they were talking to a human being or to a machine. To pass the test, the machine has to be intelligent but it also should (...)
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  21.  4
    R. H. Cowen (1976). Elementary Equivalence and Constructible Models of Zermelo-Fraenkel Set Theory. Zeitschrift fur mathematische Logik und Grundlagen der Mathematik 22 (1):333-338.
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  22. Tyler Cowen, *What Price Fame?
    "Every man, however hopeless his pretensions may appear, has some project by which he hopes to rise to reputation; some art by which he imagines that the attention of the world will be attracted; some quality, good or bad, which discriminates him from the common herd of mortals, and by which others may be persuaded to love, or compelled to fear him." - Samuel Johnson.
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  23.  42
    Tyler Cowen & Gregory Kavka (2003). The Public Goods Rationale for Government and the Circularity Problem. Politics, Philosophy and Economics 2 (2):265-277.
    George Mason University, USA It has been suggested that the production of public goods through a government involves a circularity problem. Since government itself is a public good, how can we use government to produce other public goods? Several solutions to this supposed circularity are offered. Government is a unique kind of public good with some potentially self-generating and self-supporting features. The public goods theory of government remains intact, and this enterprise helps shed some light on the special features of (...)
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  24.  14
    Tyler Cowen & Jack High (1988). Time, Bounded Utility, and the St. Petersburg Paradox. Theory and Decision 25 (3):219-223.
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  25.  18
    Tyler Cowen (1997). Discounting and Restitution. Philosophy and Public Affairs 26 (2):168–185.
  26.  13
    Tyler Cowen (1989). Why Keynesianism Triumphed or, Could so Many Keynesians Have Been Wrong? Critical Review 3 (3-4):518-530.
    Defenders of laissez?faire have not successfully explained the historical experience of the Great Depression. Unemployment was widespread and persistent and cannot be ascribed to government intervention. Legal restrictions offer at best a partial explanation of why real wages did not fall. The Keynesian world view is also supported by experience with investment and equity market volatility, the conversion of Lionel Robbins, the wartime recovery, and the success of postwar macroeconomic performance. Some concluding remarks address how the case for laissez?faire might (...)
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  27.  24
    Tyler Cowen (2002). John E. Roemer, Equality of Opportunity:Equality of Opportunity. Ethics 112 (3):637-639.
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  28.  7
    Robert Cowen & William Emerson (1996). A Compactness Theorem for Linear Equations. Studia Logica 57 (2-3):355 - 357.
    It is proved that a system of linear equations over an arbitrary field has a solution if every finite subsystem has a solution provided that the set of variables can be well ordered.
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  29. Robert H. Cowen (1990). Two Hypergraph Theorems Equivalent to ${\Rm BPI}$. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 31 (2):232-240.
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  30.  2
    Robert Cowen (2009). 2-CNFS and Logical Embeddings. Studia Logica 93 (1):15-19.
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  31.  14
    Robert H. Cowen (1970). A New Proof of the Compactness Theorem for Propositional Logic. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 11 (1):79-80.
  32.  4
    Robert H. Cowen (1977). Generalizing König's Infinity Lemma. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 18 (2):243-247.
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  33.  17
    Tyler Cowen (1992). Weighing Goods: Equality, Uncertainty, and Time, John Broome. Oxford: Basil Blackwell Press, 1991, 255 Pages. [REVIEW] Economics and Philosophy 8 (2):283-285.
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  34.  22
    Robert Cowen (2009). 2-Cnfs and Logical Embeddings. Studia Logica 93 (1):15 - 19.
    The expressive power of 2-cnfs, conjunctive normal forms with two literals per clause, is shown to be severely limited compared to 3-cnfs.
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  35.  23
    Tyler Cowen (2005). Review Essay: The Economy of Esteem. Politics, Philosophy and Economics 4 (3):374-382.
    Geoffrey Brennan and Philip Pettit have produced a major work on the economics of esteem, entitled The Economy of Esteem . 1 They show that much of social order depends on our desire to have our fellow man think well of us. This review also considers some extensions of their basic arguments and the conditions under which those arguments hold. Key Words: economics • esteem • fame • rationality.
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  36.  4
    Michael Cowen (2000). Quakes of Development. Historical Materialism 6 (1):149-214.
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  37.  14
    Tyler Cowen (2002). Invariances: The Structure of the Objective World. Robert Nozick, the Belknap Press, 2001, 416 Pages. [REVIEW] Economics and Philosophy 18 (2):351-385.
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  38.  2
    Cynthia M. Zelman (1991). Our Menstruation. Feminist Studies 17 (3):461.
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  39.  14
    Tyler Cowen (1994). Rejoinder to David Friedman on the Economics of Anarchy. Economics and Philosophy 10 (2):329.
    The received wisdom once stated that anarcho-capitalism would collapse into Hobbes’s state of nature, with life nasty, short, and brutish. The problem of competing governments is the problem of externality par excellence. But David Friedman, among others, has argued persuasively that privately financed arbitration agencies can overcome the basic externalities problems behind social order.
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  40.  4
    Robert Cowen & Katherine Wyatt (1993). BREAKUP: A Preprocessing Algorithm for Satisfiability Testing of CNF Formulas. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 34 (4):602-606.
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  41.  11
    Tyler Cowen (2002). Prelude to Political Economy, Kaushik Basu. Cambridge University Press, 2000, XV + 288 Pages. [REVIEW] Economics and Philosophy 18 (1):183-204.
  42.  3
    Howard S. Axelrod, Emory L. Cowen & Fred Heilizer (1956). The Correlates of Manifest Anxiety in Stylus Maze Learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 51 (2):131.
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  43.  3
    Robert H. Cowen (1971). Superinductive Classes in Class-Set Theory. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 12 (1):62-68.
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  44.  3
    Tyler Cowen (1991). Can Keynesianism Explain the 1930s? Rejoinder to Smiley. Critical Review 5 (1):115-120.
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  45.  2
    Tyler Cowen (1993). Altruism and the Argument From Offsetting Transfers. Social Philosophy and Policy 10 (1):225-245.
    Individuals frequently give gifts or make transfers to others for altruistic reasons. Parents devote time to raising their children, spouses make sacrifices on each other's behalf, and friends do favors for friends. We are also linked to many people indirectly because we care for someone who cares for them.
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  46.  1
    R. H. Cowen (1976). Elementary Equivalence and Constructible Models of Zermelo‐Fraenkel Set Theory. Mathematical Logic Quarterly 22 (1):333-338.
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  47.  6
    Tyler Cowen (2004). Policy Implications of Zero Discounting: An Exploration in Politics and Morality. Social Philosophy and Policy 21 (1):121-140.
    What are our political obligations to future generations? How does morality suggest that we weight current interests against future interests? Do politics or markets place greater weight upon interests in the very distant future? How should we discount future costs and benefits?
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  48. Tyler Cowen, How Do We Define the Feasible Set?
    How should we define the “feasible set”? What does it mean to assert that a policy is the “best feasible option”? Feasibility is most plausibly a matter of degree rather than of kind. We therefore must think about how to do normative economics with a fuzzy social budget constraint. I consider a number of ways of proceeding, including a twodimensional social welfare function, weighting both desirability and feasibility. Focusing on the difficulties in the feasibility concept may help us resolve some (...)
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  49.  1
    R. H. Cowen (1983). Compactness Via Prime Semilattices. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 24 (2):199-204.
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  50.  1
    D. V. Cowen (1964). Human Rights in Contemporary Africa. American Journal of Jurisprudence 9 (1):1-24.
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