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Profile: Zenon Pylyshyn (Rutgers University)
  1. Zenon W. Pylyshyn, Computers and the Symbolization of Knowledge.
    I’m one of those who is awed and impressed by the potential of this field and have devoted some part of my energy to persuading people that it is a positive force. I have done so largely on the grounds of its economic benefits and it potential for making the fruits of computer technology more generally available to the public — for example, to help the overworked physician; to search for oil and minerals and help manage our valuable resources; to (...)
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  2. Zenon W. Pylyshyn, Charles E. King & James E. Reilly, Selective Nontarget Inhibition in Multiple Object Tracking (MOT).
    We previously reported that in the Multiple Object Tracking (MOT) task, which requires tracking several identical targets moving unpredictably among identical nontargets, the nontargets appear to be inhibited, as measured by a probe-dot detection method. The inhibition appears to be local to nontargets and does not extend to the space between objects – dropping off very rapidly away from targets and nontargets. In the present three experiments we show that (1) nontargets that are identical to targets but remain in a (...)
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  3. Brian J. Scholl & Zenon W. Pylyshyn, Tracking Multiple Items Through Occlusion: Clues to Visual Objecthood.
    In three experiments, subjects attempted to track multiple items as they moved independently and unpredictably about a display. Performance was not impaired when the items were briefly (but completely) occluded at various times during their motion, suggesting that occlusion is taken into account when computing enduring perceptual objecthood. Unimpaired performance required the presence of accretion and deletion cues along fixed contours at the occluding boundaries. Performance was impaired when items were present on the visual field at the same times and (...)
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  4. Zenon W. Pylyshyn, Spring and Fall Fashions in Cognitive Science.
    This is indeed an auspicious time for Cognitive Science. I stand here before you this evening as the first Chair to give a presidential address to this austere body, to place on record before you what you are to accept as the Society's official view on the new science of the mind.
     
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  5. Zenon W. Pylyshyn, Visual Indexes and Nonconceptual Reference.
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  6. Jonathan I. Flombaum, Brian J. Scholl & Zenon W. Pylyshyn (2008). Attentional Resources in Visual Tracking Through Occlusion: The High-Beams Effect. Cognition 107 (3):904-931.
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  7. Zenon W. Pylyshyn (2007). Things and Places: How the Mind Connects with the World. The Mit Press.
    In "Things and Places," Zenon Pylyshyn argues that the process of incrementally constructing perceptual representations, solving the binding problem (determining which properties go together), and, more generally, grounding perceptual ...
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  8. Zenon W. Pylyshyn (2004). From Reifying Mental Pictures to Reifying Spatial Models. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (4):590-591.
    Assuming that the vehicle of imaginal thought is a spatial model may not be quite as egregious an error as assuming it is a two-dimensional picture, but it represents no less a reification error. Because the model is not a literal physical layout, one is still owed an explanation of why spatial properties hold in the model – whether because of architectural constraints or by stipulation. The difference is like the difference between explaining behavior from a principle and predicting it (...)
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  9. Zenon W. Pylyshyn (2003). Explaining Mental Imagery: Now You See It, Now You Don't. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 7 (3):111-112.
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  10. Zenon W. Pylyshyn (2003). Explaining Mental Imagery: Now You See It, Now You Don't: Reply to Kosslyn Et Al. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 7 (3):111-112.
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  11. Zenon W. Pylyshyn (2003). Return of the Mental Image: Are There Really Pictures in the Brain? Trends in Cognitive Sciences 7 (3):113-118.
    In the past decade there has been renewed interest in the study of mental imagery. Emboldened by new findings from neuroscience, many people have revived the idea that mental imagery involves a special format of thought, one that is pictorial in nature. But the evidence and the arguments that exposed deep conceptual and empirical problems in the picture theory over the past 300 years have not gone away. I argue that the new evidence from neural imaging and clinical neuropsychology does (...)
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  12. Zenon W. Pylyshyn (2003). Seeing and Visualizing: It's Not What You Think. A Bradford Book.
    How we see and how we visualize: why the scientific account differs from our experience.
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  13. Zenon W. Pylyshyn (2002). Mental Imagery: In Search of a Theory. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (2):157-182.
    It is generally accepted that there is something special about reasoning by using mental images. The question of how it is special, however, has never been satisfactorily spelled out, despite more than thirty years of research in the post-behaviorist tradition. This article considers some of the general motivation for the assumption that entertaining mental images involves inspecting a picture-like object. It sets out a distinction between phenomena attributable to the nature of mind to what is called the cognitive architecture, and (...)
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  14. Zenon W. Pylyshyn (2002). Stalking the Elusive Mental Image Screen. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (2):216-227.
    After thirty years of the current “imagery debate,” it appears far from resolved, even though there seems to be a growing acceptance that a cortical display cannot be identified directly with the experienced mental image, nor can it account for the experimental findings on imagery, at least not without additional ad hoc assumptions. The commentaries on the target article range from the annoyed to the supportive, with a surprising number of the latter. In this response I attempt to correct some (...)
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  15. Zenon W. Pylyshyn (2001). Connecting Vision with the World: Tracking the Missing Link. In Joao Branquinho (ed.), The Foundations of Cognitive Science. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 183.
    You might reasonably surmise from the title of this paper that I will be discussing a theory of vision. After all, what is a theory of vision but a theory of how the world is connected to our visual representations? Theories of visual perception universally attempt to give an account of how a proximal stimulus (presumably a pattern impinging on the retina) can lead to a rich representation of a three dimensional world and thence to either the recognition of known (...)
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  16. Zenon W. Pylyshyn (2001). Seeing, Acting, and Knowing. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (5):999-999.
    The target article proposes that visual experience arises when sensorimotor contingencies are exploited in perception. This novel analysis of visual experience fares no better than the other proposals that the article rightly dismisses, and for the same reasons. Extracting invariants may be needed for recognition, but it is neither necessary nor sufficient for having a visual experience. While the idea that vision involves the active extraction of sensorimotor invariants has merit, it does not replace the need for perceptual representations. Vision (...)
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  17. Zenon W. Pylyshyn (2001). Visual Indexes, Preconceptual Objects, and Situated Vision. Cognition 80 (1-2):127-158.
    This paper argues that a theory of situated vision, suited for the dual purposes of object recognition and the control of action, will have to provide something more than a system that constructs a conceptual representation from visual stimuli: it will also need to provide a special kind of direct (preconceptual, unmediated) connection between elements of a visual representation and certain elements in the world. Like natural language demonstratives (such as `this' or `that') this direct connection allows entities to be (...)
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  18. Zenon W. Pylyshyn (2001). Why the Mind is (Still) Not a Network. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 5 (11):499.
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  19. Brian Scholl, Brian J. Scholl, Michael Kubovy, David van Valkenburg, Zenon W. Pylyshyn, Jacob Feldman, Susan Carey, Fei Xu & Claudia Uller (2001). Numbers 1, 2 Special Issue: Objects and Attention. Cognition 80 (301):301-302.
     
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  20. Zenon W. Pylyshyn (2000). Is Vision Continuous with Cognition? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (3):341-365.
    Although the study of visual perception has made more progress in the past 40 years than any other area of cognitive science, there remain major disagreements as to how closely vision is tied to cognition. This target article sets out some of the arguments for both sides (arguments from computer vision, neuroscience, psychophysics, perceptual learning, and other areas of vision science) and defends the position that an important part of visual perception, corresponding to what some people have called early vision, (...)
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  21. Zenon W. Pylyshyn (2000). Situating Vision in the World. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 4 (5):197-207.
  22. Zenon W. Pylyshyn (1999). Concepts: Where Cognitive Science Went Wrong. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 3 (2):81-82.
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  23. Zenon W. Pylyshyn (1999). Concepts: Where Cognitive Science Went Wrong: By Jerry A. Fodor. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 3 (2):81-82.
     
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  24. Zenon W. Pylyshyn (1999). Is Vision Continuous with Cognition? The Case for Cognitive Impenetrability of Visual Perception. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (3):341-365.
    Although the study of visual perception has made more progress in the past 40 years than any other area of cognitive science, there remain major disagreements as to how closely vision is tied to general cognition. This paper sets out some of the arguments for both sides (arguments from computer vision, neuroscience, Psychophysics, perceptual learning and other areas of vision science) and defends the position that an important part of visual perception, which may be called early vision or just vision, (...)
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  25. Herbert A. Simon & Zenon W. Pylyshyn (1992). Allen Newell (1927 - 1992). Behavioral and Brain Sciences 15 (3):i-iv.
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  26. Zenon W. Pylyshyn (1989). Computing and Cognitive Science. In Michael I. Posner (ed.), Foundations of Cognitive Science. MIT Press.
    influence. One of the principal characteristics that distinguishes Cognitive Science from more traditional studies of cognition within Psychology, is the extent to which it has been influenced by both the ideas and the techniques of computing. It may come as a surprise to the outsider, then, to discover that there is no unanimity within the discipline on either (a) the nature (and in some cases the desireabilty) of the influence and (b) what computing is –- or at least on its.
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  27. Andy Clark, Zenon W. Pylyshyn & Alvin T. Goldman (1988). Computation and Cognition: Toward a Foundation for Cognitive Science.Epistemology and Cognition. Philosophical Quarterly 38 (153):526.
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  28. Jerry A. Fodor & Zenon W. Pylyshyn (1988). Connectionism and Cognitive Architecture. Cognition 28 (1-2):3-71.
    This paper explores the difference between Connectionist proposals for cognitive a r c h i t e c t u r e a n d t h e s o r t s o f m o d e l s t hat have traditionally been assum e d i n c o g n i t i v e s c i e n c e . W e c l a i m t h a t t h (...)
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  29. Zenon W. Pylyshyn, Rules and Representations: Chomsky and Representational Realism.
    called,_ Cognitive Science_ was to bring back scienti?c realism. This may strike you as a very odd claim, for one does not usually think of science as needing to be talked into scienti?c realism. Science is, after all, the study of reality by the most precise instruments of measurement and.
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  30. Zenon W. Pylyshyn (ed.) (1987). The Robot's Dilemma. Ablex.
  31. Zenon W. Pylyshyn (1987). What's in a Mind? Synthese 70 (January):97-122.
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  32. Zenon W. Pylyshyn (ed.) (1986). Meaning And Cognitive Structure: Issues In The Computational Theory Of Mind. Norwood: Ablex.
  33. Zenon W. Pylyshyn (1984). Computation and Cognition. MIT Press.
  34. Jerry A. Fodor & Zenon W. Pylyshyn (1981). How Direct is Visual Perception? Some Reflections on Gibson's 'Ecological Approach'. Cognition 9 (2):139-96.
    Examines the theses that the postulation of mental processing is unnecessary to account for our perceptual relationship with the world, see turvey etal. for a criticque.
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  35. Zenon W. Pylyshyn (1981). Psychological Explanations and Knowledge-Dependent Processes. Cognition 10 (1-3):267-274.
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  36. Zenon W. Pylyshyn (1981). The Imagery Debate: Analog Media Vs. Tacit Knowledge. Psychological Review 88 (December):16-45.
     
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  37. Zenon W. Pylyshyn (1980). Computation and Cognition: Issues in the Foundation of Cognitive Science. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3 (1):111-32.
    The computational view of mind rests on certain intuitions regarding the fundamental similarity between computation and cognition. We examine some of these intuitions and suggest that they derive from the fact that computers and human organisms are both physical systems whose behavior is correctly described as being governed by rules acting on symbolic representations. Some of the implications of this view are discussed. It is suggested that a fundamental hypothesis of this approach (the "proprietary vocabulary hypothesis") is that there is (...)
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  38. Zenon W. Pylyshyn (1980). Cognitive Representation and the Process-Architecture Distinction. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3 (1):154.
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  39. Zenon W. Pylyshyn (1980). The 'Causal Power' of Machines. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3 (3):442.
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  40. Zenon W. Pylyshyn (1979). Complexity and the Study of Artificial and Human Intelligence. In Martin Ringle (ed.), Philosophical Perspectives in Artificial Intelligence. Humanities Press.
     
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  41. Zenon W. Pylyshyn (1979). Do Mental Events Have Durations? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 2 (2):277-278.
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  42. Zenon W. Pylyshyn (1978). Computational Models and Empirical Constraints. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 1 (1):98-128.
    It is argued that the traditional distinction between artificial intelligence and cognitive simulation amounts to little more than a difference in style of research - a different ordering in goal priorities and different methodological allegiances. Both enterprises are constrained by empirical considerations and both are directed at understanding classes of tasks that are defined by essentially psychological criteria. Because of the different ordering of priorities, however, they occasionally take somewhat different stands on such issues as the power/generality trade-off and on (...)
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  43. Zenon W. Pylyshyn (1978). Imagery and Artificial Intelligence. In W. Savage (ed.), Perception and Cognition. University of Minnesota Press. 105-115.
     
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  44. Zenon W. Pylyshyn (1978). When is Attribution of Beliefs Justified? [P&W]. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 1 (4):592.
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  45. Zenon W. Pylyshyn (1975). Minds, Machines and Phenomenology: Some Reflections on Dreyfus' What Computers Can't Do. Cognition 3 (1):57-77.
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  46. Zenon W. Pylyshyn (1973). What the Mind's Eye Tells the Mind's Brain: A Critique of Mental Imagery. Psychology Bulletin 80:1-24.
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